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In this work, a new method to determine and correct the linear drift for any crystalline orientation in a single-column-resolved high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR-STEM) image, which is based on angle measurements in the Fourier space, is presented. This proposal supposes a generalization and the improvement of a previous work that needs the presence of two symmetrical planes in the crystalline orientation to be applicable. Now, a mathematical derivation of the drift effect on two families of asymmetric planes in the reciprocal space is inferred. However, though it was not possible to find an analytical solution for all conditions, a simple formula was derived to calculate the drift effect that is exact for three specific rotation angles. Taking this into account, an iterative algorithm based on successive rotation/drift correction steps is devised to remove drift distortions in HR-STEM images. The procedure has been evaluated using a simulated micrograph of a monoclinic material in an orientation where all the reciprocal lattice vectors are different. The algorithm only needs four iterations to resolve a 15° drift angle in the image.
To assess trends in consumption of soda, sweetened fruit drinks/sports drinks and any sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) from 2013 to 2016 among all children in California aged 2–5 and 6–11 years and by racial-ethnic group.
Serial cross-sectional study using the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS).
CHIS is a telephone survey of households in California designed to assess population-level estimates of key health behaviours. Previous research using CHIS documented a decrease in SSB consumption among children in California from 2003 to 2009 coinciding with state-level policy efforts targeting child SSB consumption.
Parents of children in California aged 2–11 years (n 4901 in 2013–2014; n 3606 in 2015–2016) were surveyed about the child’s consumption of soda and sweetened fruit drinks/sports drinks on the day prior.
Among 2–5-year-olds, consumption of soda, sweetened fruit drinks/sports drinks and any SSB remained stable. Sweetened fruit drink/sports drink consumption was higher than soda consumption in this age group. Latino 2–5- year-olds were more likely to consume any SSB in both 2013–2014 and 2015–2016 compared with Whites. Among 6–11-year-olds, consumption of soda, sweetened fruit drinks/sports drinks and any SSB also remained stable over time. Latino and African-American 6–11-year-olds were more likely to consume an SSB in 2013–2014 compared with White children.
SSB consumption among children in California was unchanged from 2013 to 2016 and racial-ethnic disparities were evident. Increased policy efforts are needed to further reduce SSB consumption, particularly among children of Latino and African-American backgrounds.
According to the stress inoculation hypothesis, successfully navigating life stressors may improve one's ability to cope with subsequent stressors, thereby increasing psychiatric resilience.
Among individuals with no baseline history of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or major depressive disorder (MDD), to determine whether a history of a stressful life event protected participants against the development of PTSD and/or MDD after a natural disaster.
Analyses utilised data from a multiwave, prospective cohort study of adult Chilean primary care attendees (years 2003–2011; n = 1160). At baseline, participants completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), a comprehensive psychiatric diagnostic instrument, and the List of Threatening Experiences, a 12-item questionnaire that measures major stressful life events. During the study (2010), the sixth most powerful earthquake on record struck Chile. One year later (2011), the CIDI was re-administered to assess post-disaster PTSD and/or MDD.
Marginal structural logistic regressions indicated that for every one-unit increase in the number of pre-disaster stressors, the odds of developing post-disaster PTSD or MDD increased (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.08–1.37, and OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.06–1.27 respectively). When categorising pre-disaster stressors, individuals with four or more stressors (compared with no stressors) had higher odds of developing post-disaster PTSD (OR = 2.77, 95% CI 1.52–5.04), and a dose–response relationship between pre-disaster stressors and post-disaster MDD was found.
In contrast to the stress inoculation hypothesis, results indicated that experiencing multiple stressors increased the vulnerability to developing PTSD and/or MDD after a natural disaster. Increased knowledge regarding the individual variations of these disorders is essential to inform targeted mental health interventions after a natural disaster, especially in under-studied populations.
The purpose of this study is to investigate if the MDA plasma concentrations are correlated to negative psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenic inpatients.
