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Neonatal diarrhoeas are a major problem in bovine husbandry. Antibiotics are usually utilized as medicine but a prevention based on natural methods could be of interest. Lactoferrin (Lf) is a glycoprotein naturally found in milk. It is known for its many useful properties for animal health, in particular for its immunomodulator, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects. The lactoperoxidase system (LpS), an enzymatic system, also present in milk, possesses effective antimicrobial properties. It is composed of lactoperoxidase (Lp), thiocyanate and H2O2. A synergy between Lf and LpS has been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Lf and of the association Lf-LpS as oral supplements to newborn dairy calves in order to improve health and production parameters.
A coronal mass ejection (CME) event was observed on December 23, 1996 with the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer in both ultraviolet and visible light channels at 0.5 R⊙ over the solar limb. The CME was followed during its evolution in the bright lines of Lyα (1216Å), Lyβ (1026Å), Lyγ (972Å), C III (977Å) and the OVI doublet (1032, 1037Å) and in several weaker lines. The Lyα peak intensity shows an excursion of two orders of magnitude during the CME evolution, and blue shifts up to 0.8Å (~200 km/sec). The data provide the emission measure in the Log T range 4.0–5.5 with a 0.3 sampling. Line intensities and profiles have been measured, providing important diagnostics for a detailed study of the CME’s physical and dynamical parameters.
Warping is a major concern in the use of aluminium as a material for large mirrors. The warping characteristics are influenced by:
*the type of material, i.e. pure aluminium or some alloy
*the type of fabrication, i.e. cast, rolled or forged.
So far there is little data available on the warping characteristics of aluminium mirrors. Therefore ESO has tested the warping behaviour of 18 aluminium mirrors under thermal cycling conditions with a glass ceramic mirror, which has not been cycled, as a reference mirror. The set of 500 mm mirrors selected for this experiment is described in .
In recent years, several types of human adenovirus (HAdV) have arisen from the recombination between two or more previously known HAdV types, but their epidemiology is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the circulation of HAdV-58, a recently described HAdV isolated from an HIV-positive patient in Córdoba city, Argentina. For this purpose, a 30-month survey was conducted to study the presence of this type of adenovirus in sewage samples collected at the inlet from a wastewater treatment plant in Córdoba city, Argentina. Complementarily, the virus was sought in stools of HIV-positive patients. Although HAdVs were detected in human stool samples and in a high percentage of sewage samples, no evidence of HAdV-58 circulation was detected. We suggest that there is no endemic circulation of HAdV-58 in the geographical local area. The trend is that the number of identified HAdVs increases over time. In this context, understanding the current circulating HAdVs may be biologically relevant.
Little is known about long-lasting measles protective immunity when exposure to wild-type or vaccine measles virus precedes HIV infection. The results obtained suggest that measles immunity wanes and the lowest measles geometric mean titres (GMT) were significantly associated with measles vaccine-induced immunity in individuals that later developed HIV infection (86% prevalence, GMT 164 mIU/ml) compared to naturally induced immunity in HIV-infected adults (100% prevalence, GMT 340 mIU/ml, P = 0·0082) or non-HIV infected adults (100%, GMT 724 mIU/ml, P = 0·0001), and vaccine-induced immunity in non-HIV-infected adults (100%, GMT 347 mIU/ml, P = 0·017). The study was conducted in an area without wild-type virus circulation since 2000. The absence of virus circulating may alter the paradigm of lifelong immunity to measles virus after vaccination. As the proportion of HIV-infected individuals possessing only vaccine-induced immunity continues to grow, checking the status of measles immunity in this group is strongly recommended.
To evaluate the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula after pharyngolaryngectomy with and without a Montgomery salivary stent.
Retrospective analysis of patients with factors that predispose to the development of pharyngocutaneous fistula (i.e. disease extending to the supraglottic region, base of the tongue or pyriform sinuses, and/or radiochemotherapy).
Between 2002 and 2008, 85 pharyngolaryngectomies were performed in our clinic. Of these patients, 31 were at increased risk of fistula development, of whom 45 per cent developed fistulas post-operatively. This subgroup of 31 patients was compared with a second subgroup of 22 patients at high risk of fistula development, treated between 2009 and 2011 with pharyngolaryngectomy and with a Montgomery salivary stent placed in advance during closure of the neopharynx.
Statistical analysis showed a significant reduction in the rate of fistula development, from 45 to 9 per cent (p < 0.01), with application of the salivary stent.
These data confirm the preventive effect of a salivary stent placed during pharyngolaryngectomy, for patients at high risk of fistula development.
