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We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a planned large radio interferometer designed to operate over a wide range of frequencies, and with an order of magnitude greater sensitivity and survey speed than any current radio telescope. The SKA will address many important topics in astronomy, ranging from planet formation to distant galaxies. However, in this work, we consider the perspective of the SKA as a facility for studying physics. We review four areas in which the SKA is expected to make major contributions to our understanding of fundamental physics: cosmic dawn and reionisation; gravity and gravitational radiation; cosmology and dark energy; and dark matter and astroparticle physics. These discussions demonstrate that the SKA will be a spectacular physics machine, which will provide many new breakthroughs and novel insights on matter, energy, and spacetime.
This research aimed to develop a typology of agriculture in Timor-Leste using national census data at the village level. Although Timor-Leste is a relatively small nation, its varied topography contains a rich diversity in agricultural livelihoods, from coffee covered mountains, to dryland-swidden agriculture. Each of the livelihoods are very complex, with a single household often managing more than 10 crop and 4–5 animal species in very small holdings. Using census data from each village only, statistical clustering analysis was used to group villages with similar levels of participation in crop and livestock production. The clustered village groups were then mapped, and it was seen that villages in each cluster, occupied particular locations. Using expert knowledge about the locations of each cluster, livelihood zones based on a small number of rules were defined to mimic the output of the clustering. Seven livelihood zones were identified from mapping the livelihood systems. These included three zones with irrigation (rice-based), two highland zones (coffee-based) and two lowland zones based on rain-fed agriculture. Government and development agencies have endorsed the typology of livelihood zones, which is now in use for planning and decision-making. The technique of using national census data to define agricultural zones through statistical clustering can be replicated wherever there is reliable village-level census data.
We investigate the contribution of a local over- or under-density to linear estimates of the cosmic dipole. We focus on radio continuum surveys. Recently it was shown that the radio dipole amplitude is larger than expected from the corresponding dipole of the CMB. We show that a significant contribution to this excess could come from local structure.
EMU is a wide-field radio continuum survey planned for the new Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The primary goal of EMU is to make a deep (rms ∼ 10 μJy/beam) radio continuum survey of the entire Southern sky at 1.3 GHz, extending as far North as +30° declination, with a resolution of 10 arcsec. EMU is expected to detect and catalogue about 70 million galaxies, including typical star-forming galaxies up to z ∼ 1, powerful starbursts to even greater redshifts, and active galactic nuclei to the edge of the visible Universe. It will undoubtedly discover new classes of object. This paper defines the science goals and parameters of the survey, and describes the development of techniques necessary to maximise the science return from EMU.
To estimate the economic value of dispensing preoperative home-based Chlorhexidine bathing cloth kits to orthopedic patients to prevent surgical site infection (SSI).
A stochastic decision-analytic computer simulation model was developed from the hospital’s perspective depicting the decision of whether to dispense the kits preoperatively to orthopedic patients. We varied patient age, cloth cost, SSI-attributable excess length of stay, cost per bed-day, patient compliance with the regimen, and cloth antimicrobial efficacy to determine which variables were the most significant drivers of the model’s outcomes.
When all other variables remained at baseline and cloth efficacy was at least 50%, patient compliance only had to be half of baseline (baseline mean, 15.3%; range, 8.23%–20.0%) for Chlorhexidine cloths to remain the dominant strategy (ie, less costly and providing better health outcomes). When cloth efficacy fell to 10%, 1.5 times the baseline bathing compliance also afforded dominance of the preoperative bath.
The results of our study favor the routine distribution of bathing kits. Even with low patient compliance and cloth efficacy values, distribution of bathing kits is an economically beneficial strategy for the prevention of SSI.
The Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN) performed a series of air sampling campaigns at mesoscale distances (10–80 km) from the AREVA La Hague reprocessing plant (north west of France) between 2007 and 2009. These samples were collected in order to test and optimise a technique to measure low krypton-85 (85Kr) air concentrations, and to investigate the performance of three atmospheric dispersion models (RIMPUFF, HySplit, and ADMS). This paper presents 85Kr air concentrations measured at both land and sea locations. In addition, this paper compares the measured 85Kr air concentrations, which varied from 2 to 8000 Bq m−3, with the predictions from the atmospheric dispersion models. During stable wind conditions, the dispersion models make reasonable estimates of the 85Kr field measurements. In contrast, the models fail to accurately predict temporal peaks in concentration during periods of rapid and large changes in wind speed and/or wind direction.
