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Understanding the mechanisms that prevent or promote the coexistence of taxa at local scales is critical to understanding how biodiversity is maintained. Competitive exclusion and environmental filtering are two processes thought to limit which taxa become established in a community. However, determining the relative importance of the two processes is a complex task, especially when the critical initial stages of colonization cannot be directly observed. Here, we explore the use of phylogenetic community structure for identifying filtering mechanisms in a fossil community. We integrated a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of bivalve genera with a spatial dataset of late Cenozoic bivalves from the Pacific coast of North America to characterize how the community that was present in the semirestricted San Joaquin Basin (SJB) embayment of present-day California was phylogenetically structured. We employed phylogenetic distance-based metrics across six time bins spanning 27–2.5 Ma and found no evidence of significant clustering or evenness in the SJB community when compared with communities randomly assembled from the regional source pool. Additionally, we found that new colonizers into the SJB were not significantly more or less closely related to native taxa than expected by chance. These findings suggest that neither competitive exclusion nor environmental filtering were overwhelmingly influential factors shaping the composition of the SJB community over time. We further discuss interpretations of these patterns in light of current understandings in community phylogenetics and reiterate the critical role historical perspectives play in how community assembly rules are assessed.
Across international contexts, people with serious mental illnesses (SMI) experience marked reductions in life expectancy at birth. The intersection of ethnicity and social deprivation on life expectancy in SMI is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of ethnicity and area-level deprivation on life expectancy at birth in SMI, defined as schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders and depression, using data from London, UK.
Abridged life tables to calculate life expectancy at birth, in a cohort with clinician-ascribed ICD-10 schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders or depression, managed in secondary mental healthcare. Life expectancy in the study population with SMI was compared with life expectancy in the general population and with those residing in the most deprived areas in England.
Irrespective of ethnicity, people with SMI experienced marked reductions in life expectancy at birth compared with the general population; from 14.5 years loss in men with schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar disorders, to 13.2 years in women. Similar reductions were noted for people with depression. Across all diagnoses, life expectancy at birth in people with SMI was lower than the general population residing in the most deprived areas in England.
Irrespective of ethnicity, reductions in life expectancy at birth among people with SMI are worse than the general population residing in the most deprived areas in England. This trend in people with SMI is similar to groups who experience extreme social exclusion and marginalisation. Evidence-based interventions to tackle this mortality gap need to take this into account.
Anxiety disorder in adolescents is a common mental disorder seen in the clinics. It can impair the psychosocial wellbeing of adolescents, influence their academic achievement and increase the family burden. Now cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) may be the best provided psychotherapy for the treatment of it with a comparable effect with pharmacological treatment. And evidence based medicine had recommended the combining usage of the two treatments.
The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of manual-guided cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for adolescents with anxiety disorder.
With the help of foreign manual and consideration of characteristics of Chinese anxiety disorder adolescents, a treatment manual for the treatment of adolescent anxiety disorder in China is established.Clinical control test is formed to test the effect of manual. A cases analyze of the adolescent patients who received the CBT treatment.
A multimodular and several stage treatment manual for the treatment of Chinese anxious adolescents is established with objectives as oriented.63.7% of the adolescent anxiety disorder patients who received the CBT treatment is recovered. Analyze of patients who receive CBT result three models of requirements.
The treatment manual in this research is fitted with the characteristics of the adolescent anxiety disorder in China, and it is proved useful in the clinical work.In the CBT treatment of adolescent anxiety disorder, the patients can be classified to three requirement models which should be treated with different focus.
Delirium occur frequently in hospitalized patients. High-potency antipsychotic drugs have been used for the treatment of delirium; however, there is a risk of acute side effects. Therefore, atypical antipsychotic drugs could be used to the treatment of delirium.
The present study aimed to provide comparison of intramuscular injection of olanzapine and intramuscular injection of haloperidol for patients with delirium was conducted with a randomized, open prospective study.
Sixty-two patients admitted at the Catholic University of Korea Kangnam St. Mary's hospital, Seoul, South Korea were enrolled in this study. They were diagnosed as delirium by two independent psychiatrists using DSM-IV-TR. the Delirium Rating Scale-revised-98(DRS-R-98) and clinical global impression-severity (CGI-S) were checked daily. the Simpson-Angus Rating Scale, the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale were used for the assessment of side effects.
The DRS-R-98 and CGI-S scores were significantly decreased over time in both treatment groups without any significant group difference and time by the group interaction effect (F=28.35, P< 0.0001). Adverse events occurred lower in olanzapine group. both treatments were well tolerated and there were no serious adverse events occurred by intramuscular olanzapine or haloperidol.
This study showed that either intramuscular olanzapine or intramuscular haloperidol would be effective and tolerable for treating delirium, however, olanzapine showed lower side effects than haloperidol. Adequately powered studies will be mandatory to draw any definite conclusion.
