Systems containing metal ions stabilized in Si-O matrix are perspective for the development of new selective oxidation catalysts. The comparative study of the following catalysts were performed to elucidate the influence of structural factors on the catalytic properties of iron systems in the reactions H2O oxidation, H2O2 decomposition, N2O decomposition and 16O2 ⇔ O18O2 exchange. The following catalysts were used: A) carbon-supported polyhedral silsesquioxanes (PhSiO1.5)12(MO)nL ((MO)n = (FeO)6, Fe2Ni4O6, (NiO)6; L=ROH, H2O); B) Fe-containing zeolites ZSM-5 (0.1−3.5 wt.% Fe); C) hydroxocomplexes Fe4(OH)10SO4 and NaFe3(OH)6(SO4)2). Fe silsesquoxanes in contrast to Fe-ZSM5 do not activate N2O decomposition and isotopie oxygen exchange. However, they are active in H2O oxidation and H2O2 decomposition. It was found that both reactions proceed via nonradical mechanism in the presence of Fe heterogeneous catalysts. For H2O oxidation active site contains at least two Fe atoms situated at appropriate distance from each other. H2O2 decomposition can proceed with participation either one and two metal active sites.