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Band ogives are a striking and enigmatic feature of Mer de Glace glacier flow. The surface mass balances (SMBs) of these ogives have been thoroughly investigated over a period of 12 years. We find similar cumulative SMBs over this period, ranging between −64.1 and −66.2 m w.e., on the dark and light ogives even though the dark ogive albedo is ~40% lower than that of the light ogives. We, therefore, looked for another process that could compensate for the large difference of absorbed short-wave radiation between dark and light ogives. Based on in situ roughness measurements, our numerical modeling experiments demonstrate that a significant difference in turbulent flux over the dark and light ogives due to different surface roughnesses could compensate for the difference in radiative forcing. Our results discard theories for the genesis of band ogives that are based on the assumption of a strong ice ablation contrast between dark and light ogives. More generally, our study demonstrates that future roughness changes are as important to analyze as the radiative impacts of a potential increase of aerosols or debris at the surface of glaciers.
The specific surface area (SSA), defined as the surface area of ice per unit mass, is an important variable characterizing the complex microstructure of snow. Its application range covers the physical evolution of snow (metamorphism), photochemistry and optical and microwave remote sensing. This paper presents a new device, POSSSUM (Profiler Of Snow Specific Surface area Using SWIR reflectance Measurement), designed to allow the rapid acquisition of SSA profiles down to ∼20 m depth and with an effective vertical resolution of 10–20 mm. POSSSUM is based on the infrared (IR) reflectance technique: A laser diode operating at 1310 nm illuminates the snow at nadir incidence angle along the face of a drilled hole. The reflected radiance is measured at three zenith angles (20°, 40° and 60°) each for two azimuth angles (0° and 180°). A second laser operating at a shorter wavelength (635 nm), which is almost insensitive to SSA, allows the distance to the snow face to be estimated. The reflected IR radiance and the distance are combined to estimate bidirectional reflectances. These reflectances are converted into hemispherical reflectances and in turn into SSA using a theoretical formulation based on an asymptotic solution of the radiative transfer equation. The evaluation and validation of POSSSUM’s SSA measurements took place in spring 2009 in the French Alps. The new method was compared with the methane adsorption technique and DUFISSS, another well-validated instrument based on the IR technique. The overall measurement error is in the range 10–15%.
In this paper, we present preliminary results of soft X-ray diffuse background observations. We observed two particular regions of the sky in the 0.3–1.5 keV range. The detection system consisted of three independent, 1 cm diameter, cooled solid state detectors. Nearly overlapping fields of view subtended a solid angle of approximately 1/4 sr. Except for the field of view, the whole set was similar to that described in Schnopper et al. (1982) (hereafter referred to as paper 1). This system was flown on board a three-axis stalibized rocket. The flight took place at White Sands Missile Range on 1981 May 4 at 0755 UT.
The transformation of dry snow to firn is described by the transition between densification by deformationless restacking and densification by power-law creep. The observed decrease with temperature of the density at the snow-firn transition seems to result from the competition between grain-boundary sliding and power-law creep. These two densification processess occur concurrently in snow, although there are probably micro-regions in which sliding alone occurs. Validation of a geometrical densification model developed for ceramics has been obtained from densification data from several Antarctic and Greenland sites and from the characterization of the structure of polar firn.
The bush dog Speothos venaticus is a medium-sized Neotropical canid. It is considered to be rare and its biology and population parameters are still poorly understood. The Amazon is one of the main strongholds of this species and is important for maintaining viable populations, as the region still holds extensive tracts of pristine habitat. We gathered field data from camera-trap studies throughout the Brazilian Amazon to estimate the relative abundance of the species and gain an understanding of its rarity, and how this compares with estimates from other vegetative formations and for sympatric hypercarnivores. We focused on three pristine or partially disturbed sites and one fragmented site. The estimated relative abundance of the species was 0.060–0.185 individuals per 100 trap-days, confirming that the species is rare. The bush dog's abundance in the Amazon is equivalent to that in all other areas outside the Basin. The mean group size recorded was c. 2.5 individuals. There were no differences in group sizes between forests in the Amazon and in other regions of Central America; however, there were significant differences between forests and open habitats. A combination of competition/predation, habitat structure/integrity, and disease may be acting synergistically in determining the abundance and rarity of bush dogs.