The sample was comprised by 38 patients who were admitted in the psychiatric ward of the University Hospital of the Canaries. Thirty eight patients were male and 9 were female with medium average age of 37.41±11.23. Exclusion criteria were psychoactive substance use, presence of acute or chronic organic pathology, treatment with immunosuppressive medication, pregnancy and mental retardation or severe cognitive impairment. There were performed two blood extractions following the circadian rhythm, at 12:00 and at 24:00 hours. One hour before night blood collection, each patient was placed in a reclined position in bed, with the eyes closed, in complete darkness and with eyes covered with a mask. Blood was centrifuged at 3.000 rpm for 10 minutes. Specific biological and psychopathological determinations were performed at admission and at discharge. Psychopathology was assessed with PANSS and by the same psychiatrist. Statistical analyses were carried out with the Social Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). MDA was determined spectrophotometrically.
MDA level at night was 1.94±1.54 while MDA level at midday was 2.23±1.36.Mean PANSS negative score was 15.73±6.31.Serum MDA level correlated positively with PANSS negative scores, both at midday and night (midday r=0.39, p< 0.01, midnight r=0.41, p< 0.01).
The total negative subscale score correlated positively with day and night time levels of MDA, therefore we can conclude that MDA may be used as a marker of negative psychopathology.
“Rite of passage” is an etnographic concept developed by VanGennep that defines the vital transition of an individual between two different status. It is divided in three stages: separation, liminal/threshold and aggregation. Turner described the liminal phase, and the terms of “communitas” and “liminoid” (structure of a rite without religious/spiritual elements). One widely-known Rite of Passage is the initiation of the shamans.
Study the elements of a rite of passage present in Psychiatric Trainning.
• Field study (observational, descriptive, non-experimental).
• Preliminary Sample=10trainees (5man+5women); last year of Psychiatric Trainning.
• “ad hoc” semi-structured interview (21items subdivided in open questions). 10interviews (average duration=75mins). Permanent register:digital recorder.
• Summary and analysis of the answers. Review of the literature.
- Psychiatric Trainning shared the elements and tri-phasic structure of VanGennep's “rite of passage” concept
- Trainees saw themselves as more empathic(7/10) and humanistic(8/10) than other specialties colleagues. Stigma towards mental illness(8/10) and fear of suicide(9/10) were also considered as their distinctives.
- The collective behaved as a communitas(10/10)
- No spiritual elements(0/10): liminoid process
- Resemblances of the ancestral shamans' Initiation: Despite bloody practices were over, suffering was also present(7/10), but was seen as necessary(6/10) and well tolerated(7/10).
- Trainees felt that they grew spiritual and mentally(7/10) during the trainning years
Results suggest that Psychiatric Trainning has stable phenomena that:
• are compatible with the Rite of Passage schema
• Are considered exclusive of Psychiatry by trainees
• Have not been systematically studied as a whole, which could help to improve the training.
We present the case of a schizophrenic patient with severe insomnia that had a partial response to high doses of benzodiazepines and sedating antipsychotics. Treatment with agomelatine allowed to suspend benzodiazepine treatment and restore quality of sleep.
Mr. Y is a 36 year old male patient diagnosed with simple schizophrenia that has complained of insomnia since the age of sixteen. During the last three years the treatment that the patient was following was stable and consisted of 100 mg of diazepam, 300 mg of levomepromazine and 120 mg of clotiapine every night. During the last year 60 mg of duloxetine were added to treat a moderate depression. His mood improved with the prescribed treatment, but eleven months later it worsened. In an attempt to simultaneously treat the mood and the sleep disorder, during a period of 4 days, a dosis of 12.5 mg of aglomelatin at dinner was introduced while the morning dose of duloxetine was reduced to 30mg. On the fifth day, agomelatine was increased to 25 mg at dinner while duloxetine was suspended. The antipsychotic treatment was kept stable while the patient was instructed to reduce 10 mg of diazepam every week until next appointment one month later. In the next appointment the patient had completely suspended diazepam one week before the appointment. The patient referred improved sleep quality and no rebound insomnia.
Agomelatine may be a valid treatment of insomnia in schizophrenia.
• To describe personality characteristics in personality disorders (PDs) patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) comorbidity.
• Data on demographic, family, and clinical factors were gathered among subjects admitted to our dual diagnosis unit who met DSM-IV criteria for PDs and had comorbidity with SUDs.
• To explore the psychometric characteristics we used the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R).