The presence of comorbid anxiety disorders (AD) and bipolar II disorders (BP-II) compounds disability complicates treatment, worsens prognosis, and has been understudied. The genes involved in metabolizing dopamine and encoding dopamine receptors, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) genes, may be important to the pathogenesis of BP-II comorbid with AD. We aimed to clarify ALDH2 and DRD2 genes for predisposition to BP-II comorbid with and without AD. The sample consisted of 335 subjects BP-II without AD, 127 subjects BP-II with AD and 348 healthy subjects as normal control. The genotypes of the ALDH2 and DRD2 Taq-IA polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between DRD2 Taq-I A1/A2 genotype and BP-II with AD (OR = 2.231, P = 0.021). Moreover, a significant interaction of the DRD2 Taq-I A1/A1 and the ALDH2*1*1 genotypes in BP-II without AD was revealed (OR = 5.623, P = 0.001) compared with normal control. Our findings support the hypothesis that a unique genetic distinction between BP-II with and without AD, and suggest a novel association between DRD2 Taq-I A1/A2 genotype and BP-II with AD. Our study also provides further evidence that the ALDH2 and DRD2 genes interact in BP-II, particularly BP-II without AD.
The influence of combined corrosion and vibration to the anti-loosening performance of a precision locknut used in a machine tool is investigated. Firstly, the locknut was submerged in 5% NaCl solution according to ASTM B895 standard for corrosion testing. The locknuts, after submerged in 1-hr, 2-hr and 4-hr periods, respectively, were then installed on the rotating spindle in a vertical dynamic impact tester for performing anti-loosening test. The initial installed pretension was 9800 N and the spindle was rotating in a constant speed of 1000 rpm. Turmogrease Li 802 EP lubricant was used on the contact surface between spindle thread and locknut. The set screws on the locknut were tightened sequentially and evenly in three-stage of torque: 1.96 N-m, 3.92 N-m and 5.88 N-m. Its real-time pretension variation with the periodic transverse impact and its final loosening torque were measured. Accordingly, the axial force ratio and anti-loosening torque ratio were calculated and discussed. It was found that corrosion treatment had similar influence on both the axial force ratio and the anti-loosening torque ratio. More corrosion on the locknut with longer submersion in NaCl solution deteriorated its anti-loosening characteristics. The result could serve as the reference for evaluating the fastening performance of precision locknut and guide the design and manufacturing for the application improvement.
Abnormal effort-based decision-making represents a potential mechanism underlying motivational deficits (amotivation) in psychotic disorders. Previous research identified effort allocation impairment in chronic schizophrenia and focused mostly on physical effort modality. No study has investigated cognitive effort allocation in first-episode psychosis (FEP).
Cognitive effort allocation was examined in 40 FEP patients and 44 demographically-matched healthy controls, using Cognitive Effort-Discounting (COGED) paradigm which quantified participants’ willingness to expend cognitive effort in terms of explicit, continuous discounting of monetary rewards based on parametrically-varied cognitive demands (levels N of N-back task). Relationship between reward-discounting and amotivation was investigated. Group differences in reward-magnitude and effort-cost sensitivity, and differential associations of these sensitivity indices with amotivation were explored.
Patients displayed significantly greater reward-discounting than controls. In particular, such discounting was most pronounced in patients with high levels of amotivation even when N-back performance and reward base amount were taken into consideration. Moreover, patients exhibited reduced reward-benefit sensitivity and effort-cost sensitivity relative to controls, and that decreased sensitivity to reward-benefit but not effort-cost was correlated with diminished motivation. Reward-discounting and sensitivity indices were generally unrelated to other symptom dimensions, antipsychotic dose and cognitive deficits.
This study provides the first evidence of cognitive effort-based decision-making impairment in FEP, and indicates that decreased effort expenditure is associated with amotivation. Our findings further suggest that abnormal effort allocation and amotivation might primarily be related to blunted reward valuation. Prospective research is required to clarify the utility of effort-based measures in predicting amotivation and functional outcome in FEP.
We report on an interview method using photo-based network elicitation and a landmark anchoring event to collect data on relationship change in ego networks retrospectively. Using the wedding albums of married or formerly married respondents, we populate a network from many years ago with persons pictured in the album and then collect data about each respondent’s relationship with each person at the time of the wedding and at the time of the interview. This data collection method mitigates many of the problems associated with retrospective data collection and does not have the logistical difficulties associated with panel studies. Our findings show that this method is successful in collecting significant numbers of connections that have undergone change, and especially reductions in activity along various dimensions.
Better understanding of interplay among symptoms, cognition and functioning in first-episode psychosis (FEP) is crucial to promoting functional recovery. Network analysis is a promising data-driven approach to elucidating complex interactions among psychopathological variables in psychosis, but has not been applied in FEP.
