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The author presents a necessarily brief summary of Catholic Social Teaching (CST) regarding immigration, featuring especially Pius XII's much neglected apostolic constitution Exsul familia. He also sets out some of the philosophical presuppositions of CST as it pertains to immigration. These presuppositions are to be found, he maintains, especially in the writings of Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas. He then examines in some detail Francisco de Vitoria's ideas regarding immigration, based as they are upon Aristotelian and Thomistic principles. Finally, he offers answers to questions that have arisen over the course of the essay.
We survey recent progress in computing with finitely generated linear groups over infinite fields, describing the mathematical background of a methodology applied to design practical algorithms for these groups. Implementations of the algorithms have been used to perform extensive computer experiments.
Gastrointestinal and mental disorders are highly comorbid, and animal models have shown that both can be caused by early adversity (e.g., parental deprivation). Interactions between the brain and bacteria that live within the gastrointestinal system (the microbiome) underlie adversity–gastrointestinal–anxiety interactions, but these links have not been investigated during human development. In this study, we utilized data from a population of 344 youth (3–18 years old) who were raised with their biological parents or were exposed to early adverse caregiving experiences (i.e., institutional or foster care followed by international adoption) to explore adversity–gastrointestinal–anxiety associations. In Study 1, we demonstrated that previous adverse care experiences were associated with increased incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms in youth. Gastrointestinal symptoms were also associated with concurrent and future anxiety (measured across 5 years), and those gastrointestinal symptoms mediated the adversity–anxiety association at Time 1. In a subsample of children who provided both stool samples and functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (Study 2, which was a “proof-of-principle”), adversity was associated with changes in diversity (both alpha and beta) of microbial communities, and bacteria levels (adversity-associated and adversity-independent) were correlated with prefrontal cortex activation to emotional faces. Implications of these data for supporting youth mental health are discussed.
The design of an x-ray detector suitable for use in tomography must be optimized for the intended application. Recently, we have developed microtomography applications that require resolution of -1 micron in three spatial dimensions and -1% statistical accuracy in the reconstruction of attenuation coefficients for each cubic micron volume element in a .1 cubic mm specimen. X-ray detector design for these applications must take into account much more than just the demanding micron spatial resolution requirement. The detector must be optimized to take into account the physical properties of the specimen to be measured, the characteristics of the x-ray beam available to probe the specimen, signal to noise ratios needed in the reconstructed image and requirements of the data processing algorithm. In addition, the detector design should be sufficiently flexible to allow significant variation in the kinds of specimens that can be examined.
Early institutional rearing is associated with increased risk for subsequent peer relationship difficulties, but the underlying mechanisms have not been identified. Friendship characteristics, social behaviors with peers, normed assessments of social problems, and social cue use were assessed in 142 children (mean age = 10.06, SD = 2.02; range 7–13 years), of whom 67 were previously institutionalized (PI), and 75 were raised by their biological families. Anxiety and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, often elevated among PI children, were examined as potential mediators of PI status and baseline social functioning and longitudinal follow-ups (2 and 4 years later). Twenty-seven percent of PI children fell above the Child Behavior Checklist Social Problems cutoff. An examination of specific social behaviors with peers indicated that PI and comparison children did not differ in empathic concern or peer social approach, though parents were more likely to endorse aggression/overarousal as a reason that PI children might struggle with friendships. Comparison children outperformed PI children in computerized testing of social cue use learning. Finally, across these measures, social difficulties exhibited in the PI group were mediated by ADHD symptoms with predicted social problems assessed 4 years later. These findings show that, when PI children struggle with friendships, mechanisms involving attention and behavior regulation are likely contributors.
Institutional caregiving is associated with significant deviations from species-expected caregiving, altering the normative sequence of attachment formation and placing children at risk for long-term emotional difficulties. However, little is known about factors that can promote resilience following early institutional caregiving. In the current study, we investigated how adaptations in affective processing (i.e., positive valence bias) and family-level protective factors (i.e., secure parent–child relationships) moderate risk for internalizing symptoms in previously institutionalized (PI) youth. Children and adolescents with and without a history of institutional care performed a laboratory-based affective processing task and self-reported measures of parent–child relationship security. PI youth were more likely than comparison youth to show positive valence biases when interpreting ambiguous facial expressions. Both positive valence bias and parent–child relationship security moderated the association between institutional care and parent-reported internalizing symptoms, such that greater positive valence bias and more secure parent–child relationships predicted fewer symptoms in PI youth. However, when both factors were tested concurrently, parent–child relationship security more strongly moderated the link between PI status and internalizing symptoms. These findings suggest that both individual-level adaptations in affective processing and family-level factors of secure parent–child relationships may ameliorate risk for internalizing psychopathology following early institutional caregiving.
We investigated an increase in the incidence of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) that occurred following a change from a bleach disinfectant to a peracetic acid–based disinfectant.
