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From unemployment to Brexit to climate change, capitalism is in trouble and ill-prepared to cope with the challenges of the coming decades. How did we get here? While contemporary economists and policymakers tend to ignore the political and social dimensions of capitalism, some of the great economists of the past - Adam Smith, Friedrich List, John Maynard Keynes, Joseph Schumpeter, Karl Polanyi and Albert Hirschman - did not make the same mistake. Leveraging their insights, sociologists John L. Campbell and John A. Hall trace the historical development of capitalism as a social, political, and economic system throughout the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. They draw comparisons across eras and around the globe to show that there is no inevitable logic of capitalism. Rather, capitalism's performance depends on the strength of nation-states, the social cohesion of capitalist societies, and the stability of the international system - three things that are in short supply today.
Without nation-states Covid-19, climate change, international cyberattacks, and other threats would go unchecked. In The World of States, John L. Campbell and John A. Hall challenge the view that nation-states have lost their relevance in the context of globalization and rising nationalism. The book traces how states evolved historically, how contemporary states differ from one another, and the interactions between them. States today confront a host of challenges, but two features make some states more effective than others: institutional arrangement and national identity. The second edition has been updated to discuss why the BRICS countries (with the exception of China) are no longer the rising powers they were once thought to be; the effects of Brexit on the European Union; the legacy of the Trump administration for US politics and hegemony; and how the coronavirus may upset the world of states going forward.
Milrinone is a phosphodiesterase type 3 inhibitor that results in a positive inotropic effect in the heart through an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate circulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate and milrinone concentrations in milrinone treated paediatric patients undergoing congenital heart surgery.
Single-centre prospective observational pilot study from January 2015 to December 2017 including children aged birth to 18 years. Milrinone and circulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations were measured at four time points through the first post-operative day and compared between patients with and without low cardiac output syndrome, defined using clinical and laboratory criteria.
Fifty patients were included. Nine (18%) developed low cardiac output syndrome. For all patients, 22% had single ventricle heart disease. The density and distribution of cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations varied between those with and without low cardiac output syndrome but were not significantly different. Milrinone concentrations increased in all patients. Paired t-tests demonstrated an increase in circulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations during the post-operative period among patients without low cardiac output syndrome.
In this prospective observational study, circulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations increased in those without low cardiac output syndrome during the first 24 post-operative hours and milrinone concentrations increased in all patients. Further study of the utility of cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations in milrinone treated patients is necessary.
To analyse nutritional and packaging characteristics of toddler-specific foods and milks in the Australian retail food environment to identify how such products fit within the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) and the NOVA classification.
Cross-sectional retail audit of toddler foods and milks. On-pack product attributes were recorded. Products were categorised as (1) food or milk; (2) snack food or meal and (3) snacks sub-categorised depending on main ingredients. Products were classified as a discretionary or core food as per the ADG and level of processing according to NOVA classification.
Supermarkets and pharmacies in Australia.
A total of 154 foods and thirty-two milks were identified. Eighty percentage of foods were snacks, and 60 % of foods were classified as core foods, while 85 % were ultraprocessed (UP). Per 100 g, discretionary foods provided significantly more energy, protein, total and saturated fat, carbohydrate, total sugar and Na (P < 0·001) than core foods. Total sugars were significantly higher (P < 0·001) and Na significantly lower (P < 0·001) in minimally processed foods than in UP foods. All toddler milks (n 32) were found to have higher energy, carbohydrate and total sugar levels than full-fat cow’s milk per 100 ml. Claims and messages were present on 99 % of foods and all milks.
The majority of toddler foods available in Australia are UP snack foods and do not align with the ADG. Toddler milks, despite being UP, do align with the ADG. A strengthened regulatory approach may address this issue.
The legalization of hemp in the United States (U.S.) has created increased interest from agricultural and non-agricultural entities seeking to establish/expand hemp production and processing. As these entities begin to locate their production and processing operations, there is a potential for nearby residents to have concerns about these efforts. Using an online survey of residents from the southeastern U.S., concern levels and potential externalities associated with hemp production and processing were evaluated. Results show a majority of residents are concerned about hemp production and processing locating nearby with the externalities varying from the potential for illegal activity to environmental concerns.