This study employed network analysis to examine inter-relationships among a wide array of variables encompassing psychopathology, premorbid and onset characteristics, cognition, subjective quality-of-life and psychosocial functioning in 323 adult FEP patients in Hong Kong. Graphical Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) combined with extended Bayesian information criterion (BIC) model selection was used for network construction. Importance of individual nodes in a generated network was quantified by centrality analyses.
Our results showed that amotivation played the most central role and had the strongest associations with other variables in the network, as indexed by node strength. Amotivation and diminished expression displayed differential relationships with other nodes, supporting the validity of two-factor negative symptom structure. Psychosocial functioning was most strongly connected with amotivation and was weakly linked to several other variables. Within cognitive domain, digit span demonstrated the highest centrality and was connected with most of the other cognitive variables. Exploratory analysis revealed no significant gender differences in network structure and global strength.
Our results suggest the pivotal role of amotivation in psychopathology network of FEP and indicate its critical association with psychosocial functioning. Further research is required to verify the clinical significance of diminished motivation on functional outcome in the early course of psychotic illness.
We use models incorporating the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from remote sensing satellites to improve soybean yield predictions in 10 major producing states in the United States. Unlike traditional methods that assume an ordinary least squares model applies to all observations, we allow for global flexibility in the relationship between NDVI and soybean yield by using the flexible Fourier transform (FFT) model. FFT results confirm that there is a nonlinear response of soybean yield to NDVI over the growing season. Out-of-sample predictions indicate that allowing for global flexibility with the FFT improves the predictions in time-series prediction and forecasting.
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant burden on healthcare facilities. Universal gloving is a horizontal intervention to prevent transmission of pathogens that cause HAI. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to identify whether implementation of universal gloving is associated with decreased incidence of HAI in clinical settings.
A systematic literature search was conducted to find all relevant publications using search terms for universal gloving and HAIs. Pooled incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the Woolf test and the I2 test.
In total, 8 studies were included. These studies were moderately to substantially heterogeneous (I2 = 59%) and had varied results. Stratified analyses showed a nonsignificant association between universal gloving and incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; pooled IRR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.79–1.11) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE; pooled IRR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.69–1.28). Studies that implemented universal gloving alone showed a significant association with decreased incidence of HAI (IRR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.67–0.89), but studies implementing universal gloving as part of intervention bundles showed no significant association with incidence of HAI (IRR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86–1.05).
Universal gloving may be associated with a small protective effect against HAI. Despite limited data, universal gloving may be considered in high-risk settings, such as pediatric intensive care units. Further research should be performed to determine the effects of universal gloving on a broader range of pathogens, including gram-negative pathogens.
The second Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) – a nationwide, cross-sectional, epidemiological survey - was initiated in 2016 with the intent of tracking the state of mental health of the general population in Singapore. The study employed the same methodology as the first survey initiated in 2010. The SMHS 2016 aimed to (i) establish the 12-month and lifetime prevalence and correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymia, bipolar disorder, generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) (which included alcohol abuse and dependence) and (ii) compare the prevalence of these disorders with reference to data from the SMHS 2010.
Door-to-door household surveys were conducted with adult Singapore residents aged 18 years and above from 2016 to 2018 (n = 6126) which yielded a response rate of 69.0%. The subjects were randomly selected using a disproportionate stratified sampling method and assessed using World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (WHO-CIDI 3.0). The diagnoses of lifetime and 12-month selected mental disorders including MDD, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, GAD, OCD, and AUD (alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence), were based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria.
The lifetime prevalence of at least one mood, anxiety or alcohol use disorder was 13.9% in the adult population. MDD had the highest lifetime prevalence (6.3%) followed by alcohol abuse (4.1%). The 12-month prevalence of any DSM-IV mental disorders was 6.5%. OCD had the highest 12-month prevalence (2.9%) followed by MDD (2.3%). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of mental disorders assessed in SMHS 2016 (13.8% and 6.4%) was significantly higher than that in SMHS 2010 (12.0% and 4.4%). A significant increase was observed in the prevalence of lifetime GAD (0.9% to 1.6%) and alcohol abuse (3.1% to 4.1%). The 12-month prevalence of GAD (0.8% vs. 0.4%) and OCD (2.9% vs. 1.1%) was significantly higher in SMHS 2016 as compared to SMHS 2010.
