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Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
Red meat has been suggested to be adversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI), whereas vegetable consumption has been found to be protective. The aim of this study was to investigate substitutions of red meat, poultry and fish with vegetables or potatoes for MI prevention. We followed up 29 142 women and 26 029 men in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study aged 50–64 years with no known history of MI at baseline. Diet was assessed by a validated 192-item FFQ at baseline. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for MI associated with specified food substitutions of 150 g/week. During a median follow-up of 13·6 years, we identified 656 female and 1694 male cases. Among women, the HR for MI when replacing red meat with vegetables was 0·94 (95 % CI 0·90, 0·98). Replacing fatty fish with vegetables was associated with a higher risk of MI (HR 1·23; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·45), whereas an inverse, statistically non-significant association was found for lean fish (HR 0·93; 95 % CI 0·83, 1·05). Substituting poultry with vegetables was not associated with risk of MI (HR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·90, 1·11). Findings for substitution with potatoes were similar to findings for vegetables. Among men, a similar pattern was observed, but the associations were weak and mostly statistically non-significant. This study suggests that replacing red meat with vegetables or potatoes is associated with a lower risk of MI, whereas replacing fatty fish with vegetables or potatoes is associated with a higher risk of MI.
To characterize meal patterns across ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study.
Cross-sectional study utilizing dietary data collected through a standardized 24 h diet recall during 1995–2000. Eleven predefined intake occasions across a 24 h period were assessed during the interview. In the present descriptive report, meal patterns were analysed in terms of daily number of intake occasions, the proportion reporting each intake occasion and the energy contributions from each intake occasion.
Twenty-seven centres across ten European countries.
Women (64 %) and men (36 %) aged 35–74 years (n 36 020).
Pronounced differences in meal patterns emerged both across centres within the same country and across different countries, with a trend for fewer intake occasions per day in Mediterranean countries compared with central and northern Europe. Differences were also found for daily energy intake provided by lunch, with 38–43 % for women and 41–45 % for men within Mediterranean countries compared with 16–27 % for women and 20–26 % for men in central and northern European countries. Likewise, a south–north gradient was found for daily energy intake from snacks, with 13–20 % (women) and 10–17 % (men) in Mediterranean countries compared with 24–34 % (women) and 23–35 % (men) in central/northern Europe.
We found distinct differences in meal patterns with marked diversity for intake frequency and lunch and snack consumption between Mediterranean and central/northern European countries. Monitoring of meal patterns across various cultures and populations could provide critical context to the research efforts to characterize relationships between dietary intake and health.
Red meat has been suggested to be adversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI), but previous studies have rarely taken replacement foods into consideration. We aimed to investigate optimal substitutions between and within the food groups of red meat, poultry and fish for MI prevention. We followed up 55 171 women and men aged 50–64 years with no known history of MI at recruitment. Diet was assessed by a validated 192-item FFQ at baseline. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for specified food substitutions of 150 g/week. During a median follow-up time of 13·6 years, we identified 656 female and 1694 male cases. Among women, the HR for replacing red meat with fatty fish was 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·89), whereas the HR for replacing red meat with lean fish was 1·00 (95 % CI 0·89, 1·14). Similarly, replacing poultry with fatty but not lean fish was inversely associated with MI: the HR was 0·81 (95 % CI 0·67, 0·98) for fatty fish and was 1·08 (95 % CI 0·92, 1·27) for lean fish. The HR for replacing lean with fatty fish was 0·75 (95 % CI 0·60, 0·94). Replacing processed with unprocessed red meat was not associated with MI. Among men, a similar pattern was found, although the associations were not statistically significant. This study suggests that replacing red meat, poultry or lean fish with fatty fish is associated with a lower risk of MI.
The course of bipolar disorder progressively worsens in some patients. Although responses to pharmacotherapy appear to diminish with greater chronicity, less is known about whether patients' prior courses of illness are related to responses to psychotherapy.
Embedded in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) was a randomized controlled trial of psychotherapy for bipolar depression comparing the efficacy of intensive psychotherapy with collaborative care (a three-session psycho-educational intervention). We assessed whether the number of previous mood episodes, age of illness onset, and illness duration predicted or moderated the likelihood of recovery and time until recovery from a depressive episode in patients in the two treatments.
Independently of treatment condition, participants with one to nine prior depressive episodes were more likely to recover and had faster time to recovery than those with 20 or more prior depressive episodes. Participants with fewer than 20 prior manic episodes had faster time to recovery than those with 20 or more episodes. Longer illness duration predicted a longer time to recovery. Participants were more likely to recover in intensive psychotherapy than collaborative care if they had 10–20 prior episodes of depression [number needed to treat (NNT) = 2.0], but equally likely to respond to psychotherapy and collaborative care if they had one to nine (NNT = 32.0) or >20 (NNT = 9.0) depressive episodes.
Number of previous mood episodes and illness duration are associated with the likelihood and speed of recovery among bipolar patients receiving psychosocial treatments for depression.