• Overall, 32 subjects were assessed (72% males; mean age 38,4±7,3). Mean length of admission was 17,6 ± 7,5 days. Suicide attempt/ideation (50%) and behaviour disruption (19%) were main symptoms at admittance. Main drugs were alcohol (59,4%) and cocaine (15,6%); 24% had polydrug dependence (3 or more SUDs).
• TCI results showed a profile characterized by low self-directness (78,1%), low cooperativeness (46,9%) and high novelty seeking (31,3%).
• Sedative SUDs group (including alcohol, cannabis, and benzodiacepines SUDs) showed higher scores in asthenia (70,6 ± 2 vs. 57,52 ± 3,2; p=0,002), and locus of control (44,8 ± 4,1 vs. 31,4 ± 32,6; p=0,039) than stimulant SUDs group (including cocaine and amphetamine-like SUDs).
• Polydrug dependence group had higher scores in spiritual acceptance (63,6 ± 4,2 vs. 49,9 ± 2; p=0,003).
• The older group (38 thru highest) had higher scores in cooperativeness (44,8 ±3,2 vs. 35,7 ± 3,1; p=0,05) and compassion (47,9 ± 3,7 vs. 36,2 ± 3,8; p=0,03).
• We found a profile characterized by low scores in self-directness and cooperativeness as seen in previous surveys.
• The older patients seems attenuate some maladaptative personality characteristics.
Most of the studies about Eating Disorders in adolescents have been typically focused on females, only to conclude that the approach should be similar in males. It has been stimated that 5-10% of patients with Anorexia Nervosa are males. Later age of onset and higher prevalence of premorbid overweight are considered among the main differences with female patients.
Analysis of the anthropometric variables of a sample of males with diagnosis of Restrictive Eating Disorder.
Naturalistic, Descriptive and Retrospective study
- Sample: 22 male adolescents
- Inclusion criteria: males with Restrictive Eating Disorder diagnosis (according to DSM-IV criteria) admitted to an Eating Disorder ward during 2007 and 2008
- “ad hoc” questionnaire (15 items)
- Analysis: PASW statistics 18
Age range: 7-14years (medium age=14,79±2,50years).11 patients (50%) were older than 16 years-old
- Medium BMI (Body Mass Index) at the beginning of the admission was 17,79kg/m2.
medium weight loss: 13,5±7,02kg/m2 (corresponding to a reduction of 22,24±7,52% of the previous weight)
- Medium speed of weight loss: 0,92±1,1kg/54
- BMI at discharge: 18,69 ±3,43 kg/m2
- 19/22 patients (86%) had a premorbid history of overweight
- Binge eating: 8 patients (36,4%)
- Purgative behaviour: 10 patients (45%)
- Laxatives use: 4 patients (18%)
- Intense physical exercise: 21 patients (95,5%)
- Average duration of current restrictive episode: 13,7 months
In the studied sample we observed:
- High prevalence of premobid overweight
- Very high frequency of compulsive exercise
- Drastic weight loss and loss of a very high percentage of the previous weight, in short periods of time, reaching very low BMI.
Stress and trauma have been reported as leading contributing factors in schizophrenia. And certainly child abuse (neglect, emotional, physical and sexual abuse among others) has a lasting negative impact, which is well established in literature.
To consider the presence of infant trauma and its relationship with psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenics.Methods. 37 patients (mean age 29±6.3; years from onset 9.20±4.7), meeting DSM IV paranoid schizophrenia criteria, undergoing treatment in a university hospital are studied. The PANSS is administered in order to rate psychopathology.
27 patients had infant trauma (55.8%). Main traumas are: sexual abuse (12.8%), child abuse (7.7%), both sexual and child abuse (5.18%), parental separation (7.7%), extra-rigid parents (2.6%), alcoholic parents (18.2%), child abuse and mother's death in childhood (2.6%). Infant trauma and psychopathology showed a significant relationship concerning Hostility (No 1.75±1.209, Yes 2.26±1.759), Unnatural Movements and Posture (No 1.55±0.945, Yes 1.16±0.545), Depression (No 1.25±0.550, Yes 1.74±1.284) and Preoccupation (No 2.75±1.410, Yes 3.26±1.996).
