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To evaluate the hypothesis that a perinatal educational dietary intervention focused on ‘eating for the gut microbiota’ improves diet quality of pregnant women pre- and postnatally.
The Healthy Parents, Healthy Kids study is a prospectively registered randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate the efficacy of a dietary intervention in altering the maternal and infant gut microbiota and improving perinatal diet quality. Eligible pregnant women were randomised to receive dietary advice from their healthcare provider or to additionally receive a three session dietary intervention. Dietary data were collected at gestation weeks 26, 31, 36 and postnatal week 4. Outcome measures were diet quality, dietary variety, prebiotic and probiotic food intakes, energy, fibre, saturated fat and discretionary food intakes. Between-group differential changes from baseline before and after birth in these dietary measures were assessed using generalised estimating equations.
Healthy pregnant women from gestation week 26.
Forty-five women were randomised (twenty-two control, twenty-three intervention). Compared with the control group, the intervention group improved diet quality prior to birth (5·66 (95 % CI 1·65, 9·67), Cohen’s d: 0·82 (se 0·33)). The intervention improved dietary variety (1·05 (95 % CI 0·17, 1·94), d: 0·66 (se 0·32)) and increased intakes of prebiotic (0·8 (95 % CI 0·27, 1·33), d: 0·91 (se 0·33)) and probiotic foods (1·05 (95 % CI 0·57, 1·53), d: 1·3(se 0·35)) over the whole study period compared with the control group.
A dietary intervention focused on ‘eating for the gut microbiota’ can improve aspects of perinatal diet quality during and after pregnancy.
We examined whether intraindividual variability (IIV) across tests of executive functions (EF-IIV) is elevated in Veterans with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) relative to military controls (MCs) without a history of mTBI. We also explored relationships among EF-IIV, white matter microstructure, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms.
A total of 77 Veterans (mTBI = 43, MCs = 34) completed neuropsychological testing, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and PTSD symptom ratings. EF-IIV was calculated as the standard deviation across six tests of EF, along with an EF-Mean composite. DSI Studio connectometry analysis identified white matter tracts significantly associated with EF-IIV according to generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA).
After adjusting for EF-Mean and PTSD symptoms, the mTBI group showed significantly higher EF-IIV than MCs. Groups did not differ on EF-Mean after adjusting for PTSD symptoms. Across groups, PTSD symptoms significantly negatively correlated with EF-Mean, but not with EF-IIV. EF-IIV significantly negatively correlated with GFA in multiple white matter pathways connecting frontal and more posterior regions.
Veterans with mTBI demonstrated significantly greater IIV across EF tests compared to MCs, even after adjusting for mean group differences on those measures as well as PTSD severity. Findings suggest that, in contrast to analyses that explore effects of mean performance across tests, discrepancy analyses may capture unique variance in neuropsychological performance and more sensitively capture cognitive disruption in Veterans with mTBI histories. Importantly, findings show that EF-IIV is negatively associated with the microstructure of white matter pathways interconnecting cortical regions that mediate executive function and attentional processes.
Advanced imaging techniques are enhancing research capacity focussed on the developmental origins of adult health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis, and consequently increasing awareness of future health risks across various subareas of DOHaD research themes. Understanding how these advanced imaging techniques in animal models and human population studies can be both additively and synergistically used alongside traditional techniques in DOHaD-focussed laboratories is therefore of great interest. Global experts in advanced imaging techniques congregated at the advanced imaging workshop at the 2019 DOHaD World Congress in Melbourne, Australia. This review summarizes the presentations of new imaging modalities and novel applications to DOHaD research and discussions had by DOHaD researchers that are currently utilizing advanced imaging techniques including MRI, hyperpolarized MRI, ultrasound, and synchrotron-based techniques to aid their DOHaD research focus.
