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Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.
The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.
At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (−10.215 to −0.337) and (−4.731 to −0.605) respectively).
Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
Slow-growing, male chickens raised with outdoor access have been found to be a nutritious protein source with 24.83% protein in breast muscle. They have an acceptable carcass quality with at least 20% less abdominal fat, 3% more breast yield, and 3% more thigh yield than the birds raised in confinement. Similarly, slow-growing male chickens grown with outdoor access have a good bone quality with femur weight, length and diameter (16.5 g, 96.7 mm, and 8.61 mm, respectively). Considering fatty acid profile as a meat quality trait, breast muscles of slow-growing birds grown with outdoor access compared to those without such access have significantly higher polyunsaturated fatty acids level (3.85 vs. 3.36%), lower n6:n3 PUFA ratio (7.8 vs. 9.22) and lower saturated fatty acids content (26.29 vs. 28.73%). Raising slow-growing male chickens in production systems with outdoor access has been confirmed to be beneficial for the animals, the producers, the consumers and the environment.
Before weaning, breast milk is the physiological form of neonatal nutrition, providing pups with all nutrient requirements. Maternal low-protein diet (LPD) during pregnancy and lactation induces adverse changes in key maternal organs, which have negative effects on pup development. We studied the effects of maternal LPD on liver weight, mammary gland (MG) cell differentiation, milk composition and production and pup development throughout lactation. We fed rats with control (C) or LPD (R) during pregnancy and lactation. At 7 d early, 14 d mid and 21 d late lactation stages, maternal biochemical parameters, body, liver and MG weights were analysed. MG cell differentiation was analysed by haematoxylin and eosin staining; milk nutrient composition and production were studied; pup body, liver and brain weights, hippocampal arachidonic acid (AA) and DHA were quantified. Results showed lower body and liver weights, minor MG cell differentiation and lower serum insulin and TAG in R compared with C. R milk contained less protein and higher AA at early and mid stages compared with C. R pup milk and fat intake were lower at all stages. R protein intake at early and mid stages and DHA intake at mid and late stages were lower compared with C. In R pups, lower body, liver and brain weights were associated with decreased hippocampal AA and DHA. We conclude that maternal LPD impairs liver and MG function and induces significant changes in maternal milk composition, pup milk intake and organ development.
Adherence to dietary guidelines (DG) may result in higher intake of polyphenols via increased consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. We compared polyphenol dietary intake and urinary excretion between two intervention groups in the Cardiovascular risk REduction Study: Supported by an Integrated Dietary Approach study: a 12-week parallel-arm, randomised controlled trial (n 161; sixty-four males, ninety-seven females; aged 40–70 years). One group adhered to UK DG, whereas the other group consumed a representative UK diet (control). We estimated polyphenol dietary intake, using a 4-d food diary (4-DFD) and FFQ, and analysed 24-h polyphenol urinary excretion by liquid chromatography-tandem MS on a subset of participants (n 46 control; n 45 DG). A polyphenol food composition database for 4-DFD analysis was generated using Phenol-Explorer and USDA databases. Total polyphenol intake by 4-DFD at endpoint (geometric means with 95 % CI, adjusted for baseline and sex) was significantly higher in the DG group (1279 mg/d per 10 MJ; 1158, 1412) compared with the control group (1084 mg/d per 10 MJ; 980, 1197). The greater total polyphenol intake in the DG group was attributed to higher intake of anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and hydroxycinnamic acids, with the primary food sources being fruits, cereal products, nuts and seeds. FFQ estimates of flavonoid intake also detected greater intake in DG compared with the control group. 24-h urinary excretion showed consistency with 4-DFD in their ability to discriminate between dietary intervention groups for six out of ten selected, individual polyphenols. In conclusion, following UK DG increased total polyphenol intake by approximately 20 %, but not all polyphenol subclasses corresponded with this finding.
