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For nearly a century, the incidence of cancer in people with schizophrenia was lower than in the general population. In the recent decade, the relationship between cancer and schizophrenia has become obscured. Thus, we investigated the cancer risk among young and middle-aged patients with schizophrenia.
Records of newly admitted patients with schizophrenia (n = 32 731) from January 2000 through December 2008 were retrieved from the Psychiatric Inpatient Medical Claims database in Taiwan, and the first psychiatric admission of each patient during the same period was defined as the baseline. We obtained 514 incident cancer cases that were monitored until December 2010. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare the risk of cancer between those with schizophrenia and the general population. Stratified analyses of cancer incidences were performed by gender, site of cancers and duration since baseline (first psychiatric admission).
The incidence of cancer for all sites was slightly higher than that of the general population for the period (SIR = 1.15 [95% CI 1.06–1.26], p = 0.001). Men had a significantly higher incidence of colorectal cancer (SIR = 1.48 [95% CI 1.06–2.06], p = 0.019). Women had a higher incidence of breast cancer (SIR = 1.47 [95% CI 1.22–1.78], p < 0.001). Intriguingly, the risk for colorectal cancer was more pronounced 5 years after the first psychiatric admission rather than earlier (SIR = 1.94 [1.36–2.75], p < 0.001) and so was the risk for breast cancer (SIR = 1.85 [1.38–2.48], p < 0.001). The cancer incidence was higher in patients with schizophrenia contradicting the belief that schizophrenia was protective of cancers.
Our analyses suggest that men and women with schizophrenia were more vulnerable to certain types of cancers, which indicates the need for gender-specific cancer screening programs. The fact that risk of colorectal cancer was more pronounced 5 years after the first psychiatric admission could imply the impact of unhealthy lifestyles or the possibility of delayed diagnoses.
The Arcminute Cosmology Bolometer Array Receiver (Acbar) is a multifrequency millimeter-wave receiver optimized for observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in clusters of galaxies. Acbar was installed on the 2.1 m Viper telescope at the South Pole in January 2001 and the results presented here incorporate data through July 2002. The power spectrum of the CMB at 150 GHz over the range ℓ = 150 — 3000 measured by Acbar is presented along with estimates for the values of the cosmological parameters within the context of ΛCDM models. The inclusion of ΩΛ greatly improves the fit to the power spectrum. Three-frequency images of the SZ decrement/increment are also presented for the galaxy cluster 1E0657–67.
To evaluate the chance of improvement and risk of decline in olfaction among patients with post-traumatic olfactory loss.
This study comprised 80 patients. Changes in olfaction were determined using a visual analogue scale and the ‘Sniffin’ Sticks' test. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors for olfactory changes.
Olfactory changes were observed in 9–35 per cent of patients. The rates of improvement and decline according to visual analogue scale scores were 35 per cent and 10 per cent respectively, whereas those in the Sniffin’ Sticks test were 9 per cent and 11 per cent respectively. There was a predictive link between non-anosmia and decline in Sniffin’ Sticks test scores (odds ratio = 16.61, p = 0.003). A positive correlation was observed between the scores in the first and last examinations (rho = 0.532, p < 0.001).
Patients should be informed that they may experience an improvement or decline in olfaction following post-traumatic olfactory dysfunction. This study provides evidence to support comprehensive counselling regarding prognosis as an integral part of management strategies.
The association between Kawasaki disease (KD) and Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has rarely been studied. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that KD may increase the risk of ADHD using a nationwide Taiwanese population-based claims database.
Our study cohort consisted of patients who were diagnosed with KD between January 1997 and December 2005 (N = 651). For a comparison cohort, five age- and gender-matched control patients for every patient in the study cohort were selected using random sampling (N = 3255). The cumulative incidence of ADHD was 3.89/1000 (from 0.05 to 0.85) in this study. All subjects were tracked for 5 years from the date of cohort entry to identify whether or not they had developed ADHD. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to evaluate 5-year ADHD-free survival rates.
Of all patients, 83 (2.1%) developed ADHD during the 5-year follow-up period, of whom 21 (3.2%) had KD and 62 (1.9%) were in the comparison cohort. The patients with KD seemed to be at an increased risk of developing ADHD (crude hazard ratio (HR): 1.71; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–2.80; p < 0.05). However, after adjusting for gender, age, asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and meningitis, the adjusted hazard ratios (AHR) of the ADHD in patients with KD showed no association with the controls (AHR: 1.59; 95% CI = 0.96–2.62; p = 0.07). We also investigated whether or not KD was a gender-dependent risk factor for ADHD, and found that male patients with KD did not have an increased risk of ADHD (AHR: 1.62; 95% CI = 0.96–2.74; p = 0.07) compared with the female patients.
