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The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
Accurate modelling of the interaction between fast electrons and partially ionized atoms is important for evaluating tokamak disruption mitigation schemes based on material injection. This requires accounting for the effect of screening of the impurity nuclei by the cloud of bound electrons. In this paper, we generalize the Fokker–Planck operator in a fully ionized plasma by accounting for the effect of screening. We detail the derivation of this generalized operator, and calculate the effective ion length scales, needed in the components of the collision operator, for a number of ion species commonly appearing in fusion experiments. We show that for high electric fields, the secondary runaway growth rate can be substantially larger than in a fully ionized plasma with the same effective charge, although the growth rate is significantly reduced at near-critical electric fields. Furthermore, by comparison with the Boltzmann collision operator, we show that the Fokker–Planck formalism is accurate even for large impurity content.
Self-similar solutions to the compressible Euler equations with nonlinear conduction are considered as particular instances of unsteady radiative deflagration – or ‘ablation’ – waves with the goal of characterizing the actual hydrodynamic properties that such flows may present. The chosen family of solutions, corresponding to the ablation of an initially quiescent perfectly cold and homogeneous semi-infinite slab of inviscid compressible gas under the action of increasing external pressures and radiation fluxes, is well suited to the description of the early ablation of a target by gas-filled cavity X-rays in experiments of high energy density physics. These solutions are presently computed by means of a highly accurate numerical method for the radiative conduction model of a fully ionized plasma under the approximation of a non-isothermal leading shock wave. The resulting set of solutions is unique for its high fidelity description of the flows down to their finest scales and its extensive exploration of external pressure and radiative flux ranges. Two different dimensionless formulations of the equations of motion are put forth, yielding two classifications of these solutions which are used for carrying out a quantitative hydrodynamic analysis of the corresponding flows. Based on the main flow characteristic lengths and on standard characteristic numbers (Mach, Péclet, stratification and Froude numbers), this analysis points out the compressibility and inhomogeneity of the present ablative waves. This compressibility is further analysed to be too high, whether in terms of flow speed or stratification, for the low Mach number approximation, often used in hydrodynamic stability analyses of ablation fronts in inertial confinement fusion (ICF), to be relevant for describing these waves, and more specifically those with fast expansions which are of interest in ICF. Temperature stratification is also shown to induce, through the nonlinear conductivity, supersonic upstream propagation of heat-flux waves, besides a modified propagation of quasi-isothermal acoustic waves, in the flow conduction regions. This description significantly departs from the commonly admitted depiction of a quasi-isothermal conduction region where wave propagation is exclusively ascribed to isothermal acoustics and temperature fluctuations are only diffused.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To build a multisite de-identified database of female adolescents, aged 12–21 years (January 2011–December 2012), and their subsequent offspring through 24 months of age from electronic health records (EHRs) provided by participating Community Health. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We created a community-academic partnership that included New York City Community Health Centers (n=4) and Hospitals (n=4), The Rockefeller University, The Sackler Institute for Nutrition Science and Clinical Directors Network (CDN). We used the Community-Engaged Research Navigation model to establish a multisite de-identified database extracted from EHRs of female adolescents aged 12–21 years (January 2011–December 2012) and their offspring through 24 months of age. These patients received their primary care between 2011 and 2015. Clinical data were used to explore possible associations among specific measures. We focused on the preconception, prenatal, postnatal periods, including pediatric visits up to 24 months of age. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The analysis included all female adolescents (n=122,556) and a subset of pregnant adolescents with offspring data available (n=2917). Patients were mostly from the Bronx; 43% of all adolescent females were overweight (22%) or obese (21%) and showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose levels, hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, and triglycerides levels compared with normal-weight adolescent females (p<0.05). This analysis was also performed looking at the nonpregnant females and the pregnant females separately. Overall, the pregnant females were older (mean age=18.3) compared with the nonpregnant females (mean age=16.5), there was a higher percentage of Hispanics among the pregnant females (58%) compared with the nonpregnant females (43.9%). There was a statistically significant association between the BMI status of mothers and infants’ birth weight, with underweight/normal-weight mothers having more low birth weight (LBW) babies and overweight/obese mothers having more large babies. The odds of having a LBW baby was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.89) lower in obese compared with normal-weight adolescent mothers. The risk of having a preterm birth before 37 weeks was found to be neutral in obese compared with normal-weight adolescent mothers (OR=0.81, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.25). Preliminary associations are similar to those reported in the published literature. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This EHR database uses available measures from routine clinical care as a “rapid assay” to explore potential associations, and may be more useful to detect the presence and direction of associations than the magnitude of effects. This partnership has engaged community clinicians, laboratory, and clinical investigators, and funders in study design and analysis, as demonstrated by the collaborative development and testing of hypotheses relevant to service delivery. Furthermore, this research and learning collaborative is examining strategies to enhance clinical workflow and data quality as well as underlying biological mechanisms. The feasibility of scaling-up these methods facilitates studying similar populations in different Health Systems, advancing point-of-care studies of natural history and comparative effectiveness research to identify service gaps, evaluate effective interventions, and enhance clinical and data quality improvement.
