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A cumulative environmental exposure score for schizophrenia (exposome score for schizophrenia [ES-SCZ]) may provide potential utility for risk stratification and outcome prediction. Here, we investigated whether ES-SCZ was associated with functioning in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls.
This cross-sectional sample consisted of 1,261 patients, 1,282 unaffected siblings, and 1,525 healthy controls. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale was used to assess functioning. ES-SCZ was calculated based on our previously validated method. The association between ES-SCZ and the GAF dimensions (symptom and disability) was analyzed by applying regression models in each group (patients, siblings, and controls). Additional models included polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS-SCZ) as a covariate.
ES-SCZ was associated with the GAF dimensions in patients (symptom: B = −1.53, p-value = 0.001; disability: B = −1.44, p-value = 0.001), siblings (symptom: B = −3.07, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = −2.52, p-value < 0.001), and healthy controls (symptom: B = −1.50, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = −1.31, p-value < 0.001). The results remained the same after adjusting for PRS-SCZ. The degree of associations of ES-SCZ with both symptom and disability dimensions were higher in unaffected siblings than in patients and controls. By analyzing an independent dataset (the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis study), we replicated the results observed in the patient group.
Our findings suggest that ES-SCZ shows promise for enhancing risk prediction and stratification in research practice. From a clinical perspective, ES-SCZ may aid in efforts of clinical characterization, operationalizing transdiagnostic clinical staging models, and personalizing clinical management.
A study of turbulent impurity transport by means of quasilinear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations is presented for Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). The calculations have been carried out with the recently developed gyrokinetic code stella. Different impurity species are considered in the presence of various types of background instabilities: ion temperature gradient (ITG), trapped electron mode (TEM) and electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes for the quasilinear part of the work; ITG and TEM for the nonlinear results. While the quasilinear approach allows one to draw qualitative conclusions about the sign or relative importance of the various contributions to the flux, the nonlinear simulations quantitatively determine the size of the turbulent flux and check the extent to which the quasilinear conclusions hold. Although the bulk of the nonlinear simulations are performed at trace impurity concentration, nonlinear simulations are also carried out at realistic effective charge values, in order to know to what degree the conclusions based on the simulations performed for trace impurities can be extrapolated to realistic impurity concentrations. The presented results conclude that the turbulent radial impurity transport in W7-X is mainly dominated by ordinary diffusion, which is close to that measured during the recent W7-X experimental campaigns. It is also confirmed that thermodiffusion adds a weak inward flux contribution and that, in the absence of impurity temperature and density gradients, ITG- and TEM-driven turbulence push the impurities inwards and outwards, respectively.
The aim was to analyse invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) serotypes in children aged ⩽17 years according to clinical presentation and antimicrobial susceptibility. We conducted a prospective study (January 2012–June 2016). IPD cases were diagnosed by culture and/or real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Demographic, microbiological and clinical data were analysed. Associations were assessed using the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 253 cases, 34.4% were aged <2 years, 38.7% 2–4 years and 26.9% 5–17 years. Over 64% were 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotypes. 48% of the cases were diagnosed only by real-time PCR. Serotypes 3 and 1 were associated with complicated pneumonia (P < 0.05) and non-PCV13 serotypes with meningitis (OR 7.32, 95% CI 2.33–22.99) and occult bacteraemia (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.56–8.76). Serotype 19A was more frequent in children aged <2 years and serotypes 3 and 1 in children aged 2–4 years and 5–17 years, respectively. 36.1% of cases were not susceptible to penicillin and 16.4% were also non-susceptible to cefotaxime. Serotypes 14, 24F and 23B were associated with non-susceptibility to penicillin (P < 0.05) and serotypes 11, 14 and 19A to cefotaxime (P < 0.05). Serotype 19A showed resistance to penicillin (P = 0.002). In conclusion, PCV13 serotypes were most frequent in children aged ⩽17 years, mainly serotypes 3, 1 and 19A. Non-PCV13 serotypes were associated with meningitis and occult bacteraemia and PCV13 serotypes with pneumonia. Non-susceptibility to antibiotics of non-PCV13 serotypes should be monitored.
There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation.
We analysed to what degree the impact of schizophrenia polygenic risk (PRS-SZ) and childhood adversity (CA) on psychosis outcomes was contingent on co-presence of affective dysregulation, defined as significant depressive symptoms, in (i) NEMESIS-2 (n = 6646), a representative general population sample, interviewed four times over nine years and (ii) EUGEI (n = 4068) a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the siblings of these patients and controls.