Psychosocial factors have been implicated as both a cause and consequence of hypertension in the general population but are less understood in relation to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). The aims of this review were to (1) synthesize the existing literature examining associations between depression and/or anxiety in pregnancy and HDP and (2) assess if depression and/or anxiety in early pregnancy was a risk factor for HDP.
A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO was conducted from inception to March 2020 using terms related to ‘pregnancy’, ‘anxiety’, ‘depression’, and ‘hypertensive disorders’. English-language cohort and case-control studies were included if they reported: (a) the presence or absence of clinically significant symptoms of depression/anxiety, or a medical record diagnosis of depression or an anxiety disorder in pregnancy; (b) diagnosis of HDP; and/or (c) data comparing the depressed/anxious group to the non-depressed/anxious group on HDP. Data related to depression/anxiety, HDP, study characteristics, and aspects related to study quality were extracted independently by two reviewers. Random-effects meta-analyses of estimated pooled relative risks (RRs) were conducted for depression/anxiety in pregnancy and HDP.
In total, 6291 citations were retrieved, and 44 studies were included across 61.2 million pregnancies. Depression and/or anxiety were associated with HDP [RR = 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25–1.54].
When measurement of anxiety or depression preceded diagnosis of hypertension, the association remained (RR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.07–1.50). Women experiencing depression or anxiety in pregnancy have an increased prevalence of HDP compared to their non-depressed or non-anxious counterparts.
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is effective for most patients with a social anxiety disorder (SAD) but a substantial proportion fails to remit. Experimental and clinical research suggests that enhancing CBT using imagery-based techniques could improve outcomes. It was hypothesized that imagery-enhanced CBT (IE-CBT) would be superior to verbally-based CBT (VB-CBT) on pre-registered outcomes.
A randomized controlled trial of IE-CBT v. VB-CBT for social anxiety was completed in a community mental health clinic setting. Participants were randomized to IE (n = 53) or VB (n = 54) CBT, with 1-month (primary end point) and 6-month follow-up assessments. Participants completed 12, 2-hour, weekly sessions of IE-CBT or VB-CBT plus 1-month follow-up.
Intention to treat analyses showed very large within-treatment effect sizes on the social interaction anxiety at all time points (ds = 2.09–2.62), with no between-treatment differences on this outcome or clinician-rated severity [1-month OR = 1.45 (0.45, 4.62), p = 0.53; 6-month OR = 1.31 (0.42, 4.08), p = 0.65], SAD remission (1-month: IE = 61.04%, VB = 55.09%, p = 0.59); 6-month: IE = 58.73%, VB = 61.89%, p = 0.77), or secondary outcomes. Three adverse events were noted (substance abuse, n = 1 in IE-CBT; temporary increase in suicide risk, n = 1 in each condition, with one being withdrawn at 1-month follow-up).
Group IE-CBT and VB-CBT were safe and there were no significant differences in outcomes. Both treatments were associated with very large within-group effect sizes and the majority of patients remitted following treatment.
In response to advancing clinical practice guidelines regarding concussion management, service members, like athletes, complete a baseline assessment prior to participating in high-risk activities. While several studies have established test stability in athletes, no investigation to date has examined the stability of baseline assessment scores in military cadets. The objective of this study was to assess the test–retest reliability of a baseline concussion test battery in cadets at U.S. Service Academies.
All cadets participating in the Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) Consortium investigation completed a standard baseline battery that included memory, balance, symptom, and neurocognitive assessments. Annual baseline testing was completed during the first 3 years of the study. A two-way mixed-model analysis of variance (intraclass correlation coefficent (ICC)3,1) and Kappa statistics were used to assess the stability of the metrics at 1-year and 2-year time intervals.
ICC values for the 1-year test interval ranged from 0.28 to 0.67 and from 0.15 to 0.57 for the 2-year interval. Kappa values ranged from 0.16 to 0.21 for the 1-year interval and from 0.29 to 0.31 for the 2-year test interval. Across all measures, the observed effects were small, ranging from 0.01 to 0.44.
