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The effect of treatment (28 days) with zopiclone, triazolam, flunitrazepam and placebo on sleep quality and daytime well-being was proven in a randomised, double-blind, parallel group, multicentre study in private practice. Results of an exploratory statistic of treatment efficacy in a subgroup of 1,291 patients suffering from insomnia are presented. Patients met the following criteria: insomnia lasting at least four weeks and the presence of at least two of the following: 1) sleep latency ≥ 45 minutes, 2) total sleep time ≤ 6 hours, and 3) nocturnal awakening ≥3 times. Treatment efficacy was assessed according to the following factors: either a shortening of sleep latency by at least 15 minutes, or prolongation of total sleep time by at least 20%, or reduction of the number of nocturnal awakenings to three or less and a refreshed feeling in the morning as well as no impairment in daytime well-being due to tiredness or anxiety. The total response rate was markedly higher with zopiclone (42.3%; p = 0.0003) than with placebo (29.0%). Triazolam (36.6%; p = 0.0905) and flunitrazepam (33.1%; p = 0.3401) were also more effective than the placebo, but they both tended to have a lower response rate than with zopiclone (p = 0.1199 and 0.0151, respectively). Total response was found to be essentially a reflection of the response of the socially important parameter of daytime well-being. These results suggest that zopiclone is more effective in the treatment of insomnia than either triazolam or flunitrazepam. Since the response of daytime well-being to therapy was generally poor, this parameter embodies the next main therapeutic challenge in the treatment of patients with insomnia.
Defendants commonly claim amnesia for their criminal actions especially in cases involving extreme violence. While some claims are malingered or result from physiological factors, other cases may represent genuine partial or complete amnesia resulting from the psychological distress and/or extreme emotion associated with the perpetration of the crime.
To identify possible psychological differences among homicide or severe violence offenders presenting amnesia for the event and those who do not. Due to a small number of offenders commiting such a sever violent crimes. We are presenting results of ongoing research. The preliminary data were presented at the EPA meeting 2013.
We examined homicide or severe violence offenders presenting amnesia for the event (n=20) and those who do not (n=20) with a complex psychological a psychiatrical assessment. Further we evaluated social and criminal anamnesis. Offenders with psychotic or schizophrenic symptoms were excluded.
The ongoing study still shows no differences in cognition or personality in the studeid group (p < 0.01). Elevated levels of dissociation and score in IES questionnaire was found in offenders presenting amnesia for the event.
Results and conclusion
This ongoing study supports hypothesis that there are no any neuropsychological impairments in nonpsychiatric offenders of murder or severe violence presenting amnesia. Higher level of dissociation and score of impact of events scale (p < 0.05) suggest, that this group of offenders may be more predisposed to dissociative and stressful reactions in overloading events. Thus the question whether the amnesia is malingered or not is still unclear.
Our aim was to identify areas of improvement for current Opioid Maintenance Treatment (OMT) approaches, by analysing European Quality Audit of Opioid Treatment (EQUATOR) data from 8 European countries (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, UK).
A standardised face-to-face survey was administered to OMT patients (OMT-P) and active opioid user (AOU). Reasons for entering and staying out of OMT, rules pertaining to OMT, and factors facilitating OMT retention were compared between countries, and between OMT-P and AOU groups. Both groups were divided into those who never had OMT before [un-experienced OMT-P (n=573) and AOU (n=360)] and those who had been maintained at least once [experienced OMT-P (n=746) and AOU (n=377)].
Motives for starting OMT vary distinctly between countries (p≤0.001). Transnationally, experienced AOU reported concerns about their ability to follow treatment rules and negative treatment experiences as decisive reasons for staying out of OMT. Greater flexibility, less pressure to reduce their treatment dose and greater treatment structure were ranked significantly higher by experienced compared to un-experienced OMT-P as factors that might facilitate treatment retention (p≤0.05).
The major strength of this investigation was the homogenous methodology applied in all countries, which enabled new insights in variations between treatment systems and their impact on patient outcome. Treatment systems need to aim an optimal balance between flexibility and structure. Standardised approaches that still permit tailoring treatment to individual patient needs are crucial to yield maximum benefit for patients, and reduce the considerable societal economic burden of addiction.