Indaziflam, a PRE herbicide option for weed management on rangeland and natural areas, provides long-term control of invasive winter annual grasses (IWAGs). Because indaziflam only provides PRE control of IWAGs, POST herbicides such as glyphosate can be mixed with indaziflam to control germinated IWAG seedlings. Field trials were conducted at three sites on the Colorado Front Range to evaluate glyphosate dose required to provide adequate POST IWAG control and compare long-term downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), Japanese brome (Bromus arvensis L.), and feral rye (Secale cereale L.) control with indaziflam and imazapic. Two of the three sites were void of desirable species, so species establishment through drill seeding was assessed, while the remnant native plant response was assessed at the third site. Herbicide applications were made March 2014 through April 2015, and two sites were drill seeded with native species 9 mo after herbicide application. Yearly visual control evaluations, biomass of all plant species, and drilled species stand counts were collected. Glyphosate at 474 g ae ha−1 reduced B. tectorum biomass to zero, while glyphosate at 631 g ae ha−1 was needed to reduce biomass to near zero at the S. cereale site. At all three sites, only indaziflam treatments had significant reductions in IWAG biomass compared with the nontreated check at 3 yr after treatment (YAT). By 3 YAT in the drill-seeded sites, cool-season grass frequency ranged from 37% to 69% within indaziflam treatments (73 and 102 g ai ha−1), while imazapic treatments ranged from 0% to 26% cool-season grass frequency. In the site with a remnant native plant community, indaziflam treatments resulted in a 3- to 4-fold increase in native grass biomass. These results indicate that the multiyear IWAG control provided by indaziflam can aid in desirable species reestablishment through drill seeding or response of the remnant plant community.
Economic hardship (EH) may link to poorer child diet, however whether this association is due to resource limitations or effects on family functioning is unknown. This study examines whether parenting stress mediates the association between EH and child consumption of foods high in saturated fats and added sugars (SFAS).
Data were collected from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study. EH was assessed using eight items collected when children were between 1–9 years old. Mothers reported parenting stress and frequency of child consumption of high SFAS foods when children were 9 years old. Latent growth curve modelling (LGCM) and structural equation modelling tested direct associations between the starting level/rate of change in EH and high SFAS food consumption, and parenting stress as a mediator of the association.
Twenty US cities.
Mothers/children (n 3846) followed birth through age 9 years, oversampled ‘high-risk’, unmarried mothers.
LGCM indicated a curvilinear trend in EH from ages 1–9, with steeper increases from ages 3–9 years. EH did not directly predict the frequency of high SFAS foods. Average EH at 3 and 5 years and change in EH from ages 1–9 predicted higher parenting stress, which in turn predicted more frequent consumption of high SFAS foods.
Findings suggest it may be important to consider parenting stress in early prevention efforts given potential lasting effects of early life EH on child consumption of high SFAS foods. Future research should explore how supports and resources may buffer effects of EH-related stress on parents and children.
Prospectively acquired Canadian cerebrospinal fluid samples were used to assess the performance characteristics of three ante-mortem tests commonly used to support diagnoses of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. The utility of the end-point quaking-induced conversion assay as a test for Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease diagnoses was compared to that of immunoassays designed to detect increased amounts of the surrogate markers 14-3-3γ and hTau. The positive predictive values of the end-point quaking-induced conversion, 14-3-3γ, and hTau tests conducted at the Prion Diseases Section of the Public Health Agency of Canada were 96%, 68%, and 66%, respectively.
Introduction: In 2018, Canadian postgraduate specialist Emergency Medicine (EM) programs began implementing a competency-based medical education (CBME) assessment system. To support improvement of this assessment program, we sought to evaluate its short-term educational outcomes nationally and within individual programs. Methods: Program-level data from the 2018 resident cohort were amalgamated and analyzed. The number of Entrustable Professional Activity (EPA) assessments (overall and for each EPA) and the timing of resident promotion through program stages was compared between programs and to the guidelines provided by the national EM specialty committee. Total EPA observations from each program were correlated with the number of EM and pediatric EM rotations. Results: Data from 15 of 17 (88.2%) EM programs containing 9,842 EPA observations from 68 of the 77 (88.3%) Canadian EM specialist residents in the 2018 cohort were analyzed. The average number of EPAs observed per resident in each program varied from 92.5 to 229.6 and correlated strongly with the number of blocks spent on EM and pediatric EM (r = 0.83, p < 0.001). Relative to the guidelines outlined by the specialty committee, residents were promoted later than expected and with fewer EPA observations than suggested. Conclusion: We present a new approach to the amalgamation of national and program-level assessment data. There was demonstrable variation in both EPA-based assessment numbers and promotion timelines between programs and with national guidelines. This evaluation data will inform the revision of local programs and national guidelines and serve as a starting point for further reaching outcome evaluation. This process could be replicated by other national assessment programs.