LOFT (Large Observatory For X-ray Timing) is one of the four candidate missions currently
under assessment study for the M3 mission in ESAs Cosmic Vision program to be launched in
2024. LOFT will carry two instruments with prime sensitivity in the 2–30 keV range: a 10
m2 class large area detector (LAD) with a <1° collimated field of view
and a wide field monitor (WFM) instrument. The WFM is based on the coded mask principle,
and 5 camera units will provide coverage of more than 1/3 of the sky. The prime goal of
the WFM is to detect transient sources to be observed by the LAD. With its wide field of
view and good energy resolution of <500 eV, the WFM will be an excellent instrument
for detecting and studying GRBs and X-ray flashes. The WFM will be able to detect
~150 gamma ray bursts per year, and a burst alert system will enable the
distribution of ~100 GRB positions per year with a ~1 arcmin location
accuracy within 30 s of the burst.
This study aimed to assess whether inclusion of chicory or lupine (prebiotics) in the diet of pre-slaughter pigs for just 1 or 2 weeks could change the composition of their intestinal microbiota, stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and help to lower the amount of thermoplilic Campylobacter spp. (mainly Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli), which are a major cause of food-borne infections in humans. A total of 48 pigs that had an initial live weight of 90 kg were fed with either a lupine (organic concentrate with 25% blue lupine seeds), chicory (organic concentrate with 10% dried chicory roots) or control (100% organic concentrate) diet for 1 week (24 pigs) or 2 weeks (24 pigs) before slaughter. The Campylobacter spp. level in rectal faecal samples after 0, 1 and 2 weeks of feeding and in the luminal content from ileum, caecum and colon at slaughter was determined by direct plating on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar plates. DNA extracted from the luminal content of distal ileum and caecum was used for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the composition of intestinal microbiota and for measuring the amount of bifidobacterial and total bacterial DNA by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Campylobacter spp. were excreted by all pigs and present in the luminal content from distal ileum to midway colon with particularly high numbers in the caecum, but the excretion was reduced by 10-fold in pigs fed lupines for 1 week as compared with control- and chicory-fed pigs (mean log10 2.9 v. 4.1 CFU/g; P < 0.05). The qPCR analysis showed that feeding with lupines resulted in higher levels of bifidobacteria in caecum as compared with the other diets (P < 0.05). T-RFLP analysis showed that four of the most abundant bacteria with terminal restriction fragment values >5% relative to the intensity of total abundance differed between the feed treatments (P < 0.05). Therefore, this study showed that even a short-term alternative feeding strategy with prebiotics in the diet of pre-slaughter pigs elicited changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota, where lupine increased the level of bifidobacteria in caecum and reduced the Campylobacter spp. excretion level after 1 week.
To investigate the effectiveness of a relatively novel concept of providing employees with healthy ready-to-heat meals to bring home to their families, here referred to as Canteen Take Away (CTA).
Employees’ dietary intake on two weekdays when they received free CTA was compared with that on weekdays when they did not receive CTA. Four non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls were applied to assess dietary intake on a daily basis. Moreover, a digital photographic method was used to assess evening meal intake for three consecutive weeks. Data were analysed using a mixed-effects model.
A financial worksite offering CTA.
Overall dietary quality as expressed by the energy density of the food (excluding beverages) was found to be significantly lower on days consuming CTA meals compared to days not consuming CTA with regard to evening meal intake (average difference: −187 (95 % CI −225, −149) kJ/100 g) and on a daily basis (average difference: −77 (95 % CI −132, −21) kJ/100 g). Other favourable differences included increased vegetable intake (average difference: 83 (95 % CI 67, 98) g/evening meal, 109 (95 % CI 62, 155) g/d).
The present study shows that providing healthy take-away dinners has potential for promoting healthy dietary habits among employees. This reinforces the importance of availability and convenience as effective tools to promote healthy eating habits.
In this study, we use a quantum well (QW) probe structure to explore the size dependent effects of sidewall recombination in GaN. Mesas 0.8-7 μm in width with pitches of 4 μm, 8 μm, and 12 μm were etched into the QW probe structure, exposing the QW at the sidewalls. Several etch conditions were investigated. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements, using a He-Cd laser as an excitation source and laser spot size of approximately 230 μm, were taken before and after the mesas were etched. The effects of sidewall formation were quantified by comparing the maximum PL intensity of the QW before and after etch. Higher remaining PL intensity was observed for etch conditions which used both Ar ions and Cl2 gas instead of only Ar ions. The fraction of remaining PL decreased with decreasing mesa width, however the remaining PL intensity was relatively large even for small features. The preliminary data suggested that GaN is relatively insensitive to sidewall damage.
We have undertaken a systematic study of the effect of co-implantation on the electrical properties of C implanted in GaAs. Two effects have been studied, the additional damage caused by co-implantation and the stoichiometry in the implanted layer. A series of co-implant ions were used: group III (B, Al, Ga), group V (N, P, As) and noble gases (Ar, Kr). Co-implantation of ions which create an amorphous layer was found to increase the electrical activity of C Once damage was created, maintaining stoichiometric balance by co-implantation of a group III further increased the fraction of electrically active carbon impurities. Co-implantation of Ga and rapid thermal annealing at 950°C for 10 s resulted in carbon activation as high as 68%, the highest value ever reported.