The present study examined the association between high-quality diet (using the Mediterranean diet (MD) as an example) and well-being cross-sectionally and prospectively in Spanish children and adolescents. Participants included 533 children and 987 adolescents at baseline and 527 children and 798 adolescents at 2-year follow-up, included in the UP&DOWN study (follow-up in schoolchildren and adolescents with and without Down’s syndrome). The present study excluded participants with Down’s syndrome. Adherence to an MD was assessed using the KIDMED index. Well-being was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaire. Associations between MD adherence and well-being were assessed using multi-level, mixed-effects linear regression. At baseline, MD adherence was positively related to health-related quality of life in secondary school girls and boys (β=0·41, se 0·10, P<0·001; β=0·46, se 0·10, P<0·001, respectively) and to positive affect in secondary school girls and boys (β=0·16, se 0·05, P=0·006; β=0·20, se 0·05, P<0·001, respectively) and in primary school boys (β=0·20, se 0·08, P=0·019). At 2-year follow-up, MD adherence was negatively related to negative affect in secondary school adolescent girls and boys (β=–0·15, se 0·07, P=0·047; β=–0·16, se 0·06, P=0·019, respectively), and MD adherence was associated with higher positive affect scores in secondary school girls (β=0·30, se 0·06, P<0·001) and in primary school boys (β=0·20, se 0·09, P=0·023). However, MD adherence at baseline did not predict well-being indicators at 2-year follow-up. In conclusion, higher MD adherence was found to behave as a protective factor for positive well-being in cross-sectional analysis.
In 2018, the Clostridium difficile LabID event methodology changed so that hospitals doing 2-step tests, nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) plus enzyme immunofluorescence assay (EIA), had their adjustment modified to EIA-based tests, and only positive final tests (eg, EIA) were counted in the numerator. We report the immediate impact of this methodological change at 3 Milwaukee hospitals.
Culturally linked family influences during adolescence are important predictors of health and well-being for Latino youth, yet few studies have examined whether these familial influences are associated with indicators of typical physiological stress processes. Following a cultural neurobiology framework, we examined the role of family in the everyday lives of Latino adolescents (N = 209; Mage = 18.10; 85.1% Mexican descent; 64.4% female) by investigating familism values and perceptions of parent support as well as daily family assistance behaviors in relation to hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis diurnal patterns, indexed by salivary cortisol five times a day for 3 weekdays. Three-level growth curve analyses revealed that perceptions of parental support were associated with greater cortisol awakening responses, whereas familism values were not associated with diurnal cortisol patterns. In day-to-day analyses, assisting family during the day (compared to not assisting family) was associated with lower waking cortisol levels and flatter diurnal slopes the next day. Our findings highlight the dynamic associations and multiple time courses between cultural values and behaviors, daily experiences, and physiological stress processes for Latino adolescents. Further, we identified important cultural risk and promotive factors associated with physiological regulation in daily life and potential pathways toward health outcomes in adulthood.
Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), a pest of great economic importance in South America, needs urgently to be controlled by environmentally friendly methods such as the sterile insect technique for which mass rearing of insects is required. Because oogenesis takes place during the adult stage, mass-rearing facilities should provide the females a diet that maximizes egg production at the lowest cost. Accordingly, we investigated the effect of artificial protein sources in the adult diet (yeast derivatives of different cost but with similar amino acids profiles, and the addition of wheat germ) on fecundity. Additionally, we evaluated different ratios of yeast derivatives or wheat germ on ovary maturation, fecundity, and fertility as well as their association with the nutrient content of females. Females fed hydrolyzed yeast and yeast extract attained the highest fecundity level, and those fed brewer's yeast the lowest. Reducing the amount of hydrolyzed yeast, an expensive protein source, in the diet negatively affected fecundity and ovary maturation. Increasing the amount of brewer's yeast, a low-cost protein source, did not favor fecundity. The addition of wheat germ in the adult diet improved fecundity regardless of the yeast derivate considered. Percentage of egg hatch was not affected by the diet. Nutrient content of A. fraterculus females varied according to the adult diet provided and mating status. Our findings provide novel baseline information to understand the role of nutrition on reproductive performance of A. fraterculus females and are discussed in the context of resource allocation. They also provide valuable advances in the search for cost-effective adult diets at fruit fly mass rearing facilities.
