To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Cognitive tests of inhibitory control show variable results for the differential diagnosis between behavioural variant of Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We compared the diagnostic accuracies of tests of inhibitory control and of a behavioural questionnaire, to distinguish bvFTD from AD.
Three groups of participants were enrolled: 27 bvFTD patients, 25 AD patients, and 24 healthy controls. Groups were matched for gender, education, and socio-economic level. Participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of inhibitory control, including Hayling Test, Stroop, the Five Digits Test (FDT) and the Delay Discounting Task (DDT). Caregivers completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11th version (BIS-11).
bvFTD and AD groups showed no difference in the tasks of inhibitory control, while the caregiver questionnaire revealed that bvFTD patients were significantly more impulsive (BIS-11: bvFTD 76.1+9.5, AD 62.9+13, p < .001).
Neuropsychological tests of inhibitory control failed to distinguish bvFTD from AD. On the contrary, impulsivity caregiver-completed questionnaire provided good distinction between bvFTD and AD. These results highlight the current limits of cognitive measures of inhibitory control for the differential diagnosis between bvFTD and AD, whereas questionnaire information appears more reliable and in line with clinical diagnostics.
We introduce a model for the execution of large market orders in limit order books, and use a linear combination of self-exciting Hawkes processes to model asset-price dynamics, with the addition of a price-impact function that is concave in the order size. A criterion for a general price-impact function is introduced, which is used to show how specification of a concave impact function affects order execution. Using our model, we examine the immediate and permanent impacts of large orders, analyse the potential for price manipulation, and show the effectiveness of the time-weighted average price strategy. Our model shows that price depends on the balance between the intensities of the Hawkes process, which can be interpreted as a dependence on order-flow imbalance.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate whether a reduction in dietary crude protein (CP) and genotype affects animal performance, feed efficiency and carcass traits of beef cattle at different stages of the feedlot. Twenty-two Nellore and 22 crossbred F1 Angus × Nellore (Nellore: 8 months, initial body weight (iBW) = 212.7 kg; Crossbred: 8 months, iBW = 226.1 kg) were used in this experiment. The experiment was conducted in a complete randomized design with six replicates, in a 2 × 3 factorial design. The factors were two genotypes (Nellore and Crossbred) and three CP concentrations (100, 120 and 140 g/kg dry matter [DM]). The experimental period lasted 224 day, being divided into two stages (Backgrounding = 112 day, and Finishing = 112 day). At the end of the experiment, all animals were slaughtered to evaluate their carcass characteristics. Similar patterns were observed during backgrounding and finishing phases on intake and average daily gain (ADG) regarding genotype. Intakes of DM, organic matter, CP, neutral detergent fibre, non-fibre carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients, ADG (kg/day) and feed efficiency were greater in Crossbred animals than Nellore in both phases. During the backgrounding phase, dietary CP did not influence DM intake. However, a linear effect of CP on ADG was observed in the backgrounding phase. During finishing, Nellore cattle fed 100 g CP/kg DM presented lower ADG than Nellore fed 120 and 140 g CP/kg DM. Crossbred animals were heavier than Nellore at the beginning and end of the trial. Crossbred animals also gained more carcass, retained more CP and fat, and had a greater subcutaneous fat thickness during the experiment compared with Nellore. There was a quadratic effect of dietary CP on retained CP and dressing. The current study found that crossbred animals (F1 Angus × Nellore) not only had greater performance, but also better carcass traits compared with Nellore, representing an option for increasing productivity. Also, it is possible to adjust diets according to phase. During the backgrounding stage, 140 g CP/kg DM should be used, being reduced to 120 g CP/kg DM during the finishing stage of feedlot for Nellore and to 100 g CP/kg DM for Crossbred, without affecting performance adversely.