Introduction: An important challenge physicians face when treating acute heart failure (AHF) patients in the emergency department (ED) is deciding whether to admit or discharge, with or without early follow-up. The overall goal of our project was to improve care for AHF patients seen in the ED while avoiding unnecessary hospital admissions. The specific goal was to introduce hospital rapid referral clinics to ensure AHF patients were seen within 7 days of ED discharge. Methods: This prospective before-after study was conducted at two campuses of a large tertiary care hospital, including the EDs and specialty outpatient clinics. We enrolled AHF patients ≥50 years who presented to the ED with shortness of breath (<7 days). The 12-month before (control) period was separated from the 12-month after (intervention) period by a 3-month implementation period. Implementation included creation of rapid access AHF clinics staffed by cardiology and internal medicine, and development of referral procedures. There was extensive in-servicing of all ED staff. The primary outcome measure was hospital admission at the index visit or within 30 days. Secondary outcomes included mortality and actual access to rapid follow-up. We used segmented autoregression analysis of the monthly proportions to determine whether there was a change in admissions coinciding with the introduction of the intervention and estimated a sample size of 700 patients. Results: The patients in the before period (N = 355) and the after period (N = 374) were similar for age (77.8 vs. 78.1 years), arrival by ambulance (48.7% vs 51.1%), comorbidities, current medications, and need for non-invasive ventilation (10.4% vs. 6.7%). Comparing the before to the after periods, we observed a decrease in hospital admissions on index visit (from 57.7% to 42.0%; P <0.01), as well as all admissions within 30 days (from 65.1% to 53.5% (P < 0.01). The autoregression analysis, however, demonstrated a pre-existing trend to fewer admissions and could not attribute this to the intervention (P = 0.91). Attendance at a specialty clinic, amongst those discharged increased from 17.8% to 42.1% (P < 0.01) and the median days to clinic decreased from 13 to 6 days (P < 0.01). 30-day mortality did not change (4.5% vs. 4.0%; P = 0.76). Conclusion: Implementation of rapid-access dedicated AHF clinics led to considerably increased access to specialist care, much reduced follow-up times, and possible reduction in hospital admissions. Widespread use of this approach can improve AHF care in Canada.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with impaired psychosocial behaviours. Little is known about deficits in neurocognitive functions like decision-making possibly related both to these behaviours and to the nature of the disorder.
To determine whether decision-making impairments exist in manic (M), depressed (D) and euthymic (E) bipolar patients (BP) and to determine whether illness and course-of-illness characteristics can predict participants’ performance
A power analysis was conducted. A total of 315 subjects, including 45 M and 32 D inpatients and 90 E outpatients with BD I, medicated, and 150 Healthy Controls (HC), age, IQ and gender-matched, were included. Decision-making ability and sensitivity to punishment frequency were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT).
On the IGT, MBP (p< 0.001), DBP (p< 0.01) and EBP (p< 0.05) selected significantly more cards from the risky decks than HC with no significant differences between BP groups. Unlike HC, MBP (p< 0.001), DBP (p< 0.05) and EBP (p< 0.05) showed little capacity to learn from incurred losses with no significant differences between BP groups, but, like HC, BP preferred decks that yielded infrequent penalties over those decks that yielded frequent penalties. In a multivariate analysis, decision-making impairment in the BP was significantly (p=0.001) predicted by low level of education, high total number of admissions and family history of BD.
BP clearly show defects in decision-making predicted by course-of-illness illness characteristics. Impaired decision-making might be a trait-related neurocognitive deficit in BD and partly explain impaired psychosocial behaviours of BP.
Although there is some evidence that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is geographically stable, few have examined whether the phenomenon is temporally stable. We examined DUP in two cohorts within two discrete time periods (1995–1999 and 2003–2005) spanning a decade in the same geographically defined community psychiatric service with no early intervention programme. Patients were diagnosed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) and we determined the DUP using the Beiser Scale. The DUP of the 240 participants did not differ significantly between study periods.