Because of its structural characteristics, specifically the prevalence of verb types in infant-directed speech and frequent pronoun-dropping, the Italian language offers an attractive opportunity to investigate the predictive effects of input frequency and positional salience on children's acquisition of nouns and verbs. We examined this issue in a sample of twenty-six mother–child dyads whose spontaneous conversations were recorded, transcribed, and coded at 1;4 and 1;8. The percentages of nouns occurring in the final position of maternal utterances at 1;4 predicted children's production of noun types at 1;8. For verbs, children's growth rates were positively predicted by the percentages of input verbs occurring in utterance-initial position, but negatively predicted by the percentages of verbs located in the final position of maternal utterances at 1;4. These findings clearly illustrate that the effects of positional salience vary across lexical categories.
Silicon and Germanium nanowires (NWs) have shown a strong ability to enhance both the absorption and scattering of light. Tailoring the optical properties of Si or Ge NWs can be obtained by adjusting the nanowire diameter. Another parameter that can be used is the chemical composition of silicon-germanium (Si1-xGex-NWs) alloys. In this work, we perform a numerical study on the optical properties of single Si1-xGex-NWs based on the Lorenz-Mie theory. The effects of Ge composition, light polarization and angle of incidence on the nanowire optical properties are investigated.
We have studied the effect of texture (X-ray diffraction pole figures) and grain morphology (Focus Ion Beam cross-sections) on the electromigration performances of copper damascene interconnects. Three different metallizations have been characterized : Chemical Vapor Deposition copper deposited on TiN (process A) and electroplated copper deposited either on Ta (process B) or TaN (process C). The reliability performance of these interconnects has been evaluated using both Wafer Level Reliability (WLR) and Package Level Reliability (PLR) tests on 4 and 0.6 νm wide lines using single metal level test structures. On the basis of the activation energy values and failure analysis observations, we concluded that interfacial diffusion plays a key role in the electromigration phenomenon for processes B and C whereas grain boundaries seem to be the active diffusion path for process A. The existence of several failure mechanisms during electromigration tests (interfacial or grain boundary diffusions), the impact of the damascene architecture on microstructure (sidewall textures and non columnar grain shapes) and the copper propensity for twinning seem to mask the impact of texture on the electromigration reliability of copper damascene interconnects.
Current models for predicting the unusual deformation characteristics of Ni3Al alloys are based upon the idea of cross-slip pinning of screw dislocation segments. These models assume an Arrhenius type framework which employs a stress-modified activation barrier for forward cross slip. Use of such models has been successful in describing the orientation, asymmetry and temperature characteristics of yielding. A limitation of current models is their inability to predict the apparent lack of a strain rate effect in Ni3Al alloys. The current model approaches the problem using both kinetic and thermodynamic arguments to describe the physical process. It is then demonstrated that the driving force for cross-slip controls the process. The model describes all aspects of deformation including apparent strain rate insensitivity. An additional feature of the model is its ability to provide analytical and physical justification for the use of Arrhenius type equations for representing experimental data.
This paper presents a lake-level record established for the last millennium at Lake Saint-Point in the French Jura Mountains. A comparison of this lake-level record with a solar irradiance record supports the hypothesis of a solar forcing of variations in the hydrological cycle linked to climatic oscillations over the last millennium in west-central Europe, with higher lake levels during the solar minimums of Oort (around AD 1060), Wolf (around AD 1320), Spörer (around AD 1450), Maunder (around AD 1690), and Dalton (around AD 1820). Further comparisons of the Saint-Point record with the fluctuations of the Great Aletsch Glacier (Swiss Alps) and a record of Rhône River floods from Lake Bourget (French Alps) give evidence of possible imprints of proxy sensitivity on reconstructed paleohydrological records. In particular, the Great Aletsch record shows an increasing glacier mass from AD 1350 to 1850, suggesting a cumulative effect of the Little Ice Age cooling and/or a possible reflection of a millennial-scale general cooling until the mid-19th century in the Northern Hemisphere. In contrast, the Saint-Point and Bourget records show a general trend toward a decrease in lake levels and in flood magnitude anti-correlated with generally increasing solar irradiance.