Due to the lack of reliable yield monitor for sugarcane, production factors which impact and limit stalk yield within fields are not well-known. Thus, this study aims to evaluate whether canopy sensor technology is able to identify sugarcane biomass variability and whether obtaining other agronomic variable data can assist on biomass quantification. For that, forty targeted plots were allocated within two sugarcane-producing fields and data consisted on manual biometric evaluation, aboveground biomass measurement and canopy reflectance. As an ongoing experiment, only two evaluations were addressed (~0.3 and 0.5 m stalk height). On the earliest stage, canopy sensor readings were correlated to sugarcane biomass and their sensitivity to biomass variability was high. Further, data collected on the first evaluation was efficient in predicting biomass amount after 30 days. On the second, canopy sensor readings effectiveness to predict biomass was reduced. These findings suggest that crop canopy reflectance sensing is a useful approach to investigate sugarcane biomass spatial-variability within fields on early stages.
This observational study aims to investigate the microbiological quality of commercially prepared lightly cooked foods with a major component of food of animal origin and collected as would be served to a consumer. A total of 356 samples were collected from catering (92%), retail (7%) or producers (1%) and all were independent of known incidents of foodborne illness. Using standard methods, all samples were tested for: the presence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. and enumerated for levels of, Bacillus spp. including B. cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria spp. including L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriacea and aerobic colony count (ACC). Results were interpreted as unsatisfactory, borderline or satisfactory according to the Health Protection Agency guidelines for assessing the microbiological safety of ready-to-eat foods placed on the market. Amongst all samples, 70% were classified as satisfactory, 18% were borderline and 12% were of unsatisfactory microbiological quality. Amongst the unsatisfactory samples, six (2%) were potentially injurious to health due to the presence of: Salmonella spp. (one duck breast); Campylobacter spp. (two duck breast and one chicken liver pâté); L. monocytogenes at 4·3 × 103 cfu (colony-forming units)/g (one duck confit with foie gras ballotin) and C. perfringens at 2·5 × 105 cfu/g (one chicken liver pâté). The remaining unsatisfactory samples were due to high levels of indicator E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae or ACC.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the microbiological quality of liver pâté. During 2012–13, a total of 870 samples, unrelated to the investigation of food-poisoning outbreaks, were collected either at retail (46%), catering (53%) or the point of manufacture (1%) and were tested using standard methods to detect Salmonella spp. or Campylobacter spp., and to enumerate for Listeria spp., including Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, coagulase-positive staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp., including Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, and aerobic colony counts (ACCs). Seventy-three percent of samples were of satisfactory microbiological quality, 18% were borderline and 9% unsatisfactory. Salmonella spp. or Campylobacter spp. was not recovered from any sample. The most common causes of unsatisfactory results were elevated ACCs (6% of the samples) and high Enterobacteriaceae counts (4% of samples). The remaining unsatisfactory results were due to elevated counts of: E. coli (three samples); B. cereus (one sample at 2·6 × 105 cfu/g); or L. monocytogenes (one sample at 2·9 × 103 cfu/g). Pâté from retail was less likely to be contaminated with L. monocytogenes than samples collected from catering and samples from supermarkets were of significantly better microbiological quality than those from catering establishments.
Different volume fractions (0.5–4.5 vol%) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to reinforce a binary Fe50Co soft magnetic alloy. The first method for dispersion involved dry mixing and ball milling of the powder, while the second included wet mixing in dimethylformamide under ultrasonic agitation, drying and then dry ball milling. The powders were consolidated using spark plasma sintering. Tensile test and SEM analyses were performed to characterize the mechanical properties and the fracture surface of the sintered materials. The best magnetic and mechanical properties were achieved using the first method. A maximum enhancement in tensile strength of around 20% was observed in the 0.5 vol% CNT composite with improved elongation compared to the monolithic Fe50Co alloy. In addition, the magnetic properties were enhanced by adding CNTs up to 1 vol%, and an improvement in densification was observed in composites up to 1.5 vol% CNT with respect to monolithic Fe50Co alloy.