The impact of PRS-SZ on psychosis showed significant dependence on co-presence of affective dysregulation in NEMESIS-2 [relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 1.01, p = 0.037] and in EUGEI (RERI = 3.39, p = 0.048). This was particularly evident for delusional ideation (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 1.74, p = 0.003; EUGEI: RERI = 4.16, p = 0.019) and not for hallucinatory experiences (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 0.65, p = 0.284; EUGEI: −0.37, p = 0.547). A similar and stronger pattern of results was evident for CA (RERI delusions and hallucinations: NEMESIS-2: 3.02, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 6.44, p < 0.001; RERI delusional ideation: NEMESIS-2: 3.79, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 5.43, p = 0.001; RERI hallucinatory experiences: NEMESIS-2: 2.46, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 0.54, p = 0.465).
The results, and internal replication, suggest that the effects of known genetic and non-genetic risk factors for psychosis are mediated in part through an affective pathway, from which early states of delusional meaning may arise.
This study attempted to replicate whether a bias in probabilistic reasoning, or ‘jumping to conclusions’(JTC) bias is associated with being a sibling of a patient with schizophrenia spectrum disorder; and if so, whether this association is contingent on subthreshold delusional ideation.
Data were derived from the EUGEI project, a 25-centre, 15-country effort to study psychosis spectrum disorder. The current analyses included 1261 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 1282 siblings of patients and 1525 healthy comparison subjects, recruited in Spain (five centres), Turkey (three centres) and Serbia (one centre). The beads task was used to assess JTC bias. Lifetime experience of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences was assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. General cognitive abilities were taken into account in the analyses.
JTC bias was positively associated not only with patient status but also with sibling status [adjusted relative risk (aRR) ratio : 4.23 CI 95% 3.46–5.17 for siblings and aRR: 5.07 CI 95% 4.13–6.23 for patients]. The association between JTC bias and sibling status was stronger in those with higher levels of delusional ideation (aRR interaction in siblings: 3.77 CI 95% 1.67–8.51, and in patients: 2.15 CI 95% 0.94–4.92). The association between JTC bias and sibling status was not stronger in those with higher levels of hallucinatory experiences.
These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations.
Schizophrenia is a chronic disease. Several etiopathogenic aetiologies have been posed, among them the existence of cerebral inflammation. S100B is a calcium-binding protein, mainly produced and secreted by astrocytes, that mediates the interaction among glial cells and between glial cells and neurons. Serum S100B levels have been proposed as a peripheral marker of brain inflammation.
The aim of this research is to study if the serum level of the protein S100B has relationship with positive psychopathology.
31 paranoid schizophrenic inpatients (22 male and 9 female, 36.7±10.3 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria participated in the study. Blood was sampled by venipuncture at 12:00 and 24:00 hours. Blood extractions were carried out during the first 48 hours after hospital admission. Psychopathology was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Serum S100B levels were measured by sandwich ELISA techniques.
Correlations between serum levels of S100B protein and PANSS positive scores are shown in the following table. The first figure corresponds to the Pearson's correlation coefficient, while the figure in brackets corresponds to its statistical significance.
Total Positive Score
Serum levels of S100B protein may be used as a biological marker of positive psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenia.Acknowledgement
Interdigital 2D:4D ratio has been considered as an indicator of prenatal exposure to androgens, entailing then a smaller ratio more androgenisation. Although it has been related to systemizing and empathy dimensions in the general population, it has never been studied in parents of people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs).
Objectives and aims
To analyse the relationship between the 2D:4D ratio and these psychological variables in this population.
The sample was composed by parents of both genders of people with (n = 46) or without (n = 42) ASDs. The ratio was calculated as the mean of 3 measurements of each hand evaluated by 3 different researchers. Psychological dimensions were evaluated by means of the Systemizing and Empathy Quotients (SQ and EQ, respectively).
Parents of ASDs persons showed lower scores in the EQ than controls, being these differences replicated only in men. No differences between groups for the 2D:4D ratio were found. Nevertheless, regression analyses indicated that in parents of ASDs a higher 2D:4D left ratio predicted a higher EQ. This result was also observed in men but not in women. In any case, the model was not significant in the control group.
