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Water wave overwash of a step by small steepness, regular incident waves is analysed using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model and a mathematical model, in two spatial dimensions. The CFD model is based on the two-phase, incompressible Navier–Stokes equations, and the mathematical model is based on the coupled potential-flow and nonlinear shallow-water theories. The CFD model is shown to predict vortices, breaking and overturning in the region where overwash is generated, and that the overwash develops into fast-travelling bores. The mathematical model is shown to predict bore heights and velocities that agree with the CFD model, despite neglecting the complicated dynamics where the overwash is generated. Evidence is provided to explain the agreement in terms of the underlying agreement of mass and energy fluxes.
A controversy at the 2016 IUCN World Conservation Congress on the topic of closing domestic ivory markets (the 007, or so-called James Bond, motion) has given rise to a debate on IUCN's value proposition. A cross-section of authors who are engaged in IUCN but not employed by the organization, and with diverse perspectives and opinions, here argue for the importance of safeguarding and strengthening the unique technical and convening roles of IUCN, providing examples of what has and has not worked. Recommendations for protecting and enhancing IUCN's contribution to global conservation debates and policy formulation are given.
The fragmented ecosystems along the Niagara Escarpment World Biosphere Reserve provide important habitats for biota including lichens. Nonetheless, the Reserve is disturbed by dense human populations and associated air pollution. Here we investigated patterns of lichen diversity within urban and rural sites at three different locations (Niagara, Hamilton, and Owen Sound) along the Niagara Escarpment in Ontario, Canada. Our results indicate that both lichen species richness and community composition are negatively correlated with increasing human population density and air pollution. However, our quantitative analysis of community composition using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicates that human population density and air pollution is more independent than might be assumed. The CCA analysis suggests that the strongest environmental gradient (CCA1) associated with lichen community composition includes regional pollution load and climatic variables; the second gradient (CCA2) is associated with local pollution load and human population density factors. These results increase the knowledge of lichen biodiversity for the Niagara Escarpment and urban and rural fragmented ecosystems as well as along gradients of human population density and air pollution; they suggest a differential influence of regional and local pollution loads and population density factors. This study provides baseline knowledge for further research and conservation initiatives along the Niagara Escarpment World Biosphere Reserve.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, however genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for MDD, as well as for related continuous outcomes, have not shown consistent results. Attempts to elucidate the genetic basis of MDD may be hindered by heterogeneity in diagnosis. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale provides a widely used tool for measuring depressive symptoms clustered in four different domains which can be combined together into a total score but also can be analysed as separate symptom domains.
We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS of the CES-D symptom clusters. We recruited 12 cohorts with the 20- or 10-item CES-D scale (32 528 persons).
One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs713224, located near the brain-expressed melatonin receptor (MTNR1A) gene, was associated with the somatic complaints domain of depression symptoms, with borderline genome-wide significance (pdiscovery = 3.82 × 10−8). The SNP was analysed in an additional five cohorts comprising the replication sample (6813 persons). However, the association was not consistent among the replication sample (pdiscovery+replication = 1.10 × 10−6) with evidence of heterogeneity.
Despite the effort to harmonize the phenotypes across cohorts and participants, our study is still underpowered to detect consistent association for depression, even by means of symptom classification. On the contrary, the SNP-based heritability and co-heritability estimation results suggest that a very minor part of the variation could be captured by GWAS, explaining the reason of sparse findings.
A theoretical model is used to study wave energy attenuation and directional spreading of ocean wave spectra in the marginal ice zone (MIZ). The MIZ is constructed as an array of tens of thousands of compliant circular ice floes, with randomly selected positions and radii determined by an empirical floe size distribution. Linear potential flow and thin elastic plate theories model the coupled water–ice system. A new method is proposed to solve the time-harmonic multiple scattering problem under a multidirectional incident wave forcing with random phases. It provides a natural framework for tracking the evolution of the directional properties of a wave field through the MIZ. The attenuation and directional spreading are extracted from ensembles of the wave field with respect to realizations of the MIZ and incident forcing randomly generated from prescribed distributions. The averaging procedure is shown to converge rapidly so that only a small number of simulations need to be performed. Far-field approximations are investigated, allowing efficiency improvements with negligible loss of accuracy. A case study is conducted for a particular MIZ configuration. The observed exponential attenuation of wave energy through the MIZ is reproduced by the model, while the directional spread is found to grow linearly with distance. The directional spreading is shown to weaken when the wavelength becomes larger than the maximum floe size.
A theoretical model of water wave overwash of a thin floating plate is proposed. The nonlinear shallow-water equations are used to model the overwash, and the linear potential-flow/thin-plate model to force it. Model predictions are compared with overwash depths measured during a series of laboratory wave basin experiments. The model is shown to be accurate for incident waves of low steepness or short length.