Background: Recent research into positive experiences in caregivers has begun to redress the traditional focus on negative aspects of caregiving experiences. Method: This exploratory study used a cognitive-behavioural approach – namely, the transactional stress model (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984) – to investigate associations between appraisals, coping, and gains over a 6-week period in a small sample (N = 4; case series) design involving stroke caregivers. Analysis involved visual inspection of graphs, supported by descriptive statistics, and co-variation analysis. Results: Participants reported high levels of positive experiences, and these increased over the study period, a previously unreported trend. The study also found individual differences in the interactions between appraisal, coping, and caregiving gain variables, findings explained by the transactional stress model. Conclusions: Implications for clinical practice and future research are addressed.
We discuss some recent integral field spectroscopy using the SAURON instrument of a sample consisting of 24 early-type spirals, part of the SAURON Survey, and 18 late-type spirals. Using 2-dimensional maps of their stellar radial velocity, velocity dispersion, and absorption line strength, it is now much easier to understand the nature of nearby galactic bulges. We discuss a few highlights of this work, and point out some new ideas about the formation of galactic bulges.
Supermassive black holes are a key element in our understanding of how galaxies form. Most of the progress in this very active field of research is based on just ~30 determination of black hole masses, accumulated over the past decade. We illustrate how integral-field spectroscopy, and in particular our OASIS modeling effort can help improve the current situation.
Using the unique dataset obtained within the course of the SAURON project, a radically new view of the structure, dynamics and stellar populations of early-type galaxies has emerged. We show that galaxies come in two broad flavours (slow and fast rotators), depending on whether or not they exhibit clear large-scale rotation, as indicated via a robust measure of the specific angular momentum of baryons. This property is also linked with other physical characteristics of early-type galaxies, such as: the presence of dynamically decoupled cores, orbital structure and anisotropy, stellar populations and dark matter content. I here report on the observed link between this baryonic angular momentum and a mass sequence, and how this uniquely relates to the building of the red sequence via dissipative/dissipationless mergers and secular evolution.
Twenty-three chronic nonfluent aphasia patients with moderate or
severe word-finding impairments and 11 with profound word-finding
impairments received two novel picture-naming treatments. The intention
treatment initiated picture-naming trials with a complex left-hand
movement and was designed to enhance right frontal participation during
word retrieval. The attention treatment required patients to view visual
stimuli for picture-naming trials in their left hemispace and was designed
to enhance right posterior perisylvian participation during word
retrieval. Because the intention treatment addressed action mechanisms and
nonfluent aphasia reflects difficulty initiating or maintaining action
(i.e., language output), it was hypothesized that intention component of
the treatment would enhance re-acquisition of picture naming more than the
attention component. Patients with moderate and severe word-finding
impairment showed gains with both treatments but greater incremental
improvement from one treatment phase to the next with the intention than
the attention treatment. Thus, the hypothesis that intention component
would be a more active constituent than the attention component was
confirmed for these patients. Patients with profound word-finding
impairment showed some improvement with both treatments but no
differential effects for the intention treatment. Almost all patients who
showed treatment gains on either treatment also demonstrated
generalization from trained to untrained items. (JINS, 2007,
We discuss SAURON absorption line strength maps of a sample of 24 early-type spirals, mostly Sa. From the Lick indices Hβ, Mgb and Fe 5015 we derive SSP-ages and metallicities. By comparing the scaling relations of Mg b and Hβ and central velocity dispersion with the same relation for the edge-on sample of Falcón-Barroso et al. (2002) we derive a picture in which the central regions of Sa galaxies contain at least 2 components: one (or more) thin, disc-like component, often containing recent star formation, and another, elliptical-like component, consisting of old stars and rotating more slowly, dominating the light above the plane. If one defines a bulge to be the component responsible for the light in excess of the outer exponential disc, then many Sa-bulges are dominated by a thin, disc-like component containing recent star formation.