On 30 May 2012, Surrey and Sussex Health Protection Unit was called by five nurseries reporting children and staff with sudden onset vomiting approximately an hour after finishing their lunch that day. Over the following 24 h 50 further nurseries supplied by the same company reported cases of vomiting (182 children, 18 staff affected). Epidemiological investigations were undertaken in order to identify the cause of the outbreak and prevent further cases. Investigations demonstrated a nursery-level attack rate of 55 out of 87 nurseries (63·2%, 95% confidence interval 52·2–73·3). Microbiological tests confirmed the presence of Bacillus cereus in food and environmental samples from the catering company and one nursery. This was considered microbiologically and epidemiologically consistent with toxin from this bacterium causing the outbreak. Laboratory investigations showed that the conditions used by the caterer for soaking of pearl haricot beans (known as navy bean in the USA) used in one of the foods supplied to the nurseries prior to cooking, was likely to have provided sufficient growth and toxin production of B. cereus to cause illness. This large outbreak demonstrates the need for careful temperature control in food preparation.
We describe two cases of infant botulism due to Clostridium butyricum producing botulinum type E neurotoxin (BoNT/E) and a previously unreported environmental source. The infants presented at age 11 days with poor feeding and lethargy, hypotonia, dilated pupils and absent reflexes. Faecal samples were positive for C. butyricum BoNT/E. The infants recovered after treatment including botulism immune globulin intravenous (BIG-IV). C. butyricum BoNT/E was isolated from water from tanks housing pet ‘yellow-bellied’ terrapins (Trachemys scripta scripta): in case A the terrapins were in the infant's home; in case B a relative fed the terrapin prior to holding and feeding the infant when both visited another relative. C. butyricum isolates from the infants and the respective terrapin tank waters were indistinguishable by molecular typing. Review of a case of C. butyricum BoNT/E botulism in the UK found that there was a pet terrapin where the infant was living. It is concluded that the C. butyricum-producing BoNT type E in these cases of infant botulism most likely originated from pet terrapins. These findings reinforce public health advice that reptiles, including terrapins, are not suitable pets for children aged <5 years, and highlight the importance of hand washing after handling these pets.
The Ostreidae are well known for their high intra-specific variation, which makes identification problematic. The present paper aims to provide a morpho-anatomical and taxonomic review of the Brazilian species of Crassostrea, as well as some congeneric species from other relevant areas. The Brazilian species are Crassostrea mangle sp.nov. and Crassostrea brasiliana. The exotic species Crassostrea gigas, cultivated in the southern region of the country, is also included in this study. Additional species are: Crassostrea virginica, from the Atlantic coast of the USA, the type species, and Crassostrea rhizophorae, a south-eastern Caribbean species that is supposed to occur in Brazil, but is here understood as a different entity endemic to that region. Taking into account their economic importance, the differentiation between these species is critical, and is essential for a better planning of production and preservation strategies. We point out the differences in almost all structures amongst these species, which are formally redescribed herein. The occurrence of the African species Crassostrea gasar in Brazil is established as false. The voucher specimens of previous studies responsible for this assumption were examined, evidencing a misidentification for Crassostrea brasiliana from an estuarine environment. The geographical distribution of the studied species is recognized as follows: Crassostrea rhizophorae in the south-east Caribbean Sea; Crassostrea mangle sp. nov. from Pará to the Santa Catarina, only in mangroves; Crassostrea brasiliana from Paraíba to Santa Catarina, both in rocky shores and mangroves; Crassostrea virginica ranges from the Atlantic coast of Canada to the Caribbean; and Crassostrea gigas originates from the Indo-Pacific, but has been introduced in southern Brazil. This paper also deals with conchological aspects of the endemic species Crassostrea praia, from south Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul; after a more detailed definition, and considering the deleterious effects of the nearby port and construction sites, it can be classified as an endangered species.
