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Free-ranging grey wolves (Canis lupus), which are presently recolonizing Italy, can be parasitized by a diversity of helminths, but have rarely been subject to studies of their parasites. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of road-killed grey wolves from the Piedmont region of Italy. Forty-two wolves were collected and examined for the presence of helminths. We recorded 12 helminth species: nine Nematoda and three Cestoda. The nematodes were: Ancylostoma caninum (7.1%), Capillaria sp. (2.4%), Molineus sp. (2.4%), Pterygodermatites affinis (11.9%), Physaloptera sibirica (9.5%), Toxocara canis (9.5%), Toxascaris leonina (2.4%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (26.2%); the cestodes were: Dipylidium caninum (4.8%), Mesocestoides sp. (4.8%) and Taenia multiceps (76.2%). Physaloptera sibirica had the highest mean intensity and T. multiceps had the highest prevalence. Based on age and sex, no differences in the intensity or prevalence of helminth species were found among the hosts. Molineus sp. was recorded for the first time in wolves from the Palearctic region; P. affinis and P. sibirica are respectively reported for the first time in wolves from Europe and Italy.
Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been associated with the development of metabolic syndrome-related diseases in offspring. According to epidemiological studies, father’s transmission of environmental effects in addition to mother’s can influence offspring health. Moreover, maternal prenatal dietary folic acid (FA) may beneficially impact offspring health. The objective is to investigate whether prenatal FA supplementation can overcome the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to POPs on lipid homeostasis and inflammation in three generations of male rat descendants through the paternal lineage. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (F0) were exposed to a POPs mixture (or corn oil) +/− FA supplementation for 9 weeks before and during gestation. F1 and F2 males were mated with untreated females. Plasma and hepatic lipids were measured in F1, F2, and F3 males after 12-h fast. Gene expression of inflammatory cytokines was determined by qPCR in epididymal adipose tissue. In F1 males, prenatal POPs exposure increased plasma lipids at 14 weeks old and hepatic lipids at 28 weeks old and prenatal FA supplementation decreased plasma total cholesterol at 14 weeks old. Prenatal POPs exposure decreased plasma triglycerides at 14 weeks old in F2 males. No change was observed in inflammatory markers. Our results show an impact of the paternal lineage on lipid homeostasis in rats up to the F2 male generation. FA supplementation of the F0 diet, regardless of POPs exposure, lowered plasma cholesterol in F1 males but failed to attenuate the deleterious effects of prenatal POPs exposure on plasma and hepatic lipids in F1 males.
Femoral vein access is the first choice for percutaneous atrial septal defect closure, and when it cannot be used due to anatomic reasons, the alternative sites should be considered, frequently increasing the complexity of the procedure. Here we report the case of a 3-year-old boy, with situs inversus and dextrocardia, electively referred for percutaneous closure of an ostium secundum atrial septal defect. During the procedure, agenesis of the infra-hepatic segment of the inferior caval vein was diagnosed, and no double inferior caval vein or right superior caval vein were identified by ultrasound or angiography. Therefore, we opted to perform the procedure through the left internal jugular vein, with fluoroscopy and transesophageal echocardiographic guidance. Catheters were navigated through a hydrophilic guidewire, and a Stiff guidewire was positioned in the left ventricle for better support. An Amplatzer septa occluder 19 was successfully deployed without major difficulties and the patient was discharged after 24 hours in good clinical condition. Percutaneous atrial septal defect closure through alternative access sites, especially in the presence of situs inversus, may pose significant challenges to the interventional team. In this case, the left internal jugular vein has shown to be a feasible option, allowing the navigation and manipulation of devices without complications. Provided the expertise of the interventional team, and awareness of the risks involved, alternative access sites can be successfully used for paediatric structural interventions.
The purpose of this note is to prove the following. Suppose
is a semiprime unity ring having an idempotent element
$e\neq 0,~e\neq 1$
) which satisfies mild conditions. It is shown that every additive generalized Jordan derivation on
is a generalized derivation.