Community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections are a public health concern, yet little is known about infections that do not present to hospital. We identified community-onset S. aureus infections via specimens submitted to a community-based pathology service. Referring doctors confirmed eligibility and described infection site, severity and treatment. Isolates were characterized on antibiotic resistance, PFGE, MLST/SCCmec, and Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL), representing 106 community-onset infections; 34 non-multiresistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus (nmMRSA) (resistant to <3 non-β-lactam antibiotics), 15 multiply antibiotic-resistant MRSA (mMRSA) and 57 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Most (93%) were skin and soft tissue infections. PVL genes were carried by 42% of nmMRSA isolates [95% confidence interval (CI) 26–61] and 15% of MSSA (95% CI 8–28). PVL was associated with infections of the trunk, head or neck (56·4% vs. 24·3%, P = 0·005) in younger patients (23 vs. 52 years, P < 0·001), and with boils or abscesses (OR 8·67, 95% CI 2·9–26·2), suggesting underlying differences in exposure and/or pathogenesis.
A series of wave basin experiments is reported that investigates the flexural response of one or two floating thin elastic discs to monochromatic waves. The work is motivated by numerical model validation. Innovative techniques are used to ensure the experimental configuration is consistent with the model. This demands linear motions, time-harmonic conditions, homogeneity of the plate and the restriction of horizontal motions of the disc or discs. An optical remote sensing device is employed to record the deflection of the discs accurately. Tests involving a single disc and two discs are conducted for a range of disc thicknesses, incident wave steepnesses, frequencies and, in the case of two discs, geometrical arrangements. A data processing technique is used to decompose the raw data into its spectral harmonics and filter the higher-order components. Pointwise comparisons of the linear first-order component of the experimental deflection with numerical predictions are presented. Satisfying agreement is found, although the model consistently over predicts the deflection. Disc–disc interactions are observed in the two-disc tests. A brief discussion of the shortcomings of the pointwise analysis, with associated possible sources of discrepancy, provides a link to the study reported in Part 2 (Montiel et al.J. Fluid Mech., vol. 723, 2013, pp. 629–652).
Validation of a linear numerical model of wave interactions with floating compliant discs is sought using data obtained from the wave basin experiments reported in Part 1 (Montiel et al.J. Fluid Mech., vol. 723, 2013, pp. 604–628). Comparisons are made for both single-disc tests and the two-disc tests in which wave interactions between discs are observed. The deflection of the disc or discs is separated into the natural modes of vibration in vacuo. The decomposition allows the rigid-body motions and flexural motions to be analysed separately. Rigid-body motions are accurately replicated by the numerical model but, although passable agreement is found, the amplitudes of flexural modes are consistently overestimated. Extensions of the numerical model are used to discount the experimental configuration as a source of the discrepancies. An enhanced viscoelastic model for the discs is also proposed, which results in improved model/data agreement for the flexural motions but cannot account for all of the disagreement.
Insurance accounting has for many years proved a challenging topic for standard setters, preparers and users, often described as a “black box”. Will recent developments, in particular the July 2010 Insurance Contracts Exposure Draft, herald a new era?
This paper reviews these developments, setting out key issues and implications. It concentrates on issues relevant to life insurers, although much of the content is also relevant to non-life insurers.
The paper compares certain IFRS and Solvency II developments, recognising that UK insurers face challenges in implementing new financial and regulatory reporting requirements in similar timeframes. The paper considers resulting external disclosure requirements and a possible future role for supplementary information.
The technology of flight provides immeasurable benefits for today's society: promoting global trade and commerce, providing humanitarian relief, and connecting people. In the next millennium, progressive environmental considerations will play a key role in our ability to continue to provide these benefits seamlessly. As with other transport, the consumption of petroleum-based fuels and materials draws from the Earth's finite natural resources. To move toward fully sustainable aviation, there must be a continued focus on reducing the environmental footprint over the product life cycle.
To ensure a balance between the social and economic benefits of aviation and the energy and environmental impacts, the aviation industry is working on improvements across the entire life cycle of its products and services. Opportunities for environmental improvement lie in advanced materials and manufacturing technologies, improved aerodynamics systems and engine efficiency, alternative fuels, increased fleet operational efficiency, and aircraft recycling.
An efficient solution method is presented for linear and time-harmonic water-wave scattering by two classes of a three-dimensional hydroelastic system. In both cases, the fluid domain is of infinite horizontal extent and finite depth. The fluid surface is either open, except in a finite region where it is covered by a thin-elastic plate, which represents an ice floe, or fully covered by a plate, except in a finite region where it is open, which represents an ice polynya. The approach outlined herein permits the boundary between the ice-covered and free-surface fluid regions to be described by an arbitrary smooth curve. To solve the governing equations of the full three-dimensional linear problem, they are first projected onto the horizontal plane by using an approximation theory that combines an expansion of the vertical motion of the fluid in a finite set of judiciously chosen modes with a variational principle. This generates a system of two-dimensional partial differential equations that are converted into a set of one-dimensional integro-differential equations using matrices of Green's functions, which are solved numerically through an application of the Galerkin technique. A numerical results section justifies the consideration of an arbitrarily shaped boundary by comparing the response of differently shaped floes and polynyas over a range of relevant wavenumbers. Comparisons are made in terms of the magnitude and direction of the far-field scattering response, and also the maximum average curvature of the floe and the maximum wave elevation within the polynya.