Infant trauma is common in paranoid schizophrenia and our findings give some evidence to a relationship with psychopathology, especially with dimensions as Hostility, Unnatural Movements and Posture, Depression and Preoccupation. Despite sample size, a high proportion (55.8%) of the patients presented infant trauma and future research is needed in order to open new avenues in this field, particularly studies concerning infant trauma and symptomatology specificity will be greatly appreciated as well as the plausible link to personality traits and personality disorders.
Serotonin Syndrome (SS) is an adverse drug reaction that drives mental-status changes, autonomic hyperactivity and neuromuscular abnormalities.
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) is an idiopathic reaction to dopamine-antagonist that consists of extra-pyramidal symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, hyperthermia, diaphoresis and fluctuating consciousness.
Differential diagnosis is sometimes difficult for their overlapping clinical features. Potentially lethal, both require heightened clinical awareness for prevention, recognition and prompt treatment.
Caucasian 59 years-old woman with Catatonic profile (Scored: severity-17points/ 5 screening in Bush-Francis Catatonia-Rating-Scale).
Past Medical History
- Bipolar Disorder type-2 (25 years of evolution)
15 days before hospitalization, anafranil and fluoxetine treatment was replaced by Trazodone 200 mg/day and venlafaxine 150mg/day. She was also on valpromida and lorazepam 15 mg/day.
Mutism, negativism. No reaction to painful stimuli, stuporous. Diaphoresis, pallor, tremor, axial rigidity without pyramidalism (>lower limbs), high fever (40°C), tachycardia (>100lpm), rhabdomyolysis (CPK reached 17.000, 48 hours after the admission), leukocytosis, upper transaminasas, hiponatremia with hiperpotasemia.
-NMS: Intensity, duration and high CPK are suggestive (Sternbach). This syndrome has been described due to Venlafaxine.
-SS: Combination of Venlafaxine and Trazodone favors but she doesn't have acatisia, hiperreflexia, diarrhea and it wasn't resolved after 96 hours.
Drugs were removed and Lorazepam on high doses (5mg/day) was prescribed. One month later the patient was totally recovered of the episode.
If unsure diagnoses it's priority to remove the causing drugs and supportive care. Afterwards, it can be used benzodiacepines, also dantroleno in SNM.
Schizophrenia is a chronic disease. Several etiopathogenic aetiologies have been posed, among them the existence of cerebral inflammation. S100B is a calcium-binding protein, mainly produced and secreted by astrocytes, that mediates the interaction among glial cells and between glial cells and neurons. Serum S100B levels have been proposed as a peripheral marker of brain inflammation.
The aim of this research is to study if the serum level of the protein S100B has relationship with positive psychopathology.
31 paranoid schizophrenic inpatients (22 male and 9 female, 36.7±10.3 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria participated in the study. Blood was sampled by venipuncture at 12:00 and 24:00 hours. Blood extractions were carried out during the first 48 hours after hospital admission. Psychopathology was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Serum S100B levels were measured by sandwich ELISA techniques.
Correlations between serum levels of S100B protein and PANSS positive scores are shown in the following table. The first figure corresponds to the Pearson's correlation coefficient, while the figure in brackets corresponds to its statistical significance.
Total Positive Score
Serum levels of S100B protein may be used as a biological marker of positive psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenia.Acknowledgement
To evaluate the influence of cannabis in the long-term follow-up in patients with a first psychotic episode, comparing those who have never used cannabis with (a) those who used cannabis before the first psychotic episode but stopped it during the follow-up, and (b) those who used cannabis both before and after the first psychotic episode.
Patients were followed from the first psychotic admission. They were assessed at 1, 3 and 5 years obtaining information about functional outcome, positive and negative symptoms. At 8th year functional outcome was evaluated. Patients were classified in 3 groups: 40 that never used cannabis (NU), 27 that used cannabis and stopped during follow-up (CUS), and 25 that had continued use during follow-up (CU).