Improvement of the performance of renewable electronic devices is a crucial point for the consolidation of this emerging technology. Herein, we develop a supercapacitor based on cellulose, carbon nanotubes, and ionic liquids. A conductive paper prepared by simple acid hydrolysis of cellulose and carboxylated carbon nanotubes was used as an electrode. A cellulose sponge impregnated with 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide was used as a separator/electrolyte. Electrochemical tests were performed in a two-electrode cell that presented a specific capacitance of 34.37 F/g when considered the active mass and 97.9% of capacitance retention after 5000 charge/discharge cycles.
Investigations into the existence of life in other parts of the cosmos find strong parallels with studies of the origin and evolution of life on our own planet. In this way, astrobiology and paleobiology are married by their common interest in disentangling the interconnections between life and the surrounding environment. In this way, a cross-point of both sciences is paleometry, which involves a myriad of imaging and geochemical techniques, usually non-destructive, applied to the investigation of the fossil record. In the last decades, paleometry has benefited from an unprecedented technological improvement, thus solving old questions and raising new ones. This advance has been paralleled by conceptual approaches and discoveries fuelled by technological evolution in astrobiological research. In this context, we present some new data and review recent advances on the employment of paleometry to investigations on paleobiology and astrobiology in Brazil in areas such biosignatures in Ediacaran microbial mats, biogenicity tests on enigmatic Ediacaran structures, research on Ediacaran metazoan biomineralization, fossil preservation in Cretaceous insects and fish, and finally the experimental study on the decay of fish to test the effect of distinct types of sediment on soft-tissue preservation, as well as the effects of early diagenesis on fish bone preservation.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
In the current study, phage-exposed mimotopes as targets against tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) were selected by means of bio-panning cycles employing sera of TL patients and healthy subjects, besides the immune stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from untreated and treated TL patients and healthy subjects. The clones were evaluated regarding their specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in the in vitro cultures, and selectivity and specificity values were calculated, and those presenting the best results were selected for the in vivo experiments. Two clones, namely A4 and A8, were identified and used in immunization protocols from BALB/c mice to protect against Leishmania amazonensis infection. Results showed a polarized Th1 response generated after vaccination, being based on significantly higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); which were associated with lower production of specific IL-4, IL-10 and immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibodies. Vaccinated mice presented significant reductions in the parasite load in the infected tissue and distinct organs, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we presented a strategy to identify new mimotopes able to induce Th1 response in PBMCs from TL patients and healthy subjects, and that were successfully used to protect against L. amazonensis infection.
Recent open-label trials show that psychedelics, such as ayahuasca, hold promise as fast-onset antidepressants in treatment-resistant depression.
To test the antidepressant effects of ayahuasca, we conducted a parallel-arm, double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in 29 patients with treatment-resistant depression. Patients received a single dose of either ayahuasca or placebo. We assessed changes in depression severity with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Hamilton Depression Rating scale at baseline, and at 1 (D1), 2 (D2), and 7 (D7) days after dosing.
We observed significant antidepressant effects of ayahuasca when compared with placebo at all-time points. MADRS scores were significantly lower in the ayahuasca group compared with placebo at D1 and D2 (p = 0.04), and at D7 (p < 0.0001). Between-group effect sizes increased from D1 to D7 (D1: Cohen's d = 0.84; D2: Cohen's d = 0.84; D7: Cohen's d = 1.49). Response rates were high for both groups at D1 and D2, and significantly higher in the ayahuasca group at D7 (64% v. 27%; p = 0.04). Remission rate showed a trend toward significance at D7 (36% v. 7%, p = 0.054).
To our knowledge, this is the first controlled trial to test a psychedelic substance in treatment-resistant depression. Overall, this study brings new evidence supporting the safety and therapeutic value of ayahuasca, dosed within an appropriate setting, to help treat depression. This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02914769).