This investigation noted less than optimal reliability for the most common concussion baseline assessments. While none of the assessments met or exceeded the accepted clinical threshold, the effect sizes were relatively small suggesting an overlap in performance from year-to-year. As such, baseline assessments beyond the initial evaluation in cadets are not essential but could aid concussion diagnosis.
The COVID-19 pandemic has created a high demand on personal protective equipment, including disposable N95 masks. Given the need for mask reuse, we tested the feasibility of vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP), ultraviolet light (UV), and ethanol decontamination strategies on N95 mask integrity and the ability to remove the infectious potential of SARS-CoV-2.
Disposable N95 masks, including medical grade (1860, 1870+) and industrial grade (8511) masks, were treated by VHP, UV, and ethanol decontamination. Mask degradation was tested using a quantitative respirator fit testing. Pooled clinical samples of SARS-CoV-2 were applied to mask samples, treated, and then either sent immediately for real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or incubated with Vero E6 cells to assess for virucidal effect.
Both ethanol and UV decontamination showed functional degradation to different degrees while VHP treatment showed no significant change after two treatments. We also report a single SARS-CoV-2 virucidal experiment using Vero E6 cell infection in which only ethanol treatment eliminated detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA.
We hope our data will guide further research for evidenced-based decisions for disposable N95 mask reuse and help protect caregivers from SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating rare disease that affects individuals regardless of ethnicity, gender, and age. The first-approved disease-modifying therapy for SMA, nusinursen, was approved by Health Canada, as well as by American and European regulatory agencies following positive clinical trial outcomes. The trials were conducted in a narrow pediatric population defined by age, severity, and genotype. Broad approval of therapy necessitates close follow-up of potential rare adverse events and effectiveness in the larger real-world population.
The Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry (CNDR) undertook an iterative multi-stakeholder process to expand the existing SMA dataset to capture items relevant to patient outcomes in a post-marketing environment. The CNDR SMA expanded registry is a longitudinal, prospective, observational study of patients with SMA in Canada designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of novel therapies and provide practical information unattainable in trials.
The consensus expanded dataset includes items that address therapy effectiveness and safety and is collected in a multicenter, prospective, observational study, including SMA patients regardless of therapeutic status. The expanded dataset is aligned with global datasets to facilitate collaboration. Additionally, consensus dataset development aimed to standardize appropriate outcome measures across the network and broader Canadian community. Prospective outcome studies, data use, and analyses are independent of the funding partner.
Prospective outcome data collected will provide results on safety and effectiveness in a post-therapy approval era. These data are essential to inform improvements in care and access to therapy for all SMA patients.
Inhibitory theory proposes three major functions that are required to control overactivation in response to cues in the environment and thought. Evidence suggests that each function, Access, Deletion, and Restraint, is reduced in efficiency in healthy older adults. These reductions can together account for slowing, reduced working memory capacity, and increased susceptibility to interference at retrieval – all memory phenomena associated with aging. These reductions also result in greater knowledge of the context in which events occur as well as in greater usage of that information. Opportunities for positive interventions tied to these inefficiencies are also noted.
People aging with long-term physical disabilities (PAwLTPD), meaning individuals with onset of disability from birth through midlife, often require long-term support services (LTSS) to remain independence. The LTSS system is fragmented into aging and disability organizations with little communication between them. In addition, there are currently no evidence-based LTSS-type programs listed on the Administration for Community Living website that have been demonstrated to be effective for PAwLTPD. Because of these gaps, we have developed a community-based research network (CBRN), drawing on the practice-based research network model (PBRN), to bring together aging and disability organizations to address the lack of evidence-based programs for PAwLTPD.
Materials and Methods:
Community-based organizations serving PAwLTPD across the state of Missouri were recruited to join the CBRN. A formative process evaluation of the network was conducted after a year to evaluate the effectiveness of the network.
Nine community-based organizations across the state of Missouri joined the CBRN. CBRN members include three centers for independent living (CILs), three area agencies on aging (AAAs), one CIL/AAA hybrid, one non-CIL disability organization, and one non-AAA aging organization. To date, we have held seven meetings, provided educational opportunities for CBRN members, and launched an inaugural research study within the CBRN. Formative evaluation data indicate that CBRN members feel that participation in the CBRN is beneficial.