The findings of this population-based study suggest that patients with KD may not have an increased risk of ADHD and whether or not there is an association between KD and ADHD remains uncertain.
Transcritical flow of a stratified fluid past a broad localised topographic obstacle is studied analytically in the framework of the forced extended Korteweg–de Vries, or Gardner, equation. We consider both possible signs for the cubic nonlinear term in the Gardner equation corresponding to different fluid density stratification profiles. We identify the range of the input parameters: the oncoming flow speed (the Froude number) and the topographic amplitude, for which the obstacle supports a stationary localised hydraulic transition from the subcritical flow upstream to the supercritical flow downstream. Such a localised transcritical flow is resolved back into the equilibrium flow state away from the obstacle with the aid of unsteady coherent nonlinear wave structures propagating upstream and downstream. Along with the regular, cnoidal undular bores occurring in the analogous problem for the single-layer flow modelled by the forced Korteweg–de Vries equation, the transcritical internal wave flows support a diverse family of upstream and downstream wave structures, including kinks, rarefaction waves, classical undular bores, reversed and trigonometric undular bores, which we describe using the recent development of the nonlinear modulation theory for the (unforced) Gardner equation. The predictions of the developed analytic construction are confirmed by direct numerical simulations of the forced Gardner equation for a broad range of input parameters.
To investigate whether inadequate dose to Point-A necessitates treatment plan changes in a time of computed tomography (CT)-image-guided brachytherapy treatment planning for cervix cancer.
Materials and methods
A total of 125 tandem and ovoid insertions from 25 cervix patients treated were reviewed. CT-image-based treatment planning was carried out for each insertion. Point-A is identified and the dose documented; however, dose optimisation in each plan was based on covering target while limiting critical organ doses (PlanTarget). No attempts were made to equate prescription and Point-A dose. For each insertion, a second hypothetical treatment plan was generated by prescribing dose to Point-A (PlanPoint-A). Plans were inter-compared using dose–volume histogram analyses.
A total of 250 treatment plans were analysed. For the study population, the median cumulative dose at Point-A was 80 Gy (range 70–95) for PlanTarget compared with 84·25 Gy for PlanPoint-A. Bladder and rectal doses were higher for PlanPoint-A compared with PlanTarget (p < 0·0001). Target D90 did not correlate with Point-A dose (p = 0·60).
Depending on applicator geometry, tumour size and patient anatomy, Point-A dose may vary in magnitude compared with prescription dose. Treatment plan modifications purely based on inadequate Point-A dose are unnecessary, as these may result in higher organ-at-risk doses and not necessarily improve target coverage.
We present two-wave mixing results obtained with CdSSe:V crystals. A large photorefractive gain of 0.24 cm-1 was observed at 633 nm with an optical intensity of 60 mW/cm2 and a grating period of 1.6 μrm. At this wavelength, we measured the photorefractive gain as a function of the grating period and incident optical intensity. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of the photorefractive effect in vanadium doped CdSSe crystals. The CdSSe crystals were grown by physical vapor transport (PVT) and doped with 150 ppm (nominal) vanadium for creating trap centers. The grown crystal has a large crystal size, good optical quality and a medium resistivity of 10-5 - 108 Ω-cm. Room temperature absorption and low temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements are also discussed. With a significant photorefractive effect, the CdSSe:V crystals are promising for many device applications based on photorefractive effect, including optical limiting devices in the visible region.
Background: The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB) offers information on the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and gives a profile of cognitive functioning. This study explores the effects of age, education and gender on participants' performance on eight subtests in the Chinese-Cantonese version of the CERAD-NAB.
Methods: The original English version of the CERAD-NAB was translated and content-validated into a Chinese-Cantonese version to suit the Hong Kong Chinese population. The battery was administered to 187 healthy volunteers aged 60 to 94 years. Participants were excluded if they had neurological, medical or psychiatric disorders (including dementia). Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relative contribution of the demographic variables to the scores on each subtest.
Results: The Cantonese version of CERAD-NAB was shown to have good content validity and excellent inter-rater reliability. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that performances on seven and four out of eight subtests in the CERAD-NAB were significantly influenced by education level and age, respectively. Age and education had significant effects on participants' performance on many tests. Gender also showed a significant effect on one subtest.
Conclusions: The preliminary data will serve as an initial phase for clinical interpretation of the CERAD-NAB for Cantonese-speaking Chinese elders.
