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Diarrhea is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and the incidence of diarrhea in the world has changed little over the past four decades. To assess the prevalence of and healthcare practices for diarrhea, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Pudong, Shanghai, China. In October 2014, a total of 5324 community residents were interviewed. Respondents were asked if they had experienced diarrhea (defined as ⩾3 passages of watery, loose, bloody, or mucoid stools within a 24-h period) in the previous month prior to the interview. The monthly prevalence of diarrhea was 4·1% (95% CI: 3·3–4·8), corresponding to an incidence rate of 0·54 episodes per person-year. The proportion of individuals with diarrhea who sought healthcare was 21·2% (95% CI: 13·4–29·0). Diarrhea continues to impose a considerable burden on the community and healthcare system in Pudong. Young age and travel were identified as predictors of increased diarrhea occurrence.
Dysregulation of the striatum and altered corticostriatal connectivity have been associated with psychotic disorders. Social anhedonia has been identified as a predictor for the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine corticostriatal functional connectivity in individuals with high social anhedonia.
Twenty-one participants with high social anhedonia score and 30 with low social anhedonia score measured by the Chinese version of the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale were recruited from university undergraduates (age 17–21 years) to undergo resting-state functional MRI scans. Six subdivisions of the striatum in each hemisphere were defined as seeds. Voxel-wise functional connectivity analyses were conducted between each seed and the whole brain voxels, followed by repeated-measures ANOVA for the group effect.
Participants with high social anhedonia showed hyper-connectivity between the ventral striatum and the anterior cingulate cortex and the insula, and between the dorsal striatum and the motor cortex. Hypo-connectivity in participants with high social anhedonia was also observed between the ventral striatum and the posterior cingulate cortex. Partial correlation analyses further showed that the functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the prefrontal cortex was associated with pleasure experience and emotional suppression.
Our findings suggest that altered corticostriatal connectivity can be found in participants with high levels of social anhedonia. Since social anhedonia has been considered a predictor for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, our results may provide novel evidence on the early changes in brain functional connectivity in at-risk individuals.
To study the interactive influence of implanted nano platinum black electrodes (as compared with pure platinum electrodes) on rabbit orbicularis oculi muscle morphology and function.
The influence of the two types of electrode on the orbicularis oculi muscle was monitored in a rabbit model of facial paralysis. Biological electric current and exciting current were administered to biological tissue, and morphological and functional changes were identified. Changes in orbicularis oculi muscle contraction, electrode configuration and performance associated with long-term electrical stimulation were observed over 28 days of implantation.
The nano platinum black electrode was superior to the pure platinum electrode in the following aspects: morphology and functionality, electrical excitation function of the orbicularis oculi muscle (as assessed by electromyography), muscle contraction function and biological tissue changes. Furthermore, the nano platinum black electrode features had good stability.
Microelectrode surface modification with nano platinum black can effectively increase the microelectrode surface area and improve electrode performance, and is associated with good tissue compatibility.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating cause of progressive weakness, respiratory failure and death. To date there is no effective therapy to meaningfully extend survival but continuously emerging targets and putative treatments are studied in clinical trials. Canadian epidemiological data on ALS is scarce and the socioeconomic impact of ALS on Canadian society is unclear. The Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry (CNDR) is a national clinic-based registry of patients with neuromuscular diseases with the goal of facilitating the design and execution of clinical research.
We conducted a national stakeholder survey to assess interest for a Canadian ALS registry and an assessment of expected case ascertainment. A dataset derivation meeting was held to establish the registry medical dataset.
We report the results of the national stakeholder survey, case ascertainment assessment, and the derived dataset that have resulted in the current implementation of a Canadian registry of patients with ALS.
The development of this long sought-after resource is a significant step forward for the Canadian ALS patient and research communities that will result in more efficient clinical trial recruitment and advancements in our understanding of ALS in Canada.
The Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph (CSRH) is under construction in Mingantu station of NAOC in China. Now, CSRH-I which includes antenna, receiver and correlator in decimetric wave range has been established. This paper introduced calibration on CSRH and present some results of data processing.