Atomoxetine, a highly selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, shows efficacy in the treatment of ADHD. Despite evidence that atomoxetine improved inhibitory control in animals and healthy volunteers, studies had yet to explore short-term cognitive effects in patients with ADHD.
The cognitive effects of a single oral dose of atomoxetine (60mg) were evaluated in n=22 adults with DSM-IV ADHD, using a within-subject placebo-controlled double-blind design. Assessment included the stop-signal test and Rapid Visual Information Processing test from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Cardiovascular responses were monitored. Normative cognitive data from 20 healthy volunteers were collected for comparison.
Atomoxetine was associated with shorter stop-signal reaction times (p<0.05) and lower numbers of commission errors (p<0.05) on the sustained attention task in the ADHD patients.
These findings suggest that atomoxetine exerts beneficial effects on aspects of inhibitory control in ADHD, which may belie the efficacy of this medication in the treatment of impulsive features of the disorder. These findings also have potential clinical implications for other impulse dysregulation disorders such as trichotillomania and Tourette's Syndrome.
Negative symptoms have been previously reported during the psychosis prodrome, however our understanding of their relationship with treatment-phase negative symptoms remains unclear.
We report the prevalence of psychosis prodrome onset negative symptoms (PONS) and ascertain whether these predict negative symptoms at first presentation for treatment.
Presence of expressivity or experiential negative symptom domains was established at first presentation for treatment using the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) in 373 individuals with a first episode psychosis. PONS were established using the Beiser Scale. The relationship between PONS and negative symptoms at first presentation was ascertained and regression analyses determined the relationship independent of confounding.
PONS prevalence was 50.3% in the schizophrenia spectrum group (n = 155) and 31.2% in the non-schizophrenia spectrum group (n = 218). In the schizophrenia spectrum group, PONS had a significant unadjusted (χ2 = 10.41, P < 0.001) and adjusted (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.11–5.22, P = 0.027) association with first presentation experiential symptoms, however this relationship was not evident in the non-schizophrenia spectrum group. PONS did not predict expressivity symptoms in either diagnostic group.
PONS are common in schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses, and predict experiential symptoms at first presentation. Further prospective research is needed to examine whether negative symptoms commence during the psychosis prodrome.
Previous research in clinical, community, and school settings has demonstrated positive outcomes for the Secret Agent Society (SAS) social skills training program. This is designed to help children on the autism spectrum become more aware of emotions in themselves and others and to ‘problem-solve’ complex social scenarios. Parents play a key role in the implementation of the SAS program, attending information and support sessions with other parents and providing supervision, rewards, and feedback as their children complete weekly ‘home mission’ assignments. Drawing on data from a school-based evaluation of the SAS program, we examined whether parents’ engagement with these elements of the intervention was linked to the quality of their children’s participation and performance. Sixty-eight 8–14-year-olds (M age = 10.7) with a diagnosis of autism participated in the program. The findings indicated that ratings of parental engagement were positively correlated with children’s competence in completing home missions and with the quality of their contribution during group teaching sessions. However, there was a less consistent relationship between parental engagement and measures of children’s social and emotional skill gains over the course of the program.
Being able to vote empowers people with mental illness to have a political voice and promotes social inclusion. Evidence shows that patients with mental illness are less likely to vote compared to the general population.
This study explores the knowledge and uptake of the voting rights of adult patients in a psychiatric hospital in the 2015 UK general election.
To understand patients’ eligibility and intentions to vote during the 2015 UK general election. To establish what assistance patients may require in order to vote.
A staff-assisted survey was undertaken in all mental health wards in the Gordon Hospital, Westminster prior to the general election in May 2015.
A total of 51 surveys were returned. Seventy-five percent thought they were eligible to vote, and 47% had already registered. Of those that had not yet registered, 37% wanted staff support to do so. Fifty-seven percent of the respondents intended to vote and of those 9 out of 10 intended to vote in person. Twenty-six percent of those intending to vote identified needing assistance in this process.
The majority of inpatients were aware of their eligibility to vote. Over half of the respondents planned to vote, which is lower than the UK average. As 1 in 4 patients intending to vote requested support, this suggests potential barriers impacting on their ability to exercise their right.