We summarize results from McDermid et al. (2006), who present a set of follow-up observations of the sauron representative survey of early-type galaxies. We used the oasis integral-field spectrograph (while at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope) to obtain high spatial resolution spectra of 28 elliptical and lenticular galaxies. These seeing-limited data have on average twice the spatial resolution of the sauron data, albeit over a smaller field. These new data reveal previously unresolved features in these objects' stellar kinematics, stellar populations, and ionized gas properties. In this contribution, we focus on the discovery of a population of compact kinematically decoupled cores in a number of our sample galaxies. These compact cores are related to regions of young stars, and counter-rotate around the host galaxy's minor axis. We compare these objects to previously known decoupled components, which in contrast are composed of old stars, and which rotate around axes unrelated to the host galaxy's kinematics or shape. A key difference between these two kinds of decoupled cores are their physical size and relative mass. The compact decoupled cores are smaller than a few hundred parsec, and constitute less than a few percent of the total galaxy mass. The ‘classical’ decoupled cores exist on kiloparsec scales, and comprise around a factor 10 more mass. We suggest that the small components are only found with young ages because of their low mass-to-light ratio. We show that after a few Gyrs, these components ‘fade’ into the background galaxy, making them more difficult to detect. We draw the following conclusions: 1) young stars found in early-type galaxies are very often associated with centrally-concentrated counter-rotating components; 2) the small mass fraction and kinematic decoupling of these cores suggests that the star formation is associated to minor accretion events, which effectively drive the spread in luminosity-weighted ages found in early-type galaxies; and 3) such decoupled components may be common in all early-type galaxies, but not directly observed due to their small contribution to the total galaxy light at older ages.
In this poster contribution, we present results from high spatial resolution integral-field spectroscopy of elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) galaxies from the SAURON representative survey, obtained with the OASIS and GMOS spectrographs. These seeing-limited observations explore the central ∼10''10″ (typically one kiloparsec diameter) regions of these galaxies using a spatial sampling four times higher than SAURON (0″27 vs. 0″94 spatial elements), resulting in almost a factor of two improvement in the median PSF. These data allow accurate study of the central regions to complement the large-scale view provided by SAURON. We derive the stellar and gas kinematics, stellar absorption-line strengths and nebular emission-line strengths for our sample, and derive maps of the luminosity-weighted stellar age, metallicity and abundance ratio via stellar population models. From these data we find a wealth of structures either not seen or poorly resolved in the SAURON data, including a number of kinematically-decoupled cores (KDCs) in the centres of some galaxies. We compare the intrinsic size and luminosity-weighted stellar age of all the visible KDCs in the full SAURON sample, and find two types of components: kiloparsec-scale KDCs, which are older than 8 Gyr, and are found in galaxies with little net rotation; and compact KDCs, which have intrinsic diameters of less than a few hundred parsec, show a range of stellar ages from 0.5 - 15 Gyr (with 5/6 younger than 5 Gyr), are found exclusively in fast-rotating galaxies, and are close to counter-rotating around the same axis as their host. Of the 7 galaxies in the SAURON sample with integrated luminosity-weighted ages less than 5 Gyr, 5 show such compact KDCs, suggesting a link between counter-rotation and recent star-formation. We show that this may be partly due to a combination of small sample size at young ages, and an observational bias, since young KDCs are easier to detect than their older and/or co-rot ating counterparts.
The SAURON integral-field survey reveals that small (~0.1,Re) kinematically decoupled cores (KDCs) in early-type galaxies are increasingly young toward the center and are typically found in fast-rotating galaxies, while large KDCs (~0.5 Re) have homogeneously old stars and are present in non-rotating galaxies (McDermid et al. 2006). GALEX UV imaging further allows the direct identification of regions of recent star formation (≤0.5 Gyr). In NGC 2974 for example, young stars are identified in the center and an outer ring Jeong et al. 2006). Nuclear and inner ionised-gas rings (Sarzi et al. 2006) then suggest that current star formation is bar-driven. The CO detection rate of SAURON early-type galaxies is ≈40% (Combes et al. in prep.). Synthesis imaging reveals that it is generally contained in a well-ordered central disk, both in galaxies with a (young) central stellar disk (e.g. NGC 4459, NGC 4526) or a (young) KDC (e.g. NGC 3032, NGC 4150) (Young et al. in prep.). CO also traces well the young stellar populations and ionised gas distribution and kinematics, but in KDCs not always the stellar kinematics Emsellem et al. 2004; Sarzi et al. 2006; Kuntschner et al. 2006).
We present a direct detection of the growth of large-scale structure, using weak gravitational lensing and photometric redshift data from the COMBO-17 survey. Deep $R$-band imaging of two $0.5\times0.5$ square degree fields is used to provide shear estimates for over 52000 galaxies; these are combined with photometric redshift estimates from our 17 band survey, in order to obtain a 3-D shear field. We discuss how theoretical models for evolving matter power spectra and correlation functions cab be used to find a best fit to this 3-D shear field. We present the detection of the evolution of the power, and measurements of the rate of evolution for $0<z<1$. We discuss future refinements which will improve the accuracy with which the effect can be measured.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html