Sorghum panicle residue (SPR), a by-product of Sorghum vulgare, obtained in the manufacture of brooms and wisks, has potential as a partial substitute for grain in growing-finishing diets for feedlot lambs. Accordingly, 48 Pelibuey×Katahdin lambs (initial weight=16.2±4.3 kg) were used in an 84-d growth-performance trial to evaluate its comparative feeding value. Lambs were blocked by weight and assigned within weight groupings to 12 pens (4 lambs per pen). The SPR was finely ground before it was incorporated into the diet. The basal diet contained 60% whole grain sorghum (WGS; DM basis). Dietary treatments consisted in the replacement of WGS with 0, 50, or 100% SPR. Replacement of WGS with SPR decreased (linear effect, P=0.04) average daily gain (ADG), and tended to increase (linear effect, P=0.06) dry matter intake (DMI). Replacement of WGS with SPR decreased (linear effect, P<0.01) gain efficiency (ADG : DMI), and observed dietary net energy (NE), as well as hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, kidney–pelvic–heart fat, and back fat thickness (linear effect, P⩽.05) Other carcass characteristics and wholesale cuts as a percentage of cold carcass weight were not affected by dietary treatments. It is concluded that SPR is a palatable feed ingredient for inclusion in finishing diets for feedlot lambs. The comparative NE values for SPR are 1.50 and 0.91 Mcal/kg for maintenance and gain, respectively, 75% the NE value of WGS. These NE values reflect the greater fiber content of SPR. To the extent that dietary energy density limits energy intake (and hence daily weight gain), appropriate constraints on level of SPR incorporation is warranted.
In this article, we report low-temperature electron spin resonance (ESR) investigations carried out on solution processed three-layer inverted solar cell structures: PC61BM/CH3NH3PbI3/PEDOT:PSS/Glass, where PC61BM and PEDOT:PSS act as electron and hole transport layers, respectively. ESR measurements were conducted on ex-situ light (1 Sun) illuminated samples. We find two distinct ESR spectra. First ESR spectra resembles a typical powder pattern, associated with gx = gy = 4.2; gz = 9.2, found to be originated from Fe3+ extrinsic impurity located in the glass substrate. Second ESR spectra contains a broad (peak-to-peak line width ∼ 10 G) and intense ESR signal appearing at g = 2.008; and a weak, partly overlapped, but much narrower (peak-to-peak line width ∼ 4 G) ESR signal at g = 2.0022. Both sets of ESR spectra degrade in intensity upon light illumination. The latter two signals were found to stem from light-induced silicon dangling bonds and oxygen vacancies, respectively. Our controlled measurements confirm that these centers were generated during UV-ozone treatment of the glass substrate –a necessary step to be performed before PEDOT:PSS is spin coated. This work forms a significant step in understanding the light-induced- as well as extrinsic defects in perovskite solar cell materials.
A study was conducted over eight consecutive days in February 2010 in which daily variations in the vertical distributions of heterotrophic bacteria, mesozooplankton and ichthyoplankton at 1–1200 m in the South-western Atlantic Ocean were investigated. Diurnal and nocturnal samples were collected at an oceanographic station at four regional depths: Tropical Water (TW) (1 m), South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) (250 m), Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) (800 m) and Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW) (1200 m). Bacterial, mesozooplankton and larval fish densities significantly differed between sample depths but not between sampling tow times. In total, 154 zooplankton species and 18 larval fish species were identified. The highest number of taxa was obtained from the night-time TW trawls. This depth zone had the highest densities of mesozooplankton, larval fish and bacterioplankton (auto and heterotrophic), associated with the highest temperature and salinity and the lowest inorganic nutrient concentrations. Two sample groups were identified based on their mesozooplankton and larval fish compositions: night-time TW and other water masses (daytime TW, SACW, AAIW and UCDW). Thirty-two indicator species were detected in night-time TW. The copepod Nullosetigera impar was, to the best of our knowledge, identified for the first time on the Brazilian coast. Our results showed significant variability in the abundance and vertical distribution of mesozooplankton, bacterioplankton and larval fish along the water column in an oceanic area. We have provided new data and insights on the composition and vertical distribution of mesozooplankton, larval fish and bacterioplankton in deep waters in the South-western Atlantic Ocean.
Mugil liza is distributed along the western Atlantic coast. It is a commercially exploited species in Argentina, supporting a small-scale fishery conducted by an artisanal fleet. Age determination of fishes constitutes an important key issue for fishery management. The age, growth and recruitment of M. liza juveniles in Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon and Las Brusquitas creek (Buenos Aires, Argentina), were estimated by means of the analysis of the sagittal otoliths of fish collected during January to December of 2014. Ages were estimated by counting and measuring daily growth increments in otoliths under a light microscope. A total of 735 specimens ranging from 19 to 71.5 mm SL and from 67 to 212 days age was analysed. Lengths at previous ages were determined by back-calculation, a linear growth model was fitted to the back-calculated data: SL = 0.2468 + 2.0516; R2 = 0.9945. Two peaks of recruiters were observed from February to March, and from October to November in 2014. Mean ages in days of Querimana and juveniles at the recruitment time were 84.07 ± 14.43 days and 87.56 ± 19.51 days, respectively. The hatching dates of specimens showed two spawning seasons. One was from December 2013 to January 2014, and the second one from July to August 2014. The assessment carried on this work generated age determination values that support previous findings, contributing to make a more accurate description of the life-history model currently used. In addition, valuable information has been generated to give better advice for improving the management of the fishery resource.