Thin Sb films have been prepared on glass substrates by rapid thermal evaporation. Films with thicknesses varied from 260 Å to 1300Å were used for the study. X-ray diffraction data showed that for films deposited at room substrate temperature, an almost random grain orientation was observed for films of 1300 Å thick and a tendency for preferred grain orientation was observed as films got thinner. For films of 260 Å thick, only two x-ray diffraction peaks--(003) and (006) were observed. After thermal annealing, secondary grains grew to show preferred orientation in all the films. This phenomenon was explained by surface-energy-driven secondary grain growth. This paper reports the effects of annealing time and film thickness on the secondary grain growth and the evolution of thin Sb film microstmctures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction were used to characterize the films.
Transmission election microscopy studies show that nitrogen doping changes the misfit dislocation structure in ZnSe films and decreases the density of threading dislocations. There appears to be a critical N doping concentration of ∼ 1.5 × 1018/cm3 above which the density of threading dislocations increases again. Samples with high N doping concentrations (> 1019/cm3 ) also show compensation or decrease in the carrier density of the films. Our TEM observations show that N doping can produce low energy nucleation sites for the 60° misfit dislocations at or close to the ZnSe/GaAs interface.
High quality InSb epilayers were grown on GaAs substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition using a two-step growth procedure involving trimethal indium (TMIn) predeposition. From transmission electron microscopy studies, we found that an interdiffusion layer of thickness of 10 Å forms at the interface when the substrate is exposed to TMIn for approximately 6 secs prior to the growth of the InSb filns. Hall mobilities up to σ 52,000 cm2/V-s were obtained at 300 K on a 2.1-μm-thick InSb heteroepitaxial film. In contrast, samples without TMIn predeposition showed polycrystallinity of the InSb films grown on single crystalline GaAs substrates. The effect. of TMNIn predeposition is to minimize the misorientation of the grains, suppress the polycrystallinity, decrease the density of threading dislocations, and increase the electron mobilities in the films. However, we found that too much TMIn predeposition gives rise t.o an intermixing layer at the InSb/GaAs interface which deteriorates the film quality. Details of the effect of the TMIn predeposition on the microstructure of InSb/GaAs with different predeposition times (zero, 6, and 12 secs) are discussed.
We have grown linearly compositionally graded GexSi1−x structures at high temperatures (700–900°C) on Si substrates to form a surface which resembles a GexSi1−x substrate. We have obtained completely relaxed structures with x≤0.50 and threading dislocation densities in the 105cm−2 - 106cm−2 range. Because of the very low threading dislocation densities, the structures appear dislocation free in conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) cross-section and plan view. Employing the electron beam induced current technique (EBIC), we were able to consistently measure these low threading dislocation densities. A direct comparison of two x=0.35 films, one graded in Ge content and one uniform in Ge content, shows that compositional grading decreases the dislocation density by a factor of 100–1000. These. higher quality graded buffers have been used as templates for the subsequent growth of InGaP light emitting diodes (LED) and GexSi1−x/Si two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) structures. Room temperature operation of orange-red LEDs were obtained at current densities of =600A/cm, and mobilities as high as 96,000 cm2/V-s were achieved at 4.2K in the 2DEG structures.
We have studied the spectrum of various types of a-SiGe:H alloys for pin and Schottky barrier photodlodes, in which the band gaps of the a-SiGe:H vary between 1.75 eV and 1.35 eV. It has been found that the spectral re-ponse of the Schottky barrier diode shifts significantly to longer wavelength and the quantum efficiency decreases with an increase in i layer thickness. However, for the pin diode, an increase in the i layer thickness can hardly shift the spectrum to longer wavelength. For both pin and Schottky barrier diodes, the quantum efficiency can be increased by increasing the reverse bias. Therefore, an enhanced spectrum with a maximum at 800nm and a tail to lun can be achieved for a reverse-biased a-SiGe:H Schottky barrier diode. The results indicate that a-SiGe:H has a great potential for a low cost infrared photodetector.