Parents of ASDs persons showed lower EQ than controls, being this quotient predicted by the left 2D:4D ratio only in the former. When analysing in each gender, these results are only obtained in men. Among other parameters, the D2:D4 ratio (especially the left hand one) could be considered a valid indicator of the ASDs parent's idiosyncrasy.
High prolactin blood levels is an adverse effect of neuroleptic treatment. Typical antipsychotics seem to produce it more frequently than atypical ones.
To know hyperprolactinemia prevalence in our patients related with the type of antipsychotic drug used.
171 individuals, 31 male patients and 140 female ones, with a mean age of 61,67 years old and a mean hospital stay of 18,20 years.
The sample was divided in three groups:
– Typical antipsychotics group: 37 patients.
– Atypical antipsychotics group: 92 patients.
– Typical and atypical antipsychotics group: 42 patients.
Prolactin serum levels were determined (normal values: 1.5-25 ng/ml for fertile age women, 0.7-20 ng/ml for post-menopause women and 0-20 ng/ml for men).
Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia for every group, for single antipsychotic drugs, for age groups, for gender and for diagnosis were obtained.
Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia was 66.1% for the global sample. Results for the different groups were the following:
– Typical antipsychotics group: 73.0%
– Atypical antipsychotics group: 60.9%
– Typical and atypical antipsychotics group: 71.4%
Statistical analysis according to concrete antipsychotic drug showed the following hyperprolactinemia percentages:
– Risperidone: 90.0%
– Haloperidol: 69.2%
– Olanzapine: 44.4%
– Quetiapine: 33%
– Aripiprazol: 14.3%
– Clozapine: 11.1%
Our study finds lower hyperprolactinemia blood levels in patients on atypical antipsychotic treatment than on typical antipsychotic one. Haloperidol and risperidone got the worst results in this matter while clozapine and aripiprazol showed the best ones.
It has become increasingly clear over the last few years that the most effective treatments for patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a combined psychological and pharmacological approach, aiming to improve the symptoms, feelings and behaviours that are so distressing and damaging to their lives. On this poster we try to show our daily therapeutic practice with these patients through a complete review of the BPD patient's medical records available in our outpatients psychiatric clinic.
Systematic review of all BPD patients medical records, treated in our clinic with a particular reference to pharmacological, psychotherapeutic or both approaches stating the type of intervention in each case.
We found a mostly mixed approach to treating BPD patients in our clinic as clinical guidelines and other literature recommends. Being critical of our practice, we have observed a prolonged use of medication despite evidence suggesting a sometimes limited benefit for acute and chronic symptoms.
Although psychotherapeutic interventions are widely used in our Clinic, it is doubtful that the most accepted psychotherapies mentioned earlier are the ones implemented (Kernberg, Linehan….)
The evidence from the literature and prescribing guidelines, suggests that some of the main approaches to treating BPD patients are specific psychotherapies. However, without belittling the benefit of these psychotherapies, we found that the use of psychopharmacological treatments helps too with alleviating acute and more chronic symptoms; maybe improving the likelihood of psychotherapeutic engagement.
Borderline Personality disorder is a well recognised syndrome. These patients show a clear emotional unstability, lack of control impulse, unpredictible auto and heteroaggresive behaviour, poor interpersonal realitionships and self image as well as brief psychotic episodes.The unspecific symtomatology and diagnostic difficulty derived from different nosographic frames makes their diagnosis and treatment a challenge. Through the analysis of their medical records we aim to know the age they sought specialized help, the symptomatology at first consultation, the treatment given and the outcome after years of therapy.
Systematic review of all BPD patient's medical records treated in our Unit with a particular reference to age and symptoms at the start of treatment and at present. Medical records from the Childhood and Adolescence Psychiatric Unit were also reviewed to determine the most prominent symptoms at that time.
We found that the vast majority of cases contacted the psychiatric services in their adolescence and early adulthood, probably in relation to demands of daily life at that age. The most relevant symptoms at onset of illness were depressive mood and anxiety. As time went on depressive symptoms were the main complaint. The clinical state remained fairly stable over time.
There is a clear early onset of symptoms, in particular, affective ones (depression and anxiety) being prominent in childhood and preadolescence. Also there is a stable psychopathology over time which keep the patients on long term follow ups. This medical demand seemed to diminish at their fifth decade.