At baseline, there were differences neither in functional outcome nor in negative symptoms. The CUS group improved the functional outcome during the follow-up (p< 0.001), while CU and NU groups did not show any significant results (p= 0.466 and p= 0.370 respectively). CUS group had also a significant decreasing trend in negative symptoms (p= 0.012), whereas for the other two groups no significant results were observed (p= 0.069 and p= 0.226 respectively). All groups improved in positive symptoms during follow-up.
Although cannabis use has deleterious effect, to stop it after the first psychotic episode produces a clearly improvement in the long-term follow-up.
Two studies to date have been published regarding the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in bipolar patients. The unadjusted prevalence rates reported were 30% and 32%. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a group of 142 bipolar patients from Spain.
Bipolar patients (ICD-10 criteria) from 11 centres in Spain were assessed cross-sectionally for metabolic syndrome according to the NCEP ATP III criteria.
The mean age was 47.3 (SD 14.5), 51.1% were male. On average, patients were receiving 2.8 (SD 1.3) drugs for the treatment of their bipolar disorder. Ninety-one percent were receiving mood stabilizers, 63.4% antipsychotics and 29.6 antidepressants. Eighty-seven percent of the antipsychotics prescribed were atypicals. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our sample was 24.6% Fifty-seven percent of the sample met the criterion for abdominal obesity, 37.4% for met the criterion for hypertriglyceridemia, 36.4% for low HDL-cholesterol, 25.2% for high blood pressure and 12.5% for high fasting glucose. No statistically significant difference was found between with and without the metabolic syndrome for gender, illness status (acute versus in remission), CGI-S-BP scores and number of medications used. Patients taking tow mood stabilizers had significantly higher metabolic syndrome rates than patients taking one mood stabilizer and than patients without mood stabilizer treatment (40% versus 17.8% and 11.1% respectively, p .02).
The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in bipolar patients is high. It appears to be higher than that estimated for the Spanish general population.
Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis is subacute disorder that has been recently described in young women and girls who often present neuropsychiatric symptoms as first clinical features; thus, it is common that they receive an initial assessment, diagnose or even treatment by a specialist in Psychiatry.
Presenting a case of Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis that was observed at our hospital and the steps taken from its initial assessment by Psychiatry to the final diagnose and treatment by Neurology, our objective is to describe this disorder in order to make it known to the specialists in Psychiatry.
The case is that of a 14 year old girl who presents altered behavior, bizarre delusions and auditory hallucinations with subacute onset. In psychiatric assessment it is noted that the patient presents fever, slight and language impairment: Medical and Neurological assessment are requested. The steps followed to rule out other disorders are presented. SPECT and the detection of specific anti-NMDA-receptor antibodies in serum were necessary for an accurate diagnose.
The detection of specific antibodies is necessary for the diagnose of Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis. NMDA receptors are ligand-gated cation channels with crucial roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Their alteration could be a pathogenic mechanism in disorders such as epilepsy, dementia and schizophrenia.
Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis is a recently described clinical entity that should be taken in consideration to rule out other causes of subacute onset psychiatric symptoms in young women and girls. Its well-defined set of clinical characteristics should become familiar to the specialists in Psychiatry.
Explore the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts in women with bulimia nervosa (BN), and compare eating disorder symptoms, general psychopathology, impulsivity, personality, and genetic variants in four candidate genes of the serotonin pathway: the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), serotonin receptors 1A (HTR1A) and 2A (HTR2A) and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) between individuals who had and had not attempted suicide. Determine the best predictors of suicide attempts.
Lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts was 26.9% CI 95%: 23.2 to 30.5). BN subtype was not associated with lifetime suicide attempts (p=0.36). Compared to non-attempters, attempters exhibited higher unemployment, eating disorder symptomatology, general psychopathology, previous eating disorder treatment, impulsive behaviors, and lower educational level (p<0.004). In relation to personality traits, suicide attempters exhibited significantly (p<0.002) higher Harm Avoidance and lower Self-directedness, Reward Dependence and Cooperativeness. No significant differences in any of the genetic variants between attempters and non-attempters. The best predictors of suicide attempts were (p<0.006): lower education, minimum BMI, previous eating disorder treatment, family history of alcoholism and self-directedness.
Suicidality in BN patients appears to be within the range previously found. Our results support that internalizing personality traits combined with impulsivity may increase the probability of engaging in suicidal behaviors in these patients. Our data do not support the hypothesis that variants of SLC6A4, HTR1A, HTR2A or TPH1 are associated with suicide attempts in BN individuals.