Measurements are reported of the target neutralization current, the target charge, and the tangential component of the magnetic field generated as a result of laser–target interaction by pulses with the energy in the range of 45–92 mJ on target and the pulse duration from 39 to 1000 fs. The experiment was performed at the Eclipse facility in CELIA, Bordeaux. The aim of the experiment was to extend investigations performed for the thick (mm scale) targets to the case of thin (μm thickness) targets in a way that would allow for a straightforward comparison of the results. We found that thin foil targets tend to generate 20–50% higher neutralization current and the target charge than the thick targets. The measurement of the tangential component of the magnetic field had shown that the initial spike is dominated by the 1 ns pulse consistent with the 1 ns pulse of the neutralization current, but there are some differences between targets of different types on sub-ns scale, which is an effect going beyond a simple picture of the target acting as an antenna. The sub-ns structure appears to be reproducible to surprising degree. We found that there is in general a linear correlation between the maximum value of the magnetic field and the maximum neutralization current, which supports the target-antenna picture, except for pulses 100s of fs long.
Ecoevolutionary processes affecting hosts, vectors and pathogens are important drivers of zoonotic disease emergence. In this study, we focused on nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) whose natural reservoir is the bank vole, Myodes glareolus. We questioned the possibility of NE emergence in a French region that is considered to be NE-free but that is adjacent to a NE-endemic region. We first confirmed the epidemiology of these two regions and we demonstrated the absence of spatial barriers that could have limited dispersal, and consequently, the spread of PUUV into the NE-free region. We next tested whether regional immunoheterogeneity could impact PUUV chances to circulate and persist in the NE-free region. We showed that bank voles from the NE-free region were sensitive to experimental PUUV infection. We observed high levels of immunoheterogeneity between individuals and also between regions. Antiviral gene expression (Tnf and Mx2) reached higher levels in bank voles from the NE-free region. During experimental infections, anti-PUUV antibody production was higher in bank voles from the NE-endemic region. These results indicated a lower susceptibility to PUUV for bank voles from this NE-free region, which might limit PUUV persistence and therefore, the risk of NE.
Previous research has shown relatively diminished medial prefrontal cortex activation and heightened psychophysiological responses during the recollection of personal events in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the origin of these abnormalities is unknown. Twin studies provide the opportunity to determine whether such abnormalities reflect familial vulnerabilities, result from trauma exposure, or are acquired characteristics of PTSD.
In this case–control twin study, 26 male identical twin pairs (12 PTSD; 14 non-PTSD) discordant for PTSD and combat exposure recalled and imagined trauma-unrelated stressful and neutral life events using a standard script-driven imagery paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging and concurrent skin conductance measurement.
Diminished activation in the medial prefrontal cortex during Stressful v. Neutral script-driven imagery was observed in the individuals with PTSD, relative to other groups.
Diminished medial prefrontal cortex activation during Stressful v. Neutral script-driven imagery may be an acquired characteristic of PTSD. If replicated, this finding could be used prospectively to inform diagnosis and the assessment of treatment response.
We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
The aim of this work was to study the effects of incorporating sugar beet pulp (SBP) into the diet on the development of the crop and performance of geese. A total of 480 1-day-old ganders were divided into three groups differing in the composition and mode of distribution of the diet offered from day 56 to 89. The following two diets were used: a standard diet (nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, AMEn 11.44 MJ/kg; 160 g/kg CP) or a diet containing 10% of SBP (SBP diet; AMEn 11.47 MJ/kg; 160 g/kg CP). The swelling capacity (SC) hydration was higher for SBP than for the standard diet (3.62 v. 2.72 ml of H2O/g of dry matter at 60 min; P<0.05). In the Control group, birds were fed with a controlled time of access to a standard diet. Other birds were fed the SBP diet with a controlled time of access (SBPt group) or a controlled quantity offered (SBPq). From day 90 to 104, 88 birds/group were overfed with a mixture containing mainly corn. Body traits including volume of the crop were measured at day 89. Fatty liver weight and commercial grading were measured at d 104. Feed intake from day 56 to 89 was higher in the Control group than in the SBPt group (8097 v. 7545 g; P<0.05), feed intake in the SBPq group being intermediate (7801 g); however, live weights (LW) of the birds were similar in the three groups measured at day 89 (5746 g; P>0.05). At day 89, the volume of the crop tended to be higher in the SBPt compared with the Control group (52.8 v. 48.8 ml/kg of LW; P=0.101). After overfeeding, feed intake (12 922 g), weight gain (2412 g), LW (8170 g), fatty liver weight (875 g) and commercial grading of the fatty liver were similar (P>0.1) for all the three groups. Therefore, SBP could help adapt the digestive tract of waterfowl to high feed intake through an increase in the crop volume, but its method of use – that is, level of incorporation and mode of distribution – should continue to be investigated.