An anomaly in the dependence of the kinetics of grain growth on the temperature for strontium titanate (ST) ceramics is reported in this work. It consists of a decrease of the grain size with increasing sintering temperature. Recently, a drop in the grain boundary mobility of ST in the same temperature range was reported. These observations imply an unusual decrease of the grain size with the increase of the sintering temperature, in agreement with our present results. Although the mobility drop was related to structural changes in grain boundaries, the exact mechanism involved is still unknown. The understanding of this anomaly may offer an alternative way of controlling the microstructure and tuning the dielectric response of ST based compositions without the use of dopants. ST is characterized by high dielectric permittivity, high tunability and low dielectric losses, and is thus a particularly interesting material for capacitor or tunable microwave devices. These properties are very dependent on the stoichiometry, structure and microstructure, in which the role of grain boundaries is fundamentally important. Indeed, increasing attention has been paid to grain boundary structures and nonstoichiometry and to its relation with microstructure and electrical properties. Densification proceeds faster with decreasing Sr/Ti ratio (Ti-rich compositions). Sr-rich samples show narrow grain size distributions, while Ti excess favors enlarged grain size distributions and faceting of the grain boundaries.
Low temperature (400°C) deposition of ferromagnetic Ni-Mn-Ga thin films is successfully performed via rf magnetron sputtering technique using co-deposition of two targets Ni50Mn50 and Ni50Ga50 on sapphire (0001) and Si (100) substrates. The films are in part amorphous with significant degree of crystallinity. The obtained crystallographic structure is shown to be substrate-dependent. Films on both substrates are ferromagnetic at room temperature (Curie temperature ∼ 332.5K) with well-defined hysteresis loops, low coercivity (∼ 100 Oe) and a saturation magnetization of ∼ 200 emu/cc. At low temperature (5 K), both films show increased magnetization value with wider hysteresis loops having higher coercivity and remanent magnetization. The process is therefore effective in achieving the appropriate thermodynamic conditions to deposit thin films of the Ni-Mn-Ga austenitic phase (highly magnetic at room temperature) at relatively low substrate temperature without the need for post-deposition annealing or further thermal treatment, which is prerequisite for the device fabrication.
Strontium titanate (SrTiO3, ST) has a perovskite type structure that is cubic at room temperature, but transforms into a tetragonal one at 105K. At very low temperatures, ST exhibits an extremely large dielectric permittivity and piezoelectric and superconducting characteristics. ST finds applications in tunable microwave devices, due to a dependence of its dielectric response on the electric field and low microwave losses. ST electrical properties are strongly dependent on grain boundaries features and directly influenced by grain size distribution. It was found in our previous studies that a small variation in the stoichiometry of ST has a significant effect on the grain size of the sintered ceramic and related electrical properties: increased grain size and dielectric permittivity values have been reported for Ti excess compositions whereas Sr excess caused a decrease of grain size and of the dielectric permittivity. The tailoring of the dielectric properties by small non-stoichiometric variations in ST needs, however, a full understanding of its effects on the microstructure, phases structure and on the structure / composition of the grain boundaries.
ArcelorMittal Monlevade is an integrated plant with sinter plant,
blast furnace, BOF, ladle furnace, continuous caster, and rolling mill,
with a capacity of 1.2 million tpy. During the last years, Monlevade
has been raising the ladle free open index through refractory quality
improvement and standardization of operational parameters. The main
actions were changing of the geometry of ladle well block and nozzle,
use of two-layer sand, and control of sand residence time before BOF
tapping. Based on these facts, the ladle free open index has increased
from 98.5 to 99.8% from 2002 to 2006.