This study was conducted to determine the effects of soy isoflavones on changes in body and tissue weight and on insulin-like factor I (IGF-I) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) gene and protein expression in muscle and adipose tissues in Chinese Guangxi minipig, as a model for studying human nutrition. A total of 72 male Chinese Guangxi minipigs were fed basal diet (control, Con), low dose of soy isoflavones and high dose of soy isoflavones (HSI). The results showed that HSI increased the body weight (BW) gain and fat percentage of minipigs (P < 0.05). In addition, the serum concentrations of IGF-I and interleukin-6 were increased by high levels of soy isoflavones (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a diet containing soy isoflavones enhanced IGF-I mRNA expression levels in longissimus muscle, but decreased these levels in perirenal fat. However, the mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARγ in longissimus muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue were both increased when compared with the Con. The data indicated that soy isoflavones regulated the BW gain and fat percentage of Chinese Guangxi minipigs, which also showed changes in IGF-I system and PPARγ. However, further research is required to clarify the causative relationship.
Somatostatin (SS) is a hormone that inhibits the secretion of growth hormone. Immunization against SS can promote the growth of animals. A novel SS-VP22 fused vaccine, pEGS2SS-V, was constructed from pEGS2SS plasmid with a VP22 gene fragment. Two times of immunization with pEGS2SS-V-induced anti-SS antibodies in mice. Compared with mice immunized with pEGS2SS and 0.85% saline, the growth performance of mice immunized with pEGS2SS-V was increased by 14.1% (P < 0.05) and 48.4% (P < 0.01) on the 2nd week after the first vaccination, respectively. The results indicated that the effects of the somatostatin DNA vaccine could be improved effectively by VP22 gene adjuvant.
In this paper, a new type PCF with three different air-hole diameters in cladding region is proposed and investigated by using a compact 2-D finite
difference frequency domain (FDFD) method with anisotropic perfectly matched
layers (PML) absorbing boundary conditions. Through numerical simulation we
found that by optimizing the geometrical parameters, our proposed structure
with fewer of air-hole rings greatly meets the performance criteria such as
ultraflattened dispersion and low confinement loss, which is highly
instructive for designing photonic crystal fibers.
Although advances have been made in the synthesis of raw carbon nanotube (CNT) materials, the lack of efficient processes for assembly and integration of CNTs into functional forms has hindered the development of CNT-based devices. Here we report a dielectrophorestic method to manipulate, align and assemble CNTs into one-dimensional nanostructures using an alternating-current electric field. Pre-formed CNTs dispersed in water are assembled into micro-electrodes and sub-micron diameter fibrils with variable lengths from 1 μm to over 1 cm. The CNTs within the fibril are bonded by van der Waals forces and are aligned along the fibril axis. This method affords fine control of the fibril length and is capable of parallel fabrication of multiple fibrils using the same material source. The short CNT fibrils can potentially be used as probes for scanning probe microscopes and the long ones as electrodes or conducting nanowires.
The study of organic/inorganic hybrid materials has become an increasingly widespread research focus. The advantage derived from such materials is the combining of two very different compounds which may result in something that bridges the performance gap between the two systems. We have previously reported such hybrid systems prepared by incorporating polyhedral oligosilsesquioxanes (POSS™) into traditional organic polymers by the copolymerization of POSS™ monomers and organic monomers. This presentation will discuss a more convenient method of incorporating POSS™ into a polymer: the blending of POSS™ into organic polymers. The research discussion will focus on the development of the POSS™ macromers used in our studies as well as the POSS™ polymer blends synthesized. One important property enhancement observed is the increase in surface hardness for a POSS™/poly styrene sample.
This contribution describes the use of layer-by-layer self-limiting siloxane chemisorption processes to self-assemble structurally regular multilayer organic LED (OLED) devices. Topics discussed include: 1) the synthesis of silyl-functionalized precursor molecules for hole transport layer (HTL), emissive layer (EML), and electron transport layer (ETL) self-assembly, 2) the use of layer-by-layer self-assembly for ITO electrode modification/passivation/hole-electron balancing in a vapor-deposited device, 3) the microstructure/chemical characterization of HTL self-assembly using a prototype triarylamine precursor, 4) fabrication and properties of a hybrid self-assembled + vapor deposited two-layer LED, 4) fabrication and properties of a fully self-assembled two-layer OLED.
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