A comparison was made of 6H-SiC surfaces etched with H2, C2H4/H2, and HCl/H2, and the resulting crystal quality of epitaxial GaN films deposited on these substrates. To remove the many fine scratches and to smooth the rough surfaces typical of commercial SiC substrates, the Si-face 6H-SiC substrates were etched in H2, C2H4/H2, and HCl/H2 at 1450°C. GaN was subsequently deposited on these etched surfaces after first depositing a low temperature GaN buffer layer via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The surface morphologies after etching and after GaN deposition were characterized by atomic force microscopy and Normaski differential interference contrast microscopy, while the crystal quality of the GaN films was assessed by double crystal x-ray rocking curves and x-ray topography. 6H-SiC substrate surfaces were improved in terms of the removal of scratches and the reduction of surface roughness, and both surface morphology and crystal quality of the subsequently deposited GaN films were enhanced. However, the dislocation density was not decreased by the surface etching. The best GaN film was produced by etching the substrate in pure H2 for 40 minutes before growth. Recommendations for the optimum substrate treatment are made.
High quality Ga-face and N-face AlGaN/GaN based heterostructures have been grown by plasma induced molecular beam epitaxy. By using Ga-face material we are able to fabricate conventional heterojunction field effect transistors. Because the N-face material confines electrons at a different heterojunction, the resulting transistors are called inverted. The Ga-face structures use a high temperature AIN nucleation layer to establish the polarity. Structures from these materials, relying only on polarization induced interface charge effects to create the two-dimensional electron gases, are used to confirm the polarity of the material as well as test the electrical properties of the layers. The resulting sheet concentrations of the two dimensional electron gases agree very well with the piezoelectric theory for this materials system. Hall mobilities of the two-dimensional gases for the N-face structures are as high as 1150 cm2/Vs and 3440 cm2/Vs for 300 K and 77 K respectively, while the Ga-face structures yield room temperature mobilities of 1190 cm2/Vs. Both structures were then fabricated into transistors and characterized. The inverted transistors, which were fabricated from the N-face material, yielded a maximum transconductance of 130 mS/mm and a current density of 905 mA/mm. Microwave measurements gave an ft of 7 GHz and an fmax of 12 GHz for a gate length of 1 μm. The normal transistors, fabricated from the Ga-face material, produced a maximum transconductance of 247 mS/mm and a current density of 938 mA/mm. Microwave measurements gave an ft of 50 GHz and an fmax of 97 GHz for a gate length of 0.25 μm. This shows that using plasma induced molecular beam epitaxy N-face and Ga(A1)-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures can be grown with structural and electrical properties very suitable for high power field effect transistors.
Laser-induced fluorescence(LIF) spectroscopy has been applied to the detection of excited nitrogen molecules coming out of a plasma source used for p-type doping of ZnSe. With the use of a fluorescence-photon-counting system, the fluorescence of nitrogen molecules in the A3 Σ u+ (v=0) state was observed even in a high vacuum condition ˜ 10−4 Pa. The correlation between LIF intensity of nitrogen molecules in the A3 Σ u+(v=0) state and the net acceptor concentration of nitrogen doped ZnSe epitaxial layers was investigated.
InGaN layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy are investigated in terms of their compositional homogeneity using transmission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy performed with high spatial resolution. Strong fluctuations of the indium content were found in bulk-like layers, which could be partially reduced by modulating the indium flux during growth, i. e. by nominally growing a short period GaN/InGaN superlattice. For indium compositions above x ≠ 0.1 this approach fails. Strained InGaN in quantum wells exhibits lateral fluctuations on an atomic scale and on a scale of several hundred nanometers. The results are discussed in view of the origin of inhomogeneous indium incorporation.
Initial growth processes of hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) films have been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The μc-Si:H films were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on H-terminated Si(111) and plasma-oxidized SiO2/Si(111) surfaces that were made atomically-flat by a careful wet processing. On H-terminated Si(111) the initial growth was epitaxial as evidenced by HRTEM and RHEED, while on SiO2/Si(111) the initial process was nucleation of amorphous Si followed by formation of randomly oriented μc-Si:H structure. STM observation revealed that, on both H-terminated and SiO2-terminated surfaces, initial growth processes proceed through the nucleation-and-coalescence mechanism.
Type-II InAs/GaInSb superlattices of different designs have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on wafer bonded InGaAs on GaAs, and on standard GaSb substrates. The extremely thin (∼100Å) InGaAs layer is loosely bonded to the GaAs substrate and serves as a compliant layer for subsequent epitaxy of a larger lattice constant material. The effects of these substrates on the optical, electrical, and structural properties of the superlattice were studied. The superlattices grown on bonded substrates were found to have uniform layers, with broader x-ray linewidths than superlattices grown on GaSb. The photoresponse results for the superlattices on the bonded 2 inch diameter substrates, with the InGaAs compliant layer, were not as favorable as early work on similar, smaller area, bonded substrates. However, refinements to the wafer bonding process to eliminate microvoids between the bonded layers will provide higher quality superlattices.