Forage trees are commonly use for livestock feeding in the tropics. It is known that some species can affect the rumen protozoa population (Odenyo et al., 1997). However, little is known about the potential effect upon rumen protozoa of several species which are also use as feed in tropical systems. The objective of the experiment was to assess the defaunating capacity of forage trees. In companion reports (Monforte et al., 2005) we reported plants with a potential defaunating effect as evaluated under an in vitro batch culture system (Sandoval et al., 2005). Here we present those plants which did not have or had low effect on protozoa population in an in vitro culture.
Rumen protozoa population is reduced when ruminant are feed with foliage from some tropical trees an effect attributed to both saponins (Diaz et al., 1992) and tannins (Odenyo et al., 1997a). As PEG binds to tannins, it has been used to reduce its deleterious effect in animals feed tanniferous trees (Makkar et al., 1998). In a companion summary (Monforte et al., 2005) we showed that using PEG the defaunating capacity of a tanniferous tree is reduced. The objective of the present study was to assess if adding PEG to a protozoa culture will help to separate the tannin and saponin effect upon the protozoa population.
The microbial protein synthesis is variable and depend of several of factors, one the most important being the energy sources. Numerous investigations have evaluated individual sugars. However, few quantitative information is available describing the impact of sucrose or its monosacharides (glucose and fructose) and how they compare with other carbohydrate such as starch (Heldt et al., 1999). Chamberlain and Choung (1995) mention that sugar supplementation results in a higher microbial nitrogen supply (MNS) than starch. On the other hand, the amount of nutrients that ruminants can remove from feeds, may be modified by others feeds eaten the same day (Gill and Powell, 1993). Thus, feeding pattern might also affect microbial-N supply (Chamberlain and Choung, 1995). Therefore, the objective of the present work was to compare maize and sugarcane molasses as energy sources as well as the change of feeding pattern (CFP) on DM intake and MNS.
In Chiapas, México, natural vegetation is often used for grazing cattle. Local knowledge identify several plants and fruits as been consumed by cattle, But few information is available on their nutritive value. The objective of the present work was to assess the potential nutritive value and biological activity of tannins in 14 materials by means of the in vitro gas production technique.
In tropical countries is a common practice to feed cattle with variety of forage trees as supplements. In order to develop adequate strategies for management of trees, an assessment is needed of their potential use (intake) by cattle. Little research has been conducted in this area, and most effort has been focused on single forage evaluation. The objective of this experiment was to assess the preference by cattle of five forage trees. Preference was taken as the voluntary intake of a tree forage offered in a cafeteria trial.
Associative effects of feed mixtures have been studied looking at the differences (i.e. gas production) between single and mixed substrates, and significant differences have been found when fodder trees were mixed (Rosales et al., 1998). This may not be the more appropriate form to analyze mixtures, because small departures from simple additivity may result in significant differences as the sum of all its components equals one. Taking this fact into account mixture designs have been suggested as an adequate tool when dealing with mixtures (Mead, 1988). Mixtures design are a special class of response surface designs in which the sample under study is made up of several components or ingredients, thus the response depends on the relative proportion of the components. The objective of the present study was to asses the power of mixture designs to identify associative effects in feed mixtures.
TAOS II is a next-generation occultation survey with the goal of measuring the size distribution of the small end of the Kuiper Belt (objects with diameters 0.5–30 km). Such objects have magnitudes r > 30, and are thus undetectable by direct imaging. The project will operate three telescopes at San Pedro Mártir Observatory in Baja California, México. Each telescope will be equipped with a custom-built camera comprised of a focal-plane array of CMOS imagers. The cameras will be capable of reading out image data from 10,000 stars at a cadence of 20 Hz. The telescopes will monitor the same set of stars simultaneously to search for coincident occultation detections, thus minimising the false-positive rate. This talk described the project, and reported on the progress of the development of the survey infrastructure.