Proton-induced X-ray emmision and proton-induced gamma-ray emission analyses have been used to determine the elemental content of four oil fly ash samples collected from the flue line of an oil-fired power plant. X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to characterize the vanadium and nickel compounds present in the fly ash. Vanadium was present primarily as VOSO4·3H2O and nickel was present as a mixture of NiSO4 and NiO.
The reaction of Si2H6 with the Si(100) surface has been examined via supersonic molecular beam scattering techniques. The effects of incident translational energy, incident angle, mean vibrational energy and surface temperature have been considered explicitly. It is found that the reaction probability is most sensitive tothe incident translational energy, varying nearly linearly with increasing energy. The effect of incident angle θi can be accounted for by an energy scaling law that is given approximately by <Etr>cosnθi, where n ∼ 1.
We investigate self-assembled InAs quantum dots by photoluminescence (PL) and capacitance spectroscopies. By employing specially designed backelectrode configurations, we can control the number of electrons, which are confined in the quantum dots. With PL experiments we study the dependence of the s-s transition on the electron occupation of the quantum dots. We observe a characteristic redshift of the s-s transition when the s-shell is filled with electrons. However, if the p-shell of the quantum dots starts to fill, the samples with different backelectrode configurations show a different behavior. In one type of samples, the signal stays redshifted, while in the other it blueshifts again. The effect can be explained by different hole capture processes in both types of samples.
Up to 1011 cm−2 InAs quantum dots (QD) can be grown on Silicon(001) by molecular beam epitaxy. This very new material system is on the one hand interesting with regard to the integration of optoelectronics with silicon technology on the other hand it offers new insight into the formation of QDs. We report on RHEED, TEM and Raman studies about (in-) coherence of the QDs and on an according to our knowledge so far unknown dewetting transition in this material system. The results are being discussed on the basis of a thermodynamic model, assuming a liquid-like behavior of a strained adlayer.
Isotopically controlled silicon multilayer structures were used to measure the enhancement of self- and dopant diffusion in extrinsic boron doped silicon. 30Si was used as a tracer through a multilayer structure of alternating natural Si and enriched 28Si layers. Low energy, high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) allowed for simultaneous measurement of self- and dopant diffusion profiles of samples annealed at temperatures between 850°C and 1100°C. A specially designed ion-implanted amorphous Si surface layer was used as a dopant source to suppress excess defects in the multilayer structure, thereby eliminating transient enhanced diffusion (TED) behavior. Self- and dopant diffusion coefficients, diffusion mechanisms, and native defect charge states were determined from computer-aided modeling, based on differential equations describing the diffusion processes. We present a quantitative description of B diffusion enhanced self-diffusion in silicon and conclude that the diffusion of both B and Si is mainly mediated by neutral and singly positively charged self-interstitials under p-type doping. No significant contribution of vacancies to either B or Si diffusion is observed.
Based on the framework for post-accident rehabilitation preparedness elaborated in the
EURANOS project (Dubreuil et al., 2010), a Norwegian Pilot Study was
conducted in spring 2008 to test the suggested method. This article describes the method
used in the Norwegian Pilot Study and the outcomes of the co-expertise meetings
Nutrition evaluation tools should be developed both for scientific purposes and to encourage and facilitate healthy nutritional practices. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a simple food-based Healthy Meal Index (HMI) reflecting the nutritional profile of individual canteen meals.
The development process included overall model selection, setting nutritional goals and defining scoring systems and thresholds. Three index components were included: (i) contents of fruit and vegetables, (ii) fat content and quality and (iii) contents of wholegrain products and potatoes. The development was built on the principles embodied by the Plate Model, but providing more specificity in some areas. The simple HMI was validated against weighed and chemically analysed food and nutrient content of a representative sample of canteen meals. The sample was split into four categories according to the total index score and compared across categories.
A total of 180 meals from fifteen worksite canteens.
Average energy density decreased significantly across categories (from 876 kJ/100 g to 537 kJ/100 g, P < 0·001). Also, the content of total and saturated fat, carbohydrate and fruit and vegetables varied across categories with higher score values being closer to dietary guidelines (P < 0·001).
The simple HMI was successful in ranking canteen meals according to their nutritional quality. The index provides a valuable tool to both researchers and food and nutrition professionals, e.g. caterers and dietitians, who wish to evaluate nutritional quality of meals in line with the recommendations for healthier eating without the use of nutrition calculation programs.
Low-frequency fluctuations are observed in a plasma confined by a strong dipole magnet and containing an energetic high-pressure population of trapped electrons. The quasi-coherent fluctuations have frequencies characteristic of drift frequencies of the lower temperature background plasma and have large toroidal and radial extent. They are excited throughout a wide range of plasma conditions determined by the level of neutral gas pressure. However, for a sufficiently high rate of neutral gas fueling, the plasma density profile flattens and the fluctuations disappear.