Caregiving of offspring with a chronic illness is a highly stressful vital experience. Previous studies with parents of schizophrenic persons revealed that these situations increase health complaints (González-Bono et al., 2009), with the duration of caring being a relevant variable (Contell-Montaña et al., 2010). The higher age of the caregivers of schizophrenia can contribute to this health unbalance, but little is known in younger samples.
To test whether middle-aged caregivers (parents of autistic persons) present higher health disturbances than controls and to investigate the moderating role of duration of caring
Health complaints and resting levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) were measured in a sample of 38 middle-aged caregivers of autistic offspring (24 mothers/14 fathers) and 35 parents of healthy persons (17 women/18 men) of similar characteristics.
Caregivers report more immunological, muscular, genital-urinary and general health complaints than controls. Additionally, the scores of all scales and total score of Goldberg Health Questionnaire were higher in caregivers than in non caregivers. No significant differences were found in IgA levels. Among caregivers, fewer years of caring were associated with more anxiety and lower IgA levels.
Chronic stress of caregiving of autistic offspring is associated with more health complaints. The number of years after unequivocal diagnosis of autism has a moderating effect on immunological disturbances and anxiety in care givers. Further research is needed to clarify whether the interventions focused on anxiety can influence the low antibodies levels and decrease future health complaints.
Analysing reactivity to laboratory stressor in lab is a valid model for understanding how people act in real-life situations. Electrodermal activity is a good index of emotionality, which has not been analysed in caregivers of persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs).
Objectives and aims
This work aims to compare the response of electrodermal activity to mental stress between caregivers of ASDs people and controls, as the former could show a different response due to their particular situation characterised by a state of continuous alert.
Parents of both genders of people with (n = 44) or without (n = 42) ASDs carried out a set of different mental tasks. Skin Conductance Level (SCL) was continuously registered before, during, and after the tasks. Skin Conductance Responses (SCR) were obtained from SCL levels using Acqknowledge software.
For SCL, a significant effect of “gender” and of “period x group” and “period x group x gender” interactions was observed. SCL was higher in men than in women and in controls when compared to caregivers. Controls presented more SCL Reactivity than caregivers, being these results were replicated in men (who also showed worse recovery in controls) but not in women. In caregivers, men showed lower SCR Reactivity than women.
Caregivers of ASDs showed a lower electrodermal reactivity to mental stress than controls, and this effect was stronger in men. These results could reflect a lower reactivity to stressful situations in caregivers and, consequently, a loss of the adaptative potential of the stress response in this population.
Caregivers of relatives with chronic diseases has shown lower rest levels of immunoglobulin A than non-caregivers (Gallagher et al., 2008). In response to mental stress, IgA levels used to be increased in healthy population (Okamura et al. 2010). Scarce studies have been focused on immunological effects of caregiving in response to stress, and the results are controversial. To our knowledge, there are no studies stressing this field in chronically stressed populations such as caregivers of autistic offspring.
Objectives and aims
Evaluate whether caregivers present different psychosocial and immunological responses to acute stress than non-caregivers, as well as what is the role of gender in these responses.
38 caregivers of persons with autism and 35 non-caregivers were exposed to a psychosocial laboratory stress. IgA levels were measured before, during and after a set of several mental tasks, while the state of mood was evaluated before and after the stressors.
Caregivers showed blunted IgA response to stress in men and women compared with non-caregivers, although the response pattern was different for each gender. Moreover, caregivers presented worse mood (depression, anger, fatigue, vigor and total score) than non-caregivers. Moreover, psychological effects of stress are inversely associated with levels of IgA, fundamentally during the task.
Caregiving reduces IgA secretion in response to psychosocial stress, although differently in men and women. Further studies are necessary to explore other neuroendocrine factors, together with mood, that could be involved in this buffered response.
Long-acting atypical antipsychotics have been widely used in the treatment of substance use disorders and comorbid psychosis.
To investigate the impact of long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate (PPLAI) on craving and satisfaction levels in dual psychotic patients.
An open-label, non-interventional, prospective study was conducted in 42 dual psychotic outpatients who received PPLAI in monotherapy. Craving and satisfaction levels in patients and relatives were assessed by using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). We used the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) to assess clinical severity and global improvement, and the GAF scale to assess global functioning. 35 patients completed the study and underwent a systematic assessment at baseline and after 3 and 6 months.