The PBRN model appears to be a feasible framework for use with community-based organizations to facilitate communication between agencies and to support research aimed at addressing the needs of PAwLTPD.
Introduction: Inhaled low dose methoxyflurane (MEOF) was recently approved in Canada for the short-term relief of moderate to severe acute pain associated with trauma or interventional medical procedures in conscious adult patients. ADVANCE-ED is an ongoing phase IV, prospective open label study undertaken to generate real-world evidence to complement the global clinical development program through evaluation of the effectiveness of low dose MEOF in Canadian emergency departments (EDs). Methods: This multi-centre study is enrolling adult (≥18 yrs) patients with moderate to severe acute pain (NRS0-10 ≥ 4) associated with minor trauma. To address limitations from the pivotal study, this study allows patients who were excluded in the pivotal trials: namely, those with severe (≥7) pain, and those using OTC or stably dosed analgesics for other conditions, including chronic pain. Eligible patients receive a single treatment of up to 2 x 3 mL MEOF (2nd 3 mL to be provided only upon request), self-administered by the patient under medical supervision. Rescue medication is permitted at any time, if required. Results: Here we describe the patient demographics and treatment satisfaction (Global Medication Performance, GMP) at 50% enrolment (n = 49). Mean (SD) patient age is 48.0 (17.1) yrs and 55.1% are female. Mean pain (SD) reported at enrolment is 8.3 (1.5), with 73.4% of patients with NRS0-10 ≥ 8. Injuries are overwhelmingly limb trauma (87.8%). The most common type is sprain/strain (40.8%), followed by fracture (32.7%). At 5 minutes post-start of administration (STA) of MEOF, 80.4% of patients reported pain relief; this increased to 91.3% at 15 minutes, and 100% of patients reported pain relief by 30 minutes post-STA. GMP was assessed as “good”, “very good” or “excellent” by ≥80% of patients both 20 minutes post-start of administration (STA) of MEOF (83.3%) and at discharge (85.8%). When asked to what extent their expectation of pain relief had been met, 32.7% responded good, 26.5% responded “very good” and 22.4% responded “excellent”. Three quarters of enrolled patients (75.5%) did not require rescue medication. The most common (≥5%) treatment-related adverse events were dizziness (n = 14, 28.6%) and euphoric mood (n = 4, 8.2%). No serious adverse events have been reported. Conclusion: Based on 50% of the patients enrolled in this prospective, open label study, responses to inhaled low-dose MEOF are within expectation for both effectiveness and tolerability.
Introduction: This was a prospective observational study involving a convenience sample of low-risk trauma patients presenting to a Level 1 Trauma Centre under spinal motion restriction (SMR). To our knowledge no prior studies have objectively measured head-neck (H-N) motion in trauma patients with suspected spine injuries during emergency department (ED) care. The goal was to establish the feasibility of deploying non-invasive motion sensors on trauma patients in the ED and to provide initial estimates for H-N kinematics under SMR during different phases of treatment. Methods: Low-risk adult patients treated by Winnipeg Fire Paramedic Service who sustained non-life threatening trauma with the potential for spine injury were eligible for inclusion. Participants received usual pre-hospital care; application of spine board and/or cervical collar, as determined by local practice protocol. Inertial measurement units (IMUs) were placed on participant's forehead, sternum and stretcher upon arrival to the ED. Data was collected during three phases of care: patient handling (log rolls, transfers, clothing removal); stretcher movement (to imaging, etc); stretcher stationary. IMUs were removed upon disposition decision by the attending physician. IMUs yielded data on H-N motion in terms of linear acceleration (resultant) and angular displacement (rotation + flexion-extension + side-flexion = total). Peak (M +/- SE) displacements and accelerations are reported, with comparisons across treatment phases using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Eleven patients were enrolled in the study (age: 49 +/- 16 years; Injury Severity Score 13.4 +/- 9.9; female = 2). Substantial H-N motion was observed during ED care. Total H-N displacement (28.6 +/- 3.6 deg) and acceleration (7.8 +/- 1.0 m/s2) were higher during patient handling compared to stretcher moving (13.0 +/- 2.5 deg; 4.6 +/- 0.9 m/s2; p < .05) but not while the stretcher was stationary (18.9 +/- 3.4 deg; 5.4 +/- 1.2 m/s2; p > .06). Similar differences were detected for side-flexion and flexion-extension (p < .05), with peak displacements of 11.4+/-1.5 deg and 14.6 +/- 2.2 deg during patient handling, respectively. Conclusion: IMU use on trauma patients safely described H-N motion kinematics in a small sample of patients with different spectrums of illness during their care in the ED. Future studies utilizing IMUs could inform ED spine motion restriction protocols and compare movement of patients in specific subsets (intoxicated, spinal tenderness, injury severity etc.).