Division XI was born by merging Commission 44 “Space and High Energy Astrophysics” and Commission 48 “High Energy Astrophysics” by the decision at the IAU General Assembly in The Hague (1994). As the naming of space astronomy is technique oriented, i.e. astronomy from space, it covers quite a wide range of astronomy, almost all branches of astronomy are included by the progress of space observations. Historically, it started from high energy astronomy, UV, X, and gamma rays astronomy, somewhat including cosmic ray physics. However, in these days, space observations have expanded to low energy astronomy, such as optical, infrared, submillimeter and even radio waves(Space VLBI).
Recent results on the properties of stellar oscillations in presence of rotation and magnetic field are presented. Their implication on the diagnostics of magnetic field in pulsating magnetic stars are given and illustrated with results on roAp stars.
The diagnosis of stellar magnetic fields must include the determination
of the transverse field component, thus the measurement of linear
polarization across spectral lines. While the neighbouring continuum is
often considered as a zero reference level, it can be polarized by various
scattering mechanisms. I discuss some consequences of such a superposition.
Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster)-seed oil contains two Δ5 unsaturated polymethylene interrupted fatty acids (all cis-5,9,12–18:3 and all cis-5,11,14–20:3 acids) one of which resembles eicosapentaenoic acid. The goal of the present study was to test whether maritime pine-seed oil consumption affects HDL and apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I levels as well as the ability of serum to promote efflux of cholesterol from cultured cells. To this end, wild type (WT) non-transgenic mice and transgenic mice expressing human ApoA-I (HuA-ITg) were fed on isoenergetic diet containing either 200 g maritime pine-seed oil/kg or 200 g lard/kg for 2 weeks. WT and HuA-ITg mice fed maritime pine-seed oil had lower cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HuA-ITg mice had lower human ApoA-I than those fed lard. The differences in cholesterol (P < 0·0001) and HDL-cholesterol (P < 0·003) levels between mice fed on the two diets were more pronounced in the HuA-ITg than in the WT mice. The ability of HuA-ITg serum to promote cholesterol efflux in cultured cells was greater (P < 0·008) than that of WT animals. However, the maritime pine-seed oil diet was associated with lower (P < 0·005) in vitro cholesterol efflux ability than the lard diet in both mice genotypes. This suggests a negative effect of the maritime pine-seed oil on reverse cholesterol transport. Cholesterol efflux was correlated with serum free or esterified cholesterol and phospholipid levels. The slope of the regression line was smaller in the HuA-ITg than in the WT mice indicating that overexpression of human ApoA-I reduces the negative impact of maritime pine-seed oil on cholesterol efflux. In conclusion, maritime pine-seed oil diet lowers HDL-cholesterol and diminishes in vitro cholesterol efflux. This potentially detrimental effect is attenuated by overexpression of human ApoA-I in mice.
The word substitution errors from a corpus of 2,400 French slips of the tongue were grouped
into several categories: contaminational, semantic, formal, and mixed cases; substitutions of
syntagmatic codependents also occurred. Semantic and formal substitutions involved a
resemblance between target and error. In addition, all substitutions exhibited a strong degree of
word class and gender identity. The various types of resemblance were analyzed with reference to
three-layer models of lexicalization. They did not make a lemma layer necessary, but stronger
evidence came from another error category – semantic blends.
It is often acknowledged in the language teaching community that native speaker-like competence is neither a very realistic nor necessarily a desirable goal for the average adolescent or adult foreign language learner. Some learners, however, do manage to attain a proficiency level at which it is difficult to distinguish their performance subjectively from that of native speakers. If this is rare in the case of pronunciation, receptive lexical performance more frequently displays apparent native characteristics. The research presented here was aimed at determining how “passive” knowledge of rare words and complex lexical units by advanced learners increases with level of study and eventually compares with that of native speakers.
It should be made clear at the outset what is understood here by “passive” knowledge. Many a paragraph in the literature is devoted to “what it means to know a word,” but passive knowledge can best be described by considering what happens when an utterance is comprehended: Using phonetic clues present in the speech continuum, the phonological representation [significant) of a lexeme is accessed, which in turn permits access to the representation of its meaning (signifié). Whether this semantic representation leads to another, extralinguistic and more abstract “higher” representation or concept is relatively unclear at present in the semantic or psycholinguistic literatures (see, for instance, Cruse, 1988, and Segui and Beauvillain, 1988, respectively), but the ultimate aim of comprehension is that the hearer should form a representation of the speaker's communicative intent, not just of a juxtaposition of lexical and grammatical signifies.