Monitoring vectors is relevant to ascertain transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF). This may require the best sampling method that can capture high numbers of specific species to give indication of transmission. Gravid anophelines are good indicators for assessing transmission due to close contact with humans through blood meals. This study compared the efficiency of an Anopheles gravid trap (AGT) with other mosquito collection methods including the box and the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention gravid, light, exit and BioGent-sentinel traps, indoor resting collection (IRC) and pyrethrum spray catches across two endemic regions of Ghana. The AGT showed high trapping efficiency by collecting the highest mean number of anophelines per night in the Western (4.6) and Northern (7.3) regions compared with the outdoor collection methods. Additionally, IRC was similarly efficient in the Northern region (8.9) where vectors exhibit a high degree of endophily. AGT also showed good trapping potential for collecting Anopheles melas which is usually difficult to catch with existing methods. Screening of mosquitoes for infection showed a 0.80–3.01% Wuchereria bancrofti and 2.15–3.27% Plasmodium spp. in Anopheles gambiae. The AGT has shown to be appropriate for surveying Anopheles populations and can be useful for xenomonitoring for both LF and malaria.
Individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) present poor immediate primacy recall accompanied by intact or exaggerated recency, which then tends to decline after a delay. Bruno et al. (Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, Vol. 38, 2016, pp. 967–973) have shown that higher ratio scores between immediate and delayed recency (i.e. the recency ratio; Rr) are associated with cognitive decline in high-functioning older individuals. We tested whether Rr predicted conversion to early mild cognitive impairment (early MCI) from a cognitively healthy baseline.
Data were analyzed longitudinally with binomial regression. Baseline scores were used to predict conversion to early MCI after approximately nine years. Setting: Data were collected at the Wisconsin Registry of Alzheimer's Prevention, in Madison, Wisconsin.
For the study, 427 individuals were included in the analysis; all participants were 50 years of age or older and cognitively intact at baseline, and were native English speakers.
Memory data were collected using the Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and the early MCI diagnosis was obtained via consensus conference.
Our results showed that higher Rr scores are correlated with greater risk of later early MCI diagnosis, and this association is independent of total recall performance.
Rr is an emerging cognitive marker of cognitive decline.
Goats have played a key role as source of nourishment for humans in their expansion all over the world in long land and sea trips. This has guaranteed a place for this species in the important and rapid episode of livestock expansion triggered by Columbus’ arrival in the Americas in the late 1400s. The aims of this study are to provide a comprehensive perspective on genetic diversity in American goat populations and to assess their origins and evolutionary trajectories. This was achieved by combining data from autosomal neutral genetic markers obtained in more than two thousand samples that encompass a wide range of Iberian, African and Creole goat breeds. In general, even though Creole populations differ clearly from each other, they lack a strong geographical pattern of differentiation, such that populations of different admixed ancestry share relatively close locations throughout the large geographical range included in this study. Important Iberian signatures were detected in most Creole populations studied, and many of them, particularly the Cuban Creole, also revealed an important contribution of African breeds. On the other hand, the Brazilian breeds showed a particular genetic structure and were clearly separated from the other Creole populations, with some influence from Cape Verde goats. These results provide a comprehensive characterisation of the present structure of goat genetic diversity, and a dissection of the Iberian and African influences that gave origin to different Creole caprine breeds, disentangling an important part of their evolutionary history. Creole breeds constitute an important reservoir of genetic diversity that justifies the development of appropriate management systems aimed at improving performance without loss of genomic diversity.
Composite of PZT (lead zirconate titanate) and PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconate titanate) along an organic, renewable, conductive, and flexible matrix have been developed. The conductive paper was obtained through the reaction between the cellulose extracted from banana stem and functionalized MWCNT. This reaction was made in the presence of hydrogen (from H2SO4), which reduced the size of the cellulose by acid hydrolysis and promotes the interaction between its hydroxyls and the carboxyl groups of nanotubes. Afterward, the PZT particles were synthesized and grown up on the conductive paper by microwaves-assisted hydrothermal synthesis (MHS). The composite material was characterized by structure and morphology. Moreover, gas-sensing in the presence of methanol and electrical resistance as a function of temperature were also investigated. In this way, a simple, low-cost and successful synthesis was reported. Also, a promising flexible was obtained using a chemical transformation process from banana residue as source of cellulose.