Fiscal and monetary policy are among the most basic tools governments use to manage their economies. These tools have evolved in dramatic fashion during the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. This chapter examines that evolution and its implications for socioeconomic performance. I begin by explaining what these tools are. Second, I discuss the basic debates about how they ought to be used and how the general approach to fiscal and monetary policy evolved from the Keynesian era beginning roughly in the 1930s to the neoliberal era beginning in the late 1970s. My intention is not to delve into the intricacies of economic theory or the minutiae of economic policy but rather to summarize these things with broad strokes.
In his 2008 best-selling book, Outliers: The Story of Success, Malcom Gladwell, using the Beatles as a case study, introduced his readers to the “10,000 hour rule,” explaining the Beatles’ musical success as a product of the long hours the group had to play during their apprenticeship in Hamburg in the early 1960s. Unnoticed by Gladwell, Hamburg played a decidedly important role in the Beatles’ story for another reason: they met Astrid Kirchherr, who became a member of the Beatles’ inner circle in 1960. When she asked them if she could take their photographs, she had no idea that the pictures of them in iconic poses around Hamburg would become an important part of the visual record of the most famous rock band in history. Astrid contributed to the Beatles’ sense of style and fashion, most famously their famous mop-top hairstyle, but Pauline Sutcliffe – whose brother Stuart played bass for the Beatles at the time and married Astrid before his early death – thought Astrid had influenced the Beatles’ music as well. Astrid was a revelation for the Beatles; at the age of 22, she possessed both an air of mystery and an aura of sophistication that made her as much a muse as a friend.
In Australia, free-range egg production pullets are typically reared indoors, but adult layers get outdoor access. This new environment may be challenging to adapt to, which could impair egg production and/or egg quality. Adaptation might be enhanced through rearing enrichments. We reared 1386 Hy-Line Brown® chicks indoors with three treatments across 16 weeks: (1) a control group with standard litter housing conditions, (2) a novelty group providing novel objects that changed weekly, and (3) a structural enrichment group with custom-designed structures to partially impair visibility across the pen and allow for vertical movement. Pullets were transferred to a free-range system at 16 weeks of age with daily outdoor access provided from 25 until 64 weeks. Daily egg production at different laying locations (large nests, small nests and floor), weekly egg weights and egg abnormalities were recorded from 18 to 64 weeks old. External and internal egg quality parameters of egg weight, shell reflectivity, albumen height, haugh unit, yolk colour score, shell weight and shell thickness were measured at 44, 52, 60 and 64 weeks. There was a significant interaction between rearing treatment and nest box use on hen-day production from weeks 18 to 25 (P < 0.0001) with the novelty hens laying the most eggs and the control hens the fewest eggs in the nest box. Similarly, from 26 to 64 weeks, the novelty hens laid more eggs in the large nest boxes and fewer eggs on the floor than both the structural and control hens (P < 0.0001). Egg weight and abnormalities increased with age (P < 0.0001), but rearing treatment had no effect on either measure (both P ≥ 0.19). Rearing treatment affected shell reflectivity and yolk colour with the control hens showing paler colours across time relative to the changes observed in the eggs from enriched hens. The novelty hens may have established nest box laying patterns as they were more accustomed to exploring new environments. The differences in egg quality could be related to stress adaptability or ranging behaviour. This study shows that enriching environments during rearing can have some impacts on production parameters in free-range hens.