The deviation from thermodynamic equilibrium of the ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs), as measured by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission in the Earth’s turbulent magnetosheath, is quantitatively investigated. Making use of the unprecedented high-resolution MMS ion data, and together with Vlasov–Maxwell simulations, this analysis aims at investigating the relationship between deviation from Maxwellian equilibrium and typical plasma parameters. Correlations of the non-Maxwellian features with plasma quantities such as electric fields, ion temperature, current density and ion vorticity are found to be similar in magnetosheath data and numerical experiments, with a poor correlation between distortions of ion VDFs and current density, evidence that questions the occurrence of VDF departure from Maxwellian at the current density peaks. Moreover, strong correlation has been observed with the magnitude of the electric field in the turbulent magnetosheath, while a certain degree of correlation has been found in the numerical simulations and during a magnetopause crossing by MMS. This work could help shed light on the influence of electrostatic waves on the distortion of the ion VDFs in space turbulent plasmas.
Norovirus (NoV) infections occur very frequently yet are rarely diagnosed. In Denmark, NoV infections are not under surveillance. We aimed to collect and describe existing laboratory-based NoV data. National NoV laboratory data were collected for 2011–2018, including information on patient identification number, age and sex, requesting physician, analysis date and result. We defined positive patient-episodes by using a 30-day time window and performed descriptive and time series analysis. Diagnostic methods used were assessed through a survey. We identified 15 809 patient-episodes (11%) out of 142 648 tested patients with an increasing trend, 9366 in 2011 vs. 32 260 in 2018. This corresponded with a gradual introduction of polymerase chain reaction analysis in laboratories. The highest positivity rate was in patients aged <5 years (15%) or >85 years (17%). There was a large difference in test performance over five Danish geographical regions and a marked seasonal variation with peaks from December to February. This is the first analysis of national NoV laboratory data in Denmark. A future laboratory-based surveillance system may benefit public health measures by describing trend, burden and severity of seasons and possibly pinpoint hospital outbreaks.
New cryogenic characterization techniques for exploring the nanoscale structure and chemistry of intact solid–liquid interfaces have recently been developed. These techniques provide high-resolution information about buried interfaces from large samples or devices that cannot be obtained by other means. These advancements were enabled by the development of instrumentation for cryogenic focused ion beam liftout, which allows intact solid–liquid interfaces to be extracted from large samples and thinned to electron-transparent thicknesses for characterization by cryogenic scanning transmission electron microscopy or atom probe tomography. Future implementation of these techniques will complement current strides in imaging of materials in fluid environments by in situ liquid-phase electron microscopy, providing a more complete understanding of the morphology, surface chemistry, and dynamic processes that occur at solid–liquid interfaces.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
In 2013, the national surveillance case definition for West Nile virus (WNV) disease was revised to remove fever as a criterion for neuroinvasive disease and require at most subjective fever for non-neuroinvasive disease. The aims of this project were to determine how often afebrile WNV disease occurs and assess differences among patients with and without fever. We included cases with laboratory evidence of WNV disease reported from four states in 2014. We compared demographics, clinical symptoms and laboratory evidence for patients with and without fever and stratified the analysis by neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive presentations. Among 956 included patients, 39 (4%) had no fever; this proportion was similar among patients with and without neuroinvasive disease symptoms. For neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive patients, there were no differences in age, sex, or laboratory evidence between febrile and afebrile patients, but hospitalisations were more common among patients with fever (P < 0.01). The only significant difference in symptoms was for ataxia, which was more common in neuroinvasive patients without fever (P = 0.04). Only 5% of non-neuroinvasive patients did not meet the WNV case definition due to lack of fever. The evidence presented here supports the changes made to the national case definition in 2013.