The main aim of this study was to analyze the association between a set of neurobiological/clinical factors and impulsivity in patients suffering from bulimia nervosa, as well as the capability of this factors to predict the severity of impulsivity.
The Impulsive Behaviors Scale (IBS), the Diagnostic Interview for Bordeline Patients - Revised (DIB-R), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory (MMCI-II) and the Family Environment Scale (FES) were applied to 70 female patients with DSM-IV BN (purging subtype). Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of norepinephrine (NE), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxi-indol-acetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine (DA), homovallinic acid (HVA), and morning serum cortisol levels before and after the administration of 1 mg of dexamethasone were determined.
Impulsivity was associated to lower levels of urinary 5-HT and 5-HIAA, borderline features, and lower family expressed emotion.
The consideration of impulsivity as a core clinical feature in patients with bulimia nervosa could lead us to identify clinical subtypes of patients, with specific clinical profiles and specific treatment needs.
In a previous study (Senín-Calderón et al., 2010) we observed that the REF scale of referential thinking (Lenzenweger et al., 1997) didn’t discriminate among different mental disorders.
Objectives and hypotheses
We try to verify if self-references in various disorders are related to the severity of psychopathology (patients from public hospital and a private clinical). We predict that there will be differences between patients and controls, but not between the clinical samples. Psychotic disorders will be characterized by a significantly greater presence of self-references.
Participants: 287 subjects, 47 patients from a private clinical center, 57.4% women (mean age = 35.02, SD = 12.69), 30 patients from a public hospital, 53.3% women (38.36 years, SD = 9.53), and 210 controls selected from the general population, 50.5% women (33.80 years, SD = 11.79). Cross-sectional design, correlation method. All analysis were accepted at p < .05.
There are significant differences in self-references between patients and controls in frequency (t (285) = 2.33, p = . 021) and intensity (t (83.98) = 3.59, p = . 001). No significant differences between patients groups (p>.05) (REF-intensity without homogeneity, p < .05). No significant differences in self-references between types of diagnoses except psychotic patients versus adjustment disorder (frequency and intensity).
Self-references are highlighted in psychosis but, with the exception of adjustment disorders, doesn’t discriminate between personality, mood or anxiety disorders. Differences are more related to the clinical severity (BPRS) than with referential thinking.
Fifty-six schizophrenic patients at the moment of their suicidal attempt were compared to a control group of 60 patients. Schizophrenic suicidal attempters showed an identifiable clinical profile at the acute phase. Two main groups could be differentiated in regard to their reasons (depressive or psychotic) for attempting suicide.
Interest in the premorbid personality of schizophrenic patients is well established in the psychiatric literature. The relationship between personality disorders and acute phase proteins (APP) in schizophrenia is not well known.
Investigating the relationship among acute phase proteins and personality disorders in schizophrenic patients in a sample of adult schizophrenic patients under psychiatric treatment in a general hospital health setting.
Material and Methods:
37 adult paranoid schizophrenics undergoing treatment in the University Hospital of the Canary Islands with DSM-IV diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia are included. Years from onset 9.20 s.d. 6.29, age at onset 19.75 s.d. 4.73. The record of personality disorders as a secondary diagnosis in the medical chart was taking into account. A blood sample as routine standard analysis was carried out in each patient.
In 21 patients (56.7%) a personality disorder, mainly with paranoid and schizotypal traits, was registered. The percentage of each personality disorder is as follows, Schizotypal (16.2%), Paranoid (13.5%), Schizoid (2.7%), Paranoid and Schizotypal (24.3%). The results point to no significant correlation according to APP (C3, C4, alpha2-macroglobulin, alpha1-glicoprotein, ceruloplasmin) in the different diagnostic groups.
Discussion and conclusions:
In our study there is no evidence to support a significant correlation among APP and the different personality disorders in our sample of schizophrenics in spite of a positive correlation of APP and some psychopathology dimensions that has been communicated earlier elsewhere. In order to set some possible specificity of acute phase proteins and other clinical features in schizophrenia further research is required.