The power laser has been applied to the surface melting of a high-carbon alloy steel with laser operating parameters leading to structures which cannot be produced by the usual heat-treatments. The subsequent annealing of these structures has also been investigated. Optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy have been used as methods of analysis.
The viscosities of amorphous and semicrystalline polymeric liquid crystals η have been measured by dynamic mechanical analysis. They have been compared with the rotational correlation times of molecular probes, as drawn by Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy on two different time scales. In all the cases the correlation times of the spinning motion of a cigar-like probes τ| and η are related by a fractional Debye-Stokes-Einstein law, i.e.η| α ηξ, ξ ≤ 1.
Large millimetric and submillimetric telescopes can play a crucial
role in our understanding of the Universe, allowing the direct
measurement of early galaxies or the investigation of the earliest
stages of star formation. The B modes of CMB polarization are a
direct probe of the Inflationary epoch and their measurement
promises to provide information on the scale of energies at which
the process took place. For these investigations (and many
others), large detectors arrays with thousands of pixels are
needed, to achieve high mapping speeds. This is especially true in
the case of mm and sub/mm observations from extremely cold and dry
locations like Dome-C, where ultra-low temperature detectors,
reaching photon noise limited performance, are needed to fully
exploit the excellent quality of the site. In this paper we
present the working principle of the Microwave Kinetic Inductance
Detectors and their status of development in Italy, focusing on
the key aspects that make them ideal for large arrays of sensors.
We present the latest results of our on-going closed-loop “end-to-end” numerical adaptive optics (AO) simulations concerning both a standard-AO and a three-star
ground-layer AO system for a near-infrared 2-m class telescope at Dome C, Antarctica. We demonstrate that Dome C is an ideal site for wide-field AO-aided astronomy,
define in details the AO system(s) optimized for the median turbulence profile considered, and finally show that a ~0.3 Strehl ratio and 200-mas-wide stable point-spread
function is reached in band J on at least a 15'-diameter field.
This chapter focuses primarily on surveillance during the intrapartum period using electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring and ancillary techniques of fetal evaluation, including capillary blood sampling, pulse oximetry, and automated electrocardiographic (ECG) analysis of ST waveform changes in refining the evaluation of moderately abnormal FHR pattern. It is critical to the understanding of FHR patterns that in the presence of uterine contractions, any fetal hypoxia is reflected by the appearance of decelerations before a rise in the baseline rate or decrease in variability. In the evaluation of decelerations, recovery from a deceleration sequence means a return to the previously normal baseline rate and variability. There is universal agreement that the frequency of decelerations increases dramatically in the second stage of labor, probably because of the effects of frequent uterine contractions and maternal expulsive forces on the fetal head and the cord.
Obstetrics is not one of the exact sciences, and, in our penury of truth we ought to be accurate in our statements, generous in our doubts, tolerant in our convictions.
James Young Simpson (1811–1870)
MUCH TO OUR SURPRISE, more than ten years have passed since the publication of the first edition of Operative Obstetrics. Since the initial text appeared in 1995, new tests, surgical procedures, and novel methods of medical education have been introduced to the practice of obstetrics. In addition, there has been an expansion of roles for nonphysician personnel in the provision of care to pregnant women. There remain important unresolved controversies in the specialty, including elective or patient-choice cesarean delivery, trials of vaginal birth after cesarean, patient safety during hospitalization, pregnancy termination, and the recruitment and training of new practitioners, to list only a few. The influx of new ideas and the development of new techniques over the last decade have accompanied increasing demands by institutions, third-party payers, and governmental agencies for evidence-based, cost-efficient, and safe practice. Clinicians are thus pressured from many directions to rapidly incorporate new scientific advances into their management, rethink traditional concepts of best practice, follow increasingly restrictive protocols and practice guidelines, and even revisit basic ethical concepts. Because of the unresolved issues concerning appropriate practice and the risks associated with adverse outcomes, it is inevitable that medicolegal risks in obstetrics remain high and that increasingly few clinicians, with a decade or more of active practice, now escape litigation.
The process of placental delivery and the subsequent involution of the uterus during the puerperium are often described as the third and fourth stages of labor. This chapter presents a brief historical review concerning third- and fourth-stage events, followed by a discussion of the physiology of placental separation and uterine involution. The diagnosis and treatment of retained placenta and membranes (secundines), uterine inversion, postpartum hemorrhage and atony, and hematomas are considered. Important cultural and historical events in world history have been directly influenced by complications of involving the third stage of labor. Active management of the third stage of labor consists of the immediate administration of oxytocin after delivery of the infant, early cord clamping, and gentle traction on the cord, combined with gentle uterine massage to prompt placental separation. Periurethral lacerations, which often bleed freely, appear in the thin tissues on either side of the clitoris or urethra.