Located at the northwestern part of the Amazon basin, Rio Negro is the largest black-water river in the world and is one of the poorest studied regions of the Amazon lowlands. In the middle-upper part of the Rio Negro were retrieved sediment cores form Lake Acarabixi, which were analyzed using pollen, spores, charcoal, and geochemistry. The aim of this study was to detect the influences from humans and river dynamics on the vegetation history in the region. Two main periods of vegetation and river dynamics were detected. From 10,840 to 8240 cal yr BP, the river had a direct influence into the lake. The lake had a regional input of charcoal particles, which reflected the effect of the dry Holocene period in the basin. Furthermore, highland taxa such as Hedyosmum and Myrsine were found at that time along with igapó forest species that are characteristic to tolerate extended flooding like Eschweilera, Macrolobium, Myrtaceae, Swartzia, and Astrocaryum. During the late Holocene (1600 to 650 cal yr BP), more lacustrine phases were observed. There were no drastic changes in vegetation but the presence of pioneer species like Vismia and Cecropia, along with the signal of fires, which pointed to human disturbances.
In this study, we isolate and analyse a new set of microsatellite loci for Cattleya walkeriana. Twenty-two primer pairs were screened for C. walkeriana (n = 32) and assessed for their transferability to Cattleya loddigesii (n = 12) and Cattleya nobilior (n = 06). All loci amplified for C. walkeriana; however, for C. loddigesii and C. nobilior, four and five primers, respectively, did not present amplification. The polymorphic loci presented between 2 and 13 alleles per locus for both C. walkeriana and C. loddigesii, with respective averages of 5.1 and 4.2. For C. nobilior, we found between two and five alleles per locus, with an average of 2.6. For C. walkeriana, observed heterozygosity varied from 0.100 to 0.966, whereas expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.097 to 0.900. The observed and expected heterozygosity for C. loddigesii and C. nobilior were also estimated. We found no significant linkage disequilibrium between any pair of loci, and evidence of null alleles at four loci (Cw16, Cw24, Cw30 and Cw31) for C. walkeriana. The combined power to exclude the first parent and combined non-exclusion probability of identity were 0.999 and 2.3 × 10−20, respectively. These new loci can be used in studies of germplasm resources, and assessments of genotypic and genetic diversity and population structure, thus improving the accuracy of such analyses and their applicability in the conservation and protection of these endangered species.
Geopolymers are recently developed ceramic materials produced by alkaline activation of thermally activated natural materials such as metakaolin. Due to their promising application in the field of structural components, the presence of a piezoresistive effect is a very useful property for such materials because it allows the real time self-monitoring of civil infrastructures. As observed for cement-based materials, the use of a conductive filler can enhance the piezoresistive response by avoiding measuring issues related to the electrical polarization. In this work we present preliminary results about the piezoresistive characterization of a metakaolin based geopolymeric mortar filled with graphene nanoplatelets. Composites with different graphene weight concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1%) were produced and the gauge factor (the ratio between the electrical resistance variation and the imposed strain) was calculated by means of dynamic four-probe resistance measurements. Very high gauge factor values (in the range of 1000-2000) were recorded and they can vary according to the dispersion quality of the graphene nanoplatelets into the ceramic matrix.
To this date ψ Per is the only classical Be star that was angularly resolved in radio (by the VLA at λ = 2 cm). Gaussian fit to the azimuthally averaged visibility data indicates a disk size (FWHM) of ~500 stellar radii (Dougherty & Taylor 1992). Recently, we obtained new multi-band cm flux density measurements of ψ Per from the enhanced VLA. We modeled the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) covering the interval from ultraviolet to radio using the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code HDUST (Carciofi & Bjorkman 2006). An SED turndown, that occurs between far-IR and radio wavelengths, is explained by a truncated viscous decretion disk (VDD), although the shallow slope of the radio SED suggests that the disk is not simply cut off, as is assumed in our model. The best-fit size of a truncated disk derived from the modeling of the radio SED is 100+5−15 stellar radii, which is in striking contrast with the result of Dougherty & Taylor (1992). The reasons for this discrepancy are under investigation.