Multidisciplinary teams can provide valuable assistance to patients in the voting process in many ways, including information provision, organisation of leave and providing staff escort.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Voting is an essential human right. Being able to vote and participate in elections is an important component of social inclusion; empowering people with mental illness to have a political voice and in turn reducing stigma. Previous research indicates that patients with mental illness are less likely to vote compared to the general population.
This study explores knowledge and uptake of the voting rights of adults living in mental health supported accommodation in Westminster (London) in the 2015 UK general election.
Understand patients’ awareness of their eligibility to register and cast their vote. Identify patients’ interest in engaging in the voting process and strategies to overcome potential obstacles.
A staff-assisted survey was undertaken in all mental health supported accommodation across Westminster prior to the general election in May 2015.
A total of 142 surveys were returned. Nine out of 10 surveyed believed they were eligible to vote; over half wanted to exercise their right to vote & if registered, a third felt they required assistance to vote.
The majority of community patients were positively aware of the impending general election and their own eligibility to vote. Only half wanted to exercise their right to vote, which is lower than the general population. As a third of the patients requested assistance for voting, this shows us that there are potential barriers impacting on their ability to exercise their right to vote. Staffs have an important role in promoting patient's right to vote by providing assistance with both the registering and voting process.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Being able to participate in elections and to vote are important components of social inclusion; empowering people with mental illness to have a voice.
It is important that mental health professionals understand the voting rights of adults with mental illness in order to be able to provide appropriate advice and support.
To explore knowledge of the voting rights of adults living with mental illness amongst mental health professionals working in both community and inpatient settings in Westminster, London.
To understand the level of knowledge amongst mental health professionals regarding the voting rights of patients with mental illness in order to identify unmet training needs.
A survey, in the form of a staff quiz was undertaken in all community and inpatient teams prior to the May 2015 general election. All multidisciplinary team members were included.
in total, 211 surveys were completed. Ninety-eight percent of staff correctly identified that being a psychiatric inpatient does not change an individual's right to vote. Less than 50% of the staff members demonstrated correct understanding of the rights of patients detained under forensic sections, and the rights of the homeless to vote.
It is encouraging that knowledge of voting rights amongst staff appeared higher in our survey than in some published surveys. However, despite the development of a Trust Voting Rights Policy and Educational Film prior to the 2015 general election further staff education, particularly the rights of those detained under forensic sections or who are homeless, is required.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Starting university is an important time with respect to dietary changes. This study reports a novel approach to assessing student diet by utilising student-level food transaction data to explore dietary patterns. First-year students living in catered accommodation at the University of Leeds (UK) received pre-credited food cards for use in university catering facilities. Food card transaction data were obtained for semester 1, 2016 and linked with student age and sex. k-Means cluster analysis was applied to the transaction data to identify clusters of food purchasing behaviours. Differences in demographic and behavioural characteristics across clusters were examined using χ2 tests. The semester was divided into three time periods to explore longitudinal changes in purchasing patterns. Seven dietary clusters were identified: ‘Vegetarian’, ‘Omnivores’, ‘Dieters’, ‘Dish of the Day’, ‘Grab-and-Go’, ‘Carb Lovers’ and ‘Snackers’. There were statistically significant differences in sex (P < 0·001), with women dominating the Vegetarian and Dieters, age (P = 0·003), with over 20s representing a high proportion of the Omnivores and time of day of transactions (P < 0·001), with Dieters and Snackers purchasing least at breakfast. Many students (n 474, 60·4 %) changed dietary cluster across the semester. This study demonstrates that transactional data present a feasible method for dietary assessment, collecting detailed dietary information over time and at scale, while eliminating participant burden and possible bias from self-selection, observation and attrition. It revealed that student diets are complex and that simplistic measures of diet, focusing on narrow food groups in isolation, are unlikely to adequately capture dietary behaviours.
Advances in immunohistochemistry have spearheaded major developments in our understanding and classification of sinonasal tumours. In the last decade, several new distinct histopathological entities of sinonasal cancer have been characterised.
This review aims to provide a clinical update of the major emerging subtypes for the ENT surgeon and an overview of the management strategies available for this heterogeneous group of pathologies.
Although rare, knowledge of sinonasal neoplasm subtypes has implications for prognosis, treatment strategies and the development of novel therapeutic targets.
Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.