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Sensory processing is the individual's ability to receive, process and integrate sensory information from the environment and body movement in the central nervous system, in order to produce adaptive responses. Sensory processing disorders (SPD) are associated to difficulties in regulating emotions and behaviours as well as motor abilities in response to sensory stimulation that lead to impairment in development and functioning. It is estimated that SPD affect 5–16% of school-aged children. Although these diseases constitute a primary diagnostic category in the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Development Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood: DC0-3, they have not yet been validated by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-DSM. In the latest edition of DSM, SPD were only included as one of the diagnostic criteria of autism-spectrum disorders. However, several studies have suggested that SPD may present themselves solely or coexist with other clinical conditions.
The aim of this study was to review systematically the relationship between SPD and psychopathology.
Articles indexed in the Pubmed database were analyzed.
Although sensory processing problems are well known to occur in association with autism, their relationship with other mental disorders is not a well studied area. Some studies have related them with ADHD, behavioural disorders and learning disorders. Some studies also comproved that SPD are a valid diagnosis and that there are individuals with SPD who do not meet the criteria for other known disorder. One study found an abnormal white matter microstructure in children with SPD. Despite these findings SPD need to be further studied.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This chapter investigates the existence of the bank-lending channel in the transmission of monetary policy using Portuguese micro bank data. In contrast to the conventional approach, which addresses the identification issue by resorting to reduced form equations for bank credit with variables in differences, we directly estimate loan-supply schedules with variables in levels, thereby exploiting recent results on cointegration for panel data.
The main conclusion is that there is a banking lending channel in the transmission of monetary policy in the Portuguese economy and that the importance of this channel is larger for the less capitalised banks. Size and liquidity do not appear to be relevant bank characteristics in determining the importance of the lending channel.
The remainder of the chapter is organised as follows. Section 2 briefly characterises the main changes undergone by the Portuguese banking sector during the 1980s and 1990s. Section 3 describes the new approach aimed at identifying and estimating the importance of the bank-lending channel. Section 4 reports the empirical results for Portugal and section 5 summarises the main conclusions.
Monetary policy and banking sector developments in Portugal during the 1990s
Since the early 1980s the Portuguese financial system underwent a fundamental liberalisation process beginning with the opening up of the banking sector to private initiative in 1983. In this period the first steps towards the elimination of the administrative controls on interest rates and credit growth were also taken.
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