Innovation Concept: Transition to independent practice is challenging and early career physicians are more prone to burnout and error. Despite recommendations for formal mentorship to support physicians, only 43.6% of US academic Emergency Medicine departments have such programs. We describe an innovative mentorship program designed to support these early career physicians and enhance quality of care, career longevity, and wellness. We operationalized mentorship in which experienced, highly regarded, empathic mentors guide mentees in their personal and professional development. Methods: In this program two Emergency Physician mentors were teamed with each newly hired Emergency Physician. Mentees could request their own mentors, and teams were matched on the basis of shared personal and academic interests. Mentors received academic funding and training on good mentorship practice, roles and responsibilities, and feedback. Teams had to meet formally at least twice a year, with additional contact as needed. While mentees set the meeting agenda, teams were also encouraged to address four main areas. These areas were identified from a targeted needs assessment and literature review. They include: 1) clinical process and care, 2) departmental structure and culture, 3) teaching and scholarship, and 4) physician wellness. After meetings, mentees summarized and submitted the topics discussed and reflected on action plans. An oversight committee supported the program. Curriculum, Tool or Material: All nine (9) newly hired physicians joined the program in Fall 2018. As of December 2018, six (6) teams have had formal meetings. They discussed the following areas: clinical processes and care (50%), departmental structure and culture (100%), teaching and scholarship (67%), and physician wellness (100%). Other areas discussed include: academic career, financial planning, and networking. Teams spent 20-60% of the time formulating steps to achieve mentee career goals. They spent 40-60% of the time discussing skills and resources needed. End of year program evaluation will include outcomes such as satisfaction, value, effectiveness, projects, promotions, and awards. The results will shape future program design. Conclusion: We implemented a mentorship program for newly hired Emergency Physicians. As mentorship is integral to successful transition to independent practice, this program model could be highly beneficial to other academic Emergency Medicine departments.
Background: Patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with unmet palliative care needs are often admitted to hospital and this can be a pivotal point in their subsequent health care journey. Literature from the United States supports the integration of palliative care resources in the ED and to our knowledge, this has yet to be done in a Canadian setting. Aim Statement: To develop, implement, and evaluate a model to support patients presenting to the ED with unmet palliative care needs. Measures & Design: A pilot project was implemented in one campus of the ED at a tertiary care academic center in Ottawa, Ontario. A palliative care nurse specialist was available for consultation with goals to: a) reduce admission to hospital for patients choosing to have a palliative approach to their care; b) increase coordination between ED and community resources; and c) be a resource for ED staff. Referral criteria were developed after systematic review of the literature and in consultation with palliative and emergency medicine experts. Evaluation/Results: Over the course of the study period (9 months), 50 referrals were made. The primary reason for referral was for increased community supports. Patient outcomes: 10 patients were discharged to hospice/palliative care units from the ED, 38 patients were discharged home. Of those discharged home, 66% had no returns to ED within 30 days. Qualitative feedback collected via pre and post survey has been extremely supportive from ED health care practitioners and community palliative care providers. Discussion/Impact: This ongoing project has led to positive, patient centered outcomes and decreased admission to acute care hospital. Ongoing evaluation will include consideration of Ontario Palliative Care Network quality indicators and cost-analysis to determine impact on health care system.
Introduction: When a patient is incapable of making medical decisions for themselves, choices are made according to the patient's previously expressed, wishes, values, and beliefs by a substitute decision maker (SDM). While interventions to engage patients in their own advance care planning exist, little is known about public readiness to act as a SDM on behalf of a loved one. This mixed-methods survey aimed to describe attitudes, enablers and barriers to preparedness to act as a SDM, and support for a population-level curriculum on the role of an SDM in end-of-life and resuscitative care. Methods: From November 2017 to June 2018, a mixed-methods street intercept survey was conducted in Ottawa, Canada. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used to assess predictors of preparedness to be a SDM and understand support for a high school curriculum. Responses to open-ended questions were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results: The 430 respondents were mostly female (56.5%) with an average age of 33.9. Although 73.0% of respondents felt prepared to be a SDM, 41.0% of those who reported preparedness never had a meaningful conversation with loved ones about their wishes in critical illness. The only predictors of SDM preparedness were the belief that one would be a future SDM (OR 2.36 95% CI 1.34-4.17), and age 50-64 compared to age 16-17 (OR 7.46 95% CI 1.25-44.51). Thematic enablers of preparedness included an understanding of a patient's wishes, the role of the SDM and strong familial relationships. Barriers included cultural norms, family conflict, and a need for time for high stakes decisions. Most respondents (71.9%) believed that 16 year olds should learn about SDMs. They noted age appropriateness, potential developmental and societal benefit, and improved decision making, while cautioning the need for a nuanced approach respectful of different maturity levels, cultures and individual experiences. Conclusion: This study reveals a concerning gap between perceived preparedness and actions taken in preparation to be an SDM for loved ones suffering critical illness. The results also highlight the potential role for high school education to address this gap. Future studies should further explore the themes identified to inform development of resources and curricula for improved health literacy in resuscitation and end-of-life care.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.