The Magnetized Dusty Plasma Experiment (MDPX) device is a newly constructed research instrument for the study of dusty (complex) plasmas. The MDPX device is envisioned as an experimental platform in which the dynamical behavior of all three charged plasma components, the electrons, ions, and charged microparticles (i.e., the ‘dust’) will be significantly influenced by the magnetic force. This brief paper will provide a short overview of the design, magnetic performance, and initial plasma measurements in the MDPX device.
Improving health through better nutrition of the population may contribute to enhanced efficiency and sustainability of healthcare systems. A recent expert meeting investigated in detail a number of methodological aspects related to the discipline of nutrition economics. The role of nutrition in health maintenance and in the prevention of non-communicable diseases is now generally recognised. However, the main scope of those seeking to contain healthcare expenditures tends to focus on the management of existing chronic diseases. Identifying additional relevant dimensions to measure and the context of use will become increasingly important in selecting and developing outcome measurements for nutrition interventions. The translation of nutrition-related research data into public health guidance raises the challenging issue of carrying out more pragmatic trials in many areas where these would generate the most useful evidence for health policy decision-making. Nutrition exemplifies all the types of interventions and policy which need evaluating across the health field. There is a need to start actively engaging key stakeholders in order to collect data and to widen health technology assessment approaches for achieving a policy shift from evidence-based medicine to evidence-based decision-making in the field of nutrition.
The challenges associated with meeting 20nm technology requirements for better Cu CMP process uniformity and lower defectivity have been studied. Required improvements in uniformity were obtained through platen process optimization along with evaluation & selection of specific Cu slurries and pads and their performance reported. The principal factors influencing defect formation, including Cu barrier metallurgy, interconnect pattern density and process queue times were studied. Specific new post CMP clean chemistries were evaluated to assess their capability to suppress defect formation and their performance reported. The trade off between uniformity and defect suppression as a function slurry, pad and post Cu CMP clean chemistry is described.
In this work a new generation of periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) low-k dielectrics with targeted k-values 2.0 and 1.8 is evaluated. In addition, impact of two different curing processes on properties of the mesoporous material is analyzed. It is shown that removal of templating organics with thermal annealing leads to formation of mechanically robust and chemically very stable material, while application of UV-assisted curing with broadband lamp (λ > 200 nm) causes pronounced decrease of film ability to sustain in diluted HF solution. The explanation of that phenomenon is given in terms of silica-ring structures formed within organosilica skeleton.
The aim of this trial was to study the influence of feed form on the performance, gizzard development and carcass traits of growing geese. Between 42 and 98 days of age, 360 geese (type Maxipalm®) were fed a diet containing 500 g sorghum/kg (nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy 12.6 MJ/kg, 15.1 g/kg CP). Birds were divided into three groups differing in feed form: complete pellets (Control group, n = 120); a coarse-ground meal (CG group, n = 120); or a mixture containing protein-rich pellets and sorghum whole grains (M group, n = 120). Feed intake per pen (40 birds/pen) was measured weekly between 42 and 98 days of age, and individual live weight (LW) was measured every 2 weeks. At 84 and 98 days of age, 12 birds were slaughtered in each group to measure the gizzard development and body traits. Irrespective of the goose sex, LW at 98 days was lower for the CG group than for the Control group (5555 v. 5888 g, P < 0.05 for males and 5039 v. 5215 g, P < 0.05 for females). The feed intake over the entire period was 5.5% higher in the M group (P < 0.05) than in the Control and CG groups but the feed conversion ratio (6.91, P > 0.05) was similar in the three groups. The gizzard development (as % of LW) was higher in birds of the CG group than those of the Control and M groups at 84 days of age (+13.98% and +13.51%, respectively; P < 0.05) but was similar in all three groups at 98 days of age (4.01%, P > 0.05). The relative liver development was lower in the birds of the CG group than those of the other two groups at 84 and 98 days of age (−20%, P < 0.001 and −10%, P < 0.05, respectively). The other body traits were similar in the three groups at both 84 and 98 days of age. The present results suggest that a simplified diet presented in the form of a mixture of sorghum whole grains and protein-rich pellets did not reduce the performance of growing geese.