Parents are a major supplier of alcohol to adolescents, yet there is limited research examining the impact of this on adolescent alcohol use. This study investigates associations between parental supply of alcohol, supply from other sources, and adolescent drinking, adjusting for child, parent, family and peer variables.
A cohort of 1927 adolescents was surveyed annually from 2010 to 2014. Measures include: consumption of whole drinks; binge drinking (>4 standard drinks on any occasion); parental supply of alcohol; supply from other sources; child, parent, family and peer covariates.
After adjustment, adolescents supplied alcohol by parents had higher odds of drinking whole beverages [odds ratio (OR) 1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33–2.45] than those not supplied by parents. However, parental supply was not associated with bingeing, and those supplied alcohol by parents typically consumed fewer drinks per occasion (incidence rate ratio 0.86, 95% CI 0.77–0.96) than adolescents supplied only from other sources. Adolescents obtaining alcohol from non-parental sources had increased odds of drinking whole beverages (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.86–3.45) and bingeing (OR 3.51, 95% CI 2.53–4.87).
Parental supply of alcohol to adolescents was associated with increased risk of drinking, but not bingeing. These parentally-supplied children also consumed fewer drinks on a typical drinking occasion. Adolescents supplied alcohol from non-parental sources had greater odds of drinking and bingeing. Further follow-up is necessary to determine whether these patterns continue, and to examine alcohol-related harm trajectories. Parents should be advised that supply of alcohol may increase children's drinking.
Objectives: Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) demonstrate poorer learning and memory skills relative to never-depressed comparisons (NDC). Previous studies report decreased volume and disrupted function of frontal lobes and hippocampi in MDD during memory challenge. However, it has been difficult to dissociate contributions of short-term memory and executive functioning to memory difficulties from those that might be attributable to long-term memory deficits. Methods: Adult males (MDD, n=19; NDC, n=22) and females (MDD, n=23; NDC, n=19) performed the Semantic List Learning Task (SLLT) during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The SLLT Encoding condition consists of 15 lists, each containing 14 words. After each list, a Distractor condition occurs, followed by cued Silent Rehearsal instructions. Post-scan recall and recognition were collected. Groups were compared using block (Encoding-Silent Rehearsal) and event-related (Words Recalled) models. Results: MDD displayed lower recall relative to NDC. NDC displayed greater activation in several temporal, frontal, and parietal regions, for both Encoding-Silent Rehearsal and the Words Recalled analyses. Groups also differed in activation patterns in regions of the Papez circuit in planned analyses. The majority of activation differences were not related to performance, presence of medications, presence of comorbid anxiety disorder, or decreased gray matter volume in MDD. Conclusions: Adults with MDD exhibit memory difficulties during a task designed to reduce the contribution of individual variability from short-term memory and executive functioning processes, parallel with decreased activation in memory and executive functioning circuits. Ecologically valid long-term memory tasks are imperative for uncovering neural correlates of memory performance deficits in adults with MDD. (JINS, 2016, 22, 412–425)
Both synthesis and photocatalytic potential of an innovative catalyst-powder type composite material based on the Zn or/and ZnO dispersed in a matrix of amorphous-carbon have been investigated. Zn/ZnO/amorphous-carbon nanostructured-matrix composite was prepared by partial pyrolysis method based on the Pechini method. The amorphous character of composite was characterized X-ray diffraction, while chemical bond investigated by infrared spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity directed to the degradation of the phenol red dye of small fraction of commercial ZnO, Zn/C and Zn/ZnO/C composites were evaluated as a function of the degradation reaction of the phenol red dye, in the alkaline medium pH = 9. A mass concentration of 1:10,000 was selected being considered 30 and 150 min of reaction A comparison between photocatalytic activity showed that the degradation rate of phenol red dye is more efficient at both ZnO/Zn/C and Zn/C amorphous composites when compared to the pristine ZnO. The efficiency obeys the following order C/Zn ≥ C/ZnO/Zn > commercial ZnO with conversion equal to 70% for C/Zn and C/ZnO/Zn, while for the ZnO is around 55%. The kinetic of degradation is discussed.