The high prevalence of OCD and the increase across the two surveys needs to be tackled at a population level both in terms of creating awareness of the disorder and the need for early treatment. Youth emerge as a vulnerable group who are more likely to be associated with mental disorders and thus targeted interventions in this group with a focus on youth friendly and accessible care centres may lead to earlier detection and treatment of mental disorders.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death among men in the U.S. and over half of all prostate cancer patients receive radiation therapy (RT). RT induces double-strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA which are lethal to cells if not repaired. While potentially curative, 10% of low-risk patients and 50% of high-risk patients treated with RT still experience tumor recurrence. Thus, identification of novel therapeutic targets to enhance RT will likely reduce prostate cancer mortality. The only clinical approach to enhance RT is androgen deprivation therapy, which targets androgen receptor (AR) signaling; however, its use is limited due to systemic side effects. We recently reported that PRMT5 epigenetically activates AR which led us to investigate if targeting PRMT5 sensitizes prostate cancer to RT. The goal of this project is to determine if PRMT5 is a therapeutic target for prostate cancer radiosensitization and analyze its mechanistic role in response to radiation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To evaluate if targeting PRMT5 may sensitize prostate cancer cells to radiation, we performed a clonogenic assay of irradiated cells. To determine if PRMT5 is required for repair of radiation-induced DSBs, we performed foci analysis via immunocytochemistry. We then used RNA-seq, qPCR, western blot, and ChIP to evaluate a potential epigenetic role of PRMT5 in activating the expression of genes critical to DSB repair. To extend our findings, we analyzed clinical data from around 18,000 of cancer patients encompassing 43 cancer types to assess if PRMT5 expression correlates with the expression of its putative target genes. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Targeting PRMT5 sensitizes prostate cancer cells to radiation independently of AR status. RNA-seq analysis revealed putative PRMT5 target genes including several involved in DSB repair and G2 arrest. Mechanistically, PRMT5 functions as a master epigenetic activator of DNA damage response (DDR) genes: PRMT5 maintains the basal expression of several DDR genes including BRCA1, BRCA2, and RAD51 and is recruited upon radiation to DDR gene promoters to activate their expression via histone methylation. Targeting PRMT5 decreases expression of these genes at the protein level and hinders repair of radiation-induced DSBs in multiple cancer and non-cancer cell types. Clinically, PRMT5 expression positively correlates with the expression of these DDR genes across all 43 cancer types analyzed. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: PRMT5 acts as a master epigenetic activator of genes involved in DDR and is critical for cells to survive radiation treatment. Importantly, PRMT5 epigenetically activates multiple genes that encode for well-characterized core repair proteins involved in HR (RAD51, RAD51AP1, RAD51D, BRCA1 and BRCA2) and NHEJ (NHEJ1, Ku80, XRCC4, and DNAPKcs), which may explain why PRMT5 is essential to repair IR-induced DSBs in several cell lines. As PRMT5 is overexpressed in many human cancers and its overexpression correlates with poor prognosis, our findings suggest that more efficient DSB repair via PRMT5 overexpression in these cancers may confer survival advantages particularly following DNA damaging treatments. Lastly, because targeting DSB repair is a clinically validated therapeutic approach for cancer treatment, our findings also suggest that PRMT5 targeting may be explored as a monotherapy or in combination therapy with radiation therapy or chemotherapy for cancer treatment.
Plant nitrogen (N) links with many physiological progresses of crop growth and yield formation. Accurate simulation is key to predict crop growth and yield correctly. The aim of the current study was to improve the estimation of N uptake and translocation processes in the whole rice plant as well as within plant organs in the RiceGrow model by using plant and organ maximum, critical and minimum N dilution curves. The maximum and critical N (Nc) demand (obtained from the maximum and critical curves) of shoot and root and Nc demand of organs (leaf, stem and panicle) are calculated by N concentration and biomass. Nitrogen distribution among organs is computed differently pre- and post-anthesis. Pre-anthesis distribution is determined by maximum N demand with no priority among organs. In post-anthesis distribution, panicle demands are met first and then the remaining N is allocated to other organs without priority. The amount of plant N uptake depends on plant N demand and N supplied by the soil. Calibration and validation of the established model were performed on field experiments conducted in China and the Philippines with varied N rates and N split applications; results showed that this improved model can simulate the processes of N uptake and translocation well.
Nasal irrigation is commonly performed in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. This study systematically assessed the clinical efficacy of nasal irrigation from the medical literature.
The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched using a comprehensive strategy, limited to English-language articles, published from October 1971 to March 2017, and comprising human subjects.
A total of 824 trials were identified, 5 of which, involving 331 participants, were included in this systematic review. After selection, only three trials were eligible for inclusion in a meta-analysis. Nasal irrigation using normal saline and various solutions was found to be effective in reducing symptom scores and endoscopic scores for chronic rhinosinusitis patients after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Comparison of outcome measures, such as eosinophil count reduction, revealed that various solutions are more effective than normal saline alone; however, no statistical significance was found in terms of reduced symptom or endoscopic scores.
Based on the current limited evidence, nasal irrigation is an effective therapy for chronic rhinosinusitis patients after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. However, when comparing various solutions with normal saline, no significant difference was found in symptom scores or endoscopic scores.