To evaluate the efficacy of the peracetic acid–based disinfectant.
Laboratory-based product evaluation.
The commercial peracetic acid–based product is activated on site by mixing a small volume of concentrated hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid present in a “SmartCap” reservoir with the remaining contents of the container. We measured concentrations of peracetic acid in newly activated and in-use product and determined the stability of nonactivated and activated product. We tested the efficacy of the product against C. difficile spores using the American Society for Testing and Materials standard quantitative carrier disk test method.
Measured concentrations of peracetic acid (50–800 parts per million [ppm]) were significantly lower than the level stated on the product label (1,500 ppm), and similar results were obtained for containers from multiple lot numbers and from another hospital. Product with peracetic acid levels below 600 ppm had significantly reduced activity against C. difficile spores. Peracetic acid concentrations were reduced markedly after storage of either activated or nonactivated product for several weeks. The Environmental Protection Agency confirmed the finding of low disinfectant levels and ordered discontinuation of sale of the product.
Use of a defective peracetic acid–based surface disinfectant may have contributed to an increase in healthcare-associated CDI. Our findings highlight the importance of evaluating the efficacy of liquid disinfectants in healthcare settings.
This paper discusses the growth of Mg-doped GaN samples using a modified Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) method. Our results suggest that the dopant is incorporated from a surface population maintained by the incident Mg flux by a rapid diffusion mechanism. It follows that the chemical concentration will increase with time of growth and that the p-doping level will also increase progressively with film thickness for a given Mg flux. Increasing the Mg flux to the surface results at first in a higher doping density, but this saturates when the Mg surface concentration reaches a finite value.
Inquisitio, a process first codified in the canons of the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215, was an important means of investigating crime in general and heresy in particular in the later medieval period. For the most part, it has been the subject of historical rather than cultural investigation: scholars have focused on its role in the development of the medieval church and its laws, and on the dynamics of heresy inquisition in medieval Europe and, more recently, England. To view it only as a tool in the fight against heresy, however, is to overlook both its broader significance and its imbrication with other mechanisms of medieval canon law. Even in the English ecclesiastical courts, inquisitio had other uses: it was, for example, most commonly used to regulate sexual relations (fornication, adultery, bigamy, etc.); it was bound up with sanctions like excommunication and public penance, as well as confession, sacramental or otherwise; and, perhaps most significantly, since the law stipulated that inquisitio could only be initiated when someone was widely held to be guilty of a specific crime, it was intimately associated with questions of reputation and social standing. It is hardly surprising then that in the centuries following Lateran IV, the applications of inquisition moved beyond the boundaries of the ecclesiastical courts into the fields of exemplarity, rhetoric and poetry.
Inquisition in medieval and early modern England has typically been the subject of historical rather than cultural investigation, and focussed on heresy. Here, however, inquisition is revealed as playing a broader role in medieval English culture, not only in relation to sanctions like excommunication, penance and confession, but also in the fields of exemplarity, rhetoric and poetry. Beyond its specific legal and pastoral applications, 'inquisitio' was a dialogic mode of inquiry, a means of discerning, producing or rewriting truth, and an often adversarial form of invention and literary authority. The essays in this volume cover such topics as the theory and practice of canon law, heresy and its prosecution, Middle English pastoralia, political writing and romance. As a result, the collection redefines the nature of inquisition's role within both medieval law and culture, and demonstrates the extent to which it penetrated the late-medieval consciousness, shaping public fame and private selves, sexuality and gender, rhetoric, and literature. Mary C. Flannery is a lecturer in English at the University of Lausanne; Katie L. Walter is a lecturer in English at the University of Sussex. Contributors: Mary C. Flannery, Katie L. Walter, Henry Ansgar Kelly, Edwin Craun, Ian Forrest, Diane Vincent, Jenny Lee, James Wade, Genelle Gertz, Ruth Ahnert, Emily Steiner.
In the prologue to his tale, Chaucer's Pardoner gleefully outlines his methods of conning money out of gullible, God-fearing churchgoers with his preaching. From his public stage in the pulpit, the Pardoner employs various methods to persuade his audience to repent—and to part with their money; as he confesses to his fellow pilgrims, ‘myn entente is nat but for to wynne, / And nothyng for correccioun of synne’ (VI.403–04). Here and elsewhere in the Pardoner's prologue, Chaucer places great emphasis on this concept of ‘entente’; indeed, intention seems to be the criterion by which Chaucer asks that we judge the Pardoner. Yet the Pardoner's ability to gull his audience points precisely to the difficulty of discerning intent and of knowing certainly the interior state of an individual, a difficulty addressed at least in part by the sacrament of confession. According to the now-standard narrative, confession after the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) becomes a tool for fostering technologies for ‘making truth inside oneself’ and for generating interiorised subjectivity. In scholarship on medieval heresy, inquisition is likewise understood to have ‘the discovery of truth’ about an individual as its goal and the hidden interior as its terrain.