Health risks in the effluents of seven swine abattoirs and of seven poultry abattoirs were evaluated with regard to environment degradation and to dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms during the rainy and dry seasons. Supply-water samples from affluents and effluents of the treatment systems at different sites within the abattoir processing system were analysed. Similarly, water samples from the three recipient sites (emission point, 100 m upstream, 100 m downstream) were also analysed. Temperature, free residual chlorine (FRC), total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, enterococci, identification and serotyping of salmonellae were assessed. Scalding is the most significant stage in the slaughtering chain (P<0·05) when temperature is taken into account. Temperatures at effluents and at the sampled sites in the water bodies accorded to state and federal legislation standards. Supply waters did not meet the standards for FRC and microbial count standards according to the Ministry of Health and within limits imposed by the Industrial and Sanitary Inspection Regulations for Animal Products. Feather plucking and evisceration in poultry slaughter and the cleansing of carcasses and facilities in poultry and swine slaughtering had the highest contamination impact. The three loci at the water bodies were above the microbiological standards for classes II and III sites, in conformity with Law 8468 of the state of São Paulo, Brazil and Conama. Salmonella was found at several sites during slaughter, at both types of abattoirs, including in the effluent treatment system. This showed that these sites were the dissemination sources of the microorganism.
While early eukaryotic life must have been unicellular, multicellular lifeforms evolved multiple times from protistan ancestors in diverse eukaryotic lineages. The origins of multicellularity are of special interest because they require evolutionary transitions towards increased levels of complexity. We have generated new sequence data from the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA gene (LSU rDNA) and the SSU rDNA gene of several unicellular opisthokont protists – a nucleariid amoeba (Nuclearia simplex) and four choanoflagellates (Codosiga gracilis, Choanoeca perplexa, Proterospongia choanojuncta and Stephanoeca diplocostata) to provide the basis for re-examining relationships among several unicellular lineages and their multicellular relatives (animals and fungi). Our data indicate that: (1) choanoflagellates are a monophyletic rather than a paraphyletic assemblage that independently gave rise to animals and fungi as suggested by some authors and (2) the nucleariid filose amoebae are the likely sister group to Fungi. We also review published information regarding the origin of multicellularity in the opisthokonts.
A CMOS integrated microelectrode array (IMA) utilizing a low-inpedance transimpedance input has been developed. The design uses a three-stage amplifier, including a transimpedance input stage, buffer, and multiplexor. The input stage presents a low impedance which provides bias for the neural input and maximizes the current transfer into the circuit. The amplifiers are replicated in an 8x8 array, enabling measurement of a network of 64 neurons invitro. The chip was post-processed to provide a bio-compatible gold interface between the electrodes and the neurons. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the functionality of the new design. Additional measurements are underway to provide experimental confirmation of the system with in-vitro neurons.
The study of brain development and that of behavioral development have historically proceeded independently of one another. This is an unfortunate set of circumstances, given that the disciplines concerned with development—for example, developmental psychology, pediatrics, psychiatry, clinical psychology, and the neurosciences—have much to learn from each other. Drawing on recent advances in the developmental brain and behavioral sciences, we illustrate the transdisciplinary approach our group has adopted in the service of uniting the research on brain and behavior in the context of development. We specifically report on our nonhuman primate and human studies that collectively illustrate our “genes to behavior” approach to the study of development. Our goal in summarizing our research in this fashion is to promote discussion about promising templates for how research on brain, behavior, and development might proceed into the 21st century.
We conducted a double-blind placebo study to investigate the claim that hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBO2) improves the cognitive status of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Of 111 children diagnosed with CP (aged 4 to 12 years), only 75 were suitable for neuropsychological testing, assessing attention, working memory, processing speed, and psychosocial functioning. The children received 40 sessions of HBO2 or sham treatment over a 2-month period. Children in the active treatment group were exposed for 1 hour to 100% oxygen at 1.75 atmospheres absolute (ATA), whereas those in the sham group received only air at 1.3 ATA. Children in both groups showed better self-control and significant improvements in auditory attention and visual working memory compared with the baseline. However, no statistical difference was found between the two treatments. Furthermore, the sham group improved significantly on eight dimensions of the Conners' Parent Rating Scale, whereas the active treatment group improved only on one dimension. Most of these positive changes persisted for 3 months. No improvements were observed in either group for verbal span, visual attention, or processing speed.