After 6 months of treatment, mean craving scores decreased in patients treated with PPLAI when compared to baseline scores (4.9 vs 2.3). Mean satisfaction levels in dual psychotic patients increased (6.0 vs 9.1), and satisfaction levels in their relatives improved after 6 months (5.2 vs 9.5). Patients receiving PPLAI showed a statistically significant decrease in consumption relapses, had lower scores in CGI for clinical severity (CGISI), higher scores in global improvement (CGI-GI), and higher scores in global functioning.
After 6 months of PPLAI treatment, psychotic patients with substance use had lower craving levels. Satisfaction levels were higher in patients and their relatives. Consumption relapses decrease and patients had higher scores in global functioning.
Ketamine is an anesthetic, blocker or antagonist of NMDA receptors, commonly used in veterinary medicine. Ketamine is also a 'club drug”, an hallucinogen and a dissociative drug used for recreation. The continued consumption leads to tolerance and dependence, in addition to cognitive and psychiatric disorders. The abuse and dependence on ketamine requires a multidisciplinary approach, combining medical, psychological aspects and social support. Its pharmacotherapy is not yet established.
Analyze the utility of paliperidone palmitate in the treatment of ketamine dependence through a clinical report.
Aims and methods
We report the case of a 38-year-old man diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Multi-drug consumer with serious ketamine addiction up to 5-6 g/day and a ketamine-induced cystopathy at risk of losing his bladder. History of various admissions to the psychiatric unit and hospital detoxification unit without success. Last year starts treatment with paliperidone palmitate in increasing doses from 75 to 150 mg combined with bupropion in high doses with clinical improvement and ketamine withdrawl.
From the start of treatment the patient is abstinent of ketamine. Impulsivity and dysphoria have improved and suicide ideation has gone. Subjective assessment of treatment is very good.
Treatment for ketamine addiction is a multidisciplinary issue. Pharmacotherapy is not well defined but Paliperidone palmitate may be useful in drug dose-reduction and maintaining abstinence.
Schizophrenia is not only a mental disorder but also has other components affecting the physical part of the body. Several studies have suggested that neuroinflammatory processes may play a role in schizophrenia pathogenesis, at least in a subgroup of patients.
This poster reported the preliminary results of a project aiming to find schizophrenia biomarkers. We present biological parameters and clinical variables of patients with schizophrenia according to the lab results and the clinical assessments.
Cross-sectional, naturalistic study. Inclusion criteria: DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia; age >17 years; and written informed consent given.
123 patients with schizophrenia. Mean age 40.75 (10.37), 67.5% males. There is relationship between homocysteine(oxidative stress) and psychopathology: PANSS [negative subscale 0.27 (p=0.003), general subscale 0.21 (p=0.028) and Marder factor 0.28 (p=0.003)], NSA [global score 0.24 (p=0.010), and some factors: communication 0.26 (p=0.005), affect 0.28 (p=0.002), motivation 0.30 (p=0.001) and motor retardation 0.27 (p=0.004)]; Functioning [(PSP total score -0.24 (p=0.011) and some PSP factors: work 0.30 (p=0.001), self-care 0.21 (p=0.022)]. However, there is no relationship between C-reactive protein(inflammation) and any clinical variable. On the other hand, there is relationship between: glucose and cognitive impairment; cholesterol and NSA motivation score, cognitive impairment and PSP (total score, self-care and work); triglycerides and HDRS (total score, melancholia factor and vitality factor), NSA motivation score and cognitive impairment.
The negative dimension of schizophrenia is associated with high homocysteine levels, which means an oxidative stress state. As well, a worse functioning level is associated with high homocysteine level.
A very important determinant of school performance is attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity or impulsivity. the criteria established by the DSM-IV-TR are one of the most widely accepted procedures to diagnose the deficit. There are three different subtypes: inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive and combined. Gonzalez-Castro et al., (2010) demonstrated empirically that the subtypes of ADHD often score significantly different in the prefrontal and central areas of the cortex. This is the reason why it is convenient to carry out more studies in the measure of Q-EEG (electrical activity) combined with that of nir-HEG (blood activity). Rodríguez, et al., (2011) apply both instruments (Q-EEG and nir-HEG) to a sample of 70 students and verify that the nir-HEG differentiates significantly the ADHD subjects of the control group and the combined and inattentive subtype for the Fp1 variable, associated to the executive control. These results might be caused by the time taken to do the evaluation (35 seconds). Therefore, the reason of this research is to assess the instrument over a long period of time while performing a continuous performing task (CPT). the results show statistically significant differences between the control group and the other with ADHD and among the subtypes in the variables of executive control and short evaluation with the nir-HEG. As for the long evaluation of blood oxygenation during a performance of an executive task, some differences can be seen among the subtypes with ADHD, although not statistically significant.
