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The dynamic interplay between surface and subsurface flow in the presence of a permeable boundary was investigated using low and high frame-rate particle-image velocimetry measurements in a refractive-index-matching flow environment. Two idealized permeable wall models were considered. Both models contained five layers of cubically packed spheres, but one exhibited a smooth interface with the flow, while the other embodied a hemispherical surface topography. The relationship between the large-scale turbulent motions overlying the permeable walls and the small-scale turbulence just above, and within, the walls was explored using instantaneous and statistical analyses. Although previous studies have indirectly identified the potential existence of amplitude modulation in permeable-wall turbulence (a phenomenon identified in impermeable-wall turbulence whereby the outer large scales modulate the intensity of the near-wall, small-scale turbulence), the present effort provides direct evidence of its existence in flow over both permeable walls considered. The spatio-temporal signatures of amplitude modulation were also characterized using conditional averaging based on zero-crossing events. This analysis highlights the connection between large-scale regions of high/low streamwise momentum in the surface flow, downwelling/upwelling across the permeable interface and enhancement/suppression of small-scale turbulence, respectively, just above and within the permeable walls. The presence of bed roughness is found to intensify the strength and penetration of flow into the permeable bed modulated by large-scale structures in the surface flow, and linked to possible roughness-formed channelling effects and shedding of smaller-scale flow structures from the roughness elements.
Thirty years ago the Indian law community was small enough that it was possible for even a scholar new to the field to keep up with most of the Indian law scholarship published annually. However, as our field has proliferated, it has also fragmented, and today more than two hundred pieces of new legal scholarship are published annually in law reviews alone.* These law reviews are not just ivory tower musings; there are now some scholarly contributions which are as fundamental for the study of Indian law as many cases or statutes. These articles help to contextualize the changing doctrines announced by the Court, reconcile contradictory authority, challenge assumptions of race/place/power, and push for courts, tribal leaders, legislators, lawyers, educators, and students to adopt new ways of thinking about our fundamental doctrine. However, with so many new contributions we realized that new scholars may miss some of the most impactful articles, and even the progenitors of the field will have forgotten about some of the best ideas put forward by colleagues over the years. While several federal Indian law textbooks exist to preserve judicial doctrine, there is no definitive collection of related legal scholarship.
The study of American Indian law and policy usually focuses on federal statutes and court decisions, with these sources forming the basis for most textbooks. Virtually ignored is the robust and growing body of scholarly literature analyzing and contextualizing these primary sources. Reading American Indian Law is designed to fill that void. Organized into four parts, this book presents 16 of the most impactful law review articles written during the last three decades. Collectively, these articles explore the core concepts underlying the field: the range of voices including those of tribal governments and tribal courts, the role property has played in federal Indian law, and the misunderstandings between both people and sovereigns that have shaped changes in the law. Structured with flexibility in mind, this book may be used in a wide variety of classroom settings including law schools, tribal colleges, and both graduate and undergraduate programs.
Thermal infrared data collected by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instruments have significantly impacted the understanding of martian surface mineralogy. Spatial/temporal variations in igneous lithologies; the discovery of quartz, carbonates, and chlorides; and the widespread identification of amorphous, silica-enriched materials reveal a planet that has experienced a diversity of primary and secondary geo-logic processes including igneous crustal evolution, regional sedimentation, aqueous alteration, and glacial/periglacial activity.
A Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES), based on a Michelson interferometer and Cassegrain telescope, was carried by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater and Opportunity rover at Meridiani Planum to determine the bulk mineralogy of surface materials. Spectra from the plains of Gusev demonstrate the ubiquity of olivine-rich basaltic rocks, with additional examples lofted into the adjacent Columbia Hills by meteoroid impacts. Hundreds of rocks observed with mini-TES in the Columbia Hills display spectral characteristics of variable alteration intensity, but likely with very little water involved. Rare exceptions include a tephra deposit cemented by Mg–Fe carbonates and nodular opaline silica rocks, likely indicative of a hot spring/geyser environment. Opportunity’s mini-TES confirmed orbital identification of crystalline hematite at Meridiani Planum and spectral characteristics indicative of a transition from a precursor goethite phase. The sedimentary bedrock that hosts the hematite has spectral features consistent with Al-rich opaline silica, Mg-, Ca-, and Fe-bearing sulfates, plagioclase feldspar, and nontronite. Rare rocks at both sites are recognizable as iron meteorites from their infrared reflective properties.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the outermost of the rocky, terrestrial planets that make up the inner solar system. Mars is the second smallest planet; only Mercury is smaller. Surface gravity on Mars is 3.71 m s–2, which is 37.6% that of the Earth. The present atmospheric pressure is low (~0.6 kPa) relative to Earth’s (101 kPa), and the atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide (95%). The obliquity of Mars (tilt of the axis of rotation relative to the plane of orbit) is presently 25 degrees and may have varied by tens of degrees over the past tens of millions of years and longer (Laskar et al., 2004).
The rugged highland terrains of Noachis Terra and Terra Sabaea dominate the region. The higher-standing, tectonically deformed, and densely cratered Terra Sabaea contains Scylla and Charybdis Scopuli. Also present are Denning, Bouguer, Lambert, Dawes, Pollack, Schiaparelli, Tuscaloosa, and Bakhuysen craters. To the west, the relatively subdued, but still rugged highland region of Noachis Terra has Newcomb, Wislicenus, and Mädler craters; and Marikh and a portion of Evros Valles. Numerous other moderately to highly degraded craters are scattered throughout the area. Valley networks ranging from tens of kilometers to thousands of kilometers in length dissect much of the topography. Wide grabens scar parts of Terra Sabaea. The region slopes from close to 3,000 m above datum in Terra Sabaea to as low at –1,500 m in the northwest. The northeast region is a portion of the zone that occurs between highland terrains to the south and transition terrain of Arabia Terra to the north (MC-12).