Lithium has been used in the treatment of pregnant women with bipolar disorder for many decades but information on the effects of its exposure on perinatal variables is scarce.
To determine the effects of in-utero exposure to lithium on neonatal outcomes among infants born to women with treatment with lithium during pregnancy.
Prospective and observational study including all consecutive cases of pregnant women with bipolar disorder type I or II (N = 22) and maintenance treatment with lithium monotherapy (n=13) or polytherapy (n=9), attended at the PERINATAL PSYCHIATRY PROGRAM CLÍNIC-BARCELONA between 2005 and 2012. We evaluated sociodemographic data, lithium plasma concentrations in maternal blood and umbilical cord, obstetric and neonatal variables.
No statistically significant differences were found regarding sociodemographic data between both groups. Rates for umbilical cord:maternal plasma lithium levels were higher in women treated with polytherapy than in women who received lithium alone (1.08 vs. 1.05). Neonates exposed to polytherapy had a higher weight percentile at birth (p70 vs p50) and greater gestational age (39.72 vs. 38.28 weeks), than those exposed to lithium alone. Acute neonatal complications were more frequently observed in infants that were exposed to lithium monotherapy (33.3% vs. 38.50), being all complications transitory and not severe.
The infants exposed to lithium polytherapy presented a higher weight at birth compared to those who received lithium monotherapy. However, no statistically significant differences were found between treatment groups. Further research is needed to better clarify safety of lithium and its effect on neonatal outcomes.
Recently, a renaissance of interest in ‘negative symptoms’ as emotional withdrawal or blunted affect, has occurred. Some investigators believe that these symptoms are important indicators of outcome, of response to treatment and of a distinct underlying pathologic process.
Research on the negative-symptom syndrome in schizophrenia has been handicapped until recently.
This research aims at studying whether acute phase proteins, precisely, Alpha1-glycoprotein, can be considered as a marker of negativesymptom in Schizophrenia.
29 chronic schizophrenics were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). A routine blood test including Alpha1-glycoprotein levels was carried out.
Alpha1-glycoprotein shows a positive correlation, according to Pearson correlation coefficient, with the Negative Scale at an almost significant level (p=.05), and at a significant level in the following items, Blunted affect (p=.03), Passive/apathetic Social Withdrawal (p=.01) of the Negative spectrum and Poor Attention (p=.02) of the General Psychopathology Scale.
There is a significant correlation with two Negative variables and an almost significant one, spite of the small sample, with the Negative Scale. Further studies with bigger samples are needed in order to consider alpha1-glycoprotein as a schizophrenia negative psychopathology marker.
The efficacy of long-acting injectable antipsychotics in dual schizophrenia patients has been well established.
To investigate the efficacy of long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate(PPLAI) in the psychopathology of dual psychotic patients. To examine the tolerability profile of PPLAI in dual psychosis.
An open-label, non-interventional, prospective study was conducted in 42 dual psychotic outpatients who received PPLAI in monotherapy. We used the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) to assess psychotic symptoms and the Udvalg für Kliniske Undersogelser Scale (UKU) to evaluate treatment tolerability, at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Prolactin levels were also determined at the time of the study inclusion and after 6 months.
Thirty-five patients were included into the study. After 6 months of treatment, patients receiving PPLAI showed a significant improvement in positive symptoms (disorganisation, suspiciousness), negative symptoms (emotional withdrawal, motor retardation, blunted affect and confusion), affective symptoms (somatic concern, anxiety and depression) and in motor symptoms (unco-operativeness, excitement). When compared to the 3rd month assessment, after 6 months, statistically significant differences were found in items 4,11,14,17 and 18. Patients receiving PPLAI had lower rates of side effects assessed by UKU Scale (asthenia, sedation, failing memory, tension, insomnia, rigidity, tremor, weight gain and sexual dysfunction). Baseline prolactin levels ranged 11–122 (mean:38), at 6 months: 20–136 (mean:38.4).
After 6 months, patients receiving PPLAI had lower psychotic symptoms, a decrease in side effects, and a significant improvement in global functioning. No changes in prolactin levels were found.