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Identifying the convective/absolute instability nature of a local base flow requires an analysis of its linear impulse response. One must find the appropriate singularity in the eigenvalue problem with complex frequencies and wavenumbers and prove causality. One way to do so is to show that the appropriate integration contour of this response, a steepest decent path through the relevant singularity, exists. Due to the inherent difficulties of such a proof, one often verifies instead whether this singularity satisfies the collision criterion. In other words, one must show that the branches involved in the formation of this singularity come from distinct halves of the complex wavenumber plane. However, this graphical search is computationally intensive in a single plane and essentially prohibitive in two planes. A significant computational cost reduction can be achieved when root finding procedures are applied instead of graphical ones to search for singularities. They focus on locating these points, with causality being verified graphically a posteriori for a small parametric sample size. The use of root-finding procedures require auxiliary equations, often derived by applying the zero group velocity conditions to the dispersion relation. This relation, in turn, is derived by applying matrix forming to the differential eigenvalue problem and taking the determinant of the resulting system of algebraic equations. Taking the derivative of the dispersion relation with respect to the wavenumbers generates the auxiliary equations. If the algebraic system is decoupled, this derivation is straightforward. However, its computational cost is often prohibitive when the algebraic system is coupled. Other methods exist, but often they can also be too costly and/or not reliable for two wavenumber plane searches. This paper describes an alternative methodology based on sensitivity analysis and adjoints that allow the zero group velocity conditions to be applied directly to the differential eigenvalue problem. In doing so, the direct and auxiliary differential eigenvalue problems can be solved simultaneously using standard shooting methods to directly locate singularities. Auxiliary dispersion relations no longer have to be derived, although it is shown that they are the algebraic equivalent of the auxiliary differential eigenvalue problems obtained by this alternative methodology. Using the latter dramatically reduces computational costs. The search for arbitrary singularities is then not only accelerated in single wavenumber planes but it also becomes viable in two wavenumber planes. Finally, the new method also allows group velocity calculations, greatly facilitating the verification of causality. Several test cases are presented to illustrate the capabilities of this new method.
Scholars of Brazil’s public health system commonly note the intertwined roles that federal, state, and municipal governments play in delivering care, yet few studies systematically examine varying service performance in areas with overlapping mandates, such as state capitals. This study addresses that gap by developing and analyzing a novel measure of municipal primary care provision that accounts for the proportion of the population without access to private services in 11 large capital cities, then comparing them to the noncapital municipalities in their states. The study finds that capitals generally underperform the noncapital municipalities in primary service delivery. It then draws on a comparative case study in two major capitals, Salvador and Belo Horizonte, and their encompassing states to explore how a history of cooperative or adversarial relations between state and local governments conditions the impact of partisanship, participatory institutions, and public health activists on primary care delivery.
In the current study, phage-exposed mimotopes as targets against tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) were selected by means of bio-panning cycles employing sera of TL patients and healthy subjects, besides the immune stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from untreated and treated TL patients and healthy subjects. The clones were evaluated regarding their specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in the in vitro cultures, and selectivity and specificity values were calculated, and those presenting the best results were selected for the in vivo experiments. Two clones, namely A4 and A8, were identified and used in immunization protocols from BALB/c mice to protect against Leishmania amazonensis infection. Results showed a polarized Th1 response generated after vaccination, being based on significantly higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); which were associated with lower production of specific IL-4, IL-10 and immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibodies. Vaccinated mice presented significant reductions in the parasite load in the infected tissue and distinct organs, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we presented a strategy to identify new mimotopes able to induce Th1 response in PBMCs from TL patients and healthy subjects, and that were successfully used to protect against L. amazonensis infection.
The aim of the present study is to test the resource economic monopolization hypothesis and the hypothesis of monogamy using the shrimp Alpheus estuariensis as a model. The shrimps were collected in two areas in the Vaza-Barriz estuary, north-east Brazil, from August to November 2016. The average abundance of refuges was obtained through 30 random replicates. The shrimp presented a random distribution in both areas. Males and females found together showed a weak relation between their sizes, with males being larger than females. In addition, the cheliped of males grows proportionally more than that of females. The great abundance of refuges present in the environment, added to the aforementioned results, do not support the idea of refuge-guarding behaviour or monogamy. These results, which are in disagreement with those already found for some shrimps of the same family, genus, and even species, reinforce the idea that Alpheidae can be used as a model in the study of how environmental conditions are capable of shaping the social behaviour of a species.
The goal of this study was to analyse the spatial pattern of tuberculosis (TB) mortality using different approaches, namely: mortality rates (MR), spatial relative risks (RR) and Bayesian rates (Global and Local) and their association with human development index (HDI), Global and its three dimensions: education, longevity and income. An ecological study was developed in Curitiba, Brazil based on data from Mortality Information System (2008–2014). Spatial scan statistics were used to compute RR and identify high-risk clusters. Bivariate Local Indicator of Spatial Associations was used to assess associations. MR ranged between 0 and 25.24/100.000 with a mean (standard deviation) of 1.07 (2.66). Corresponding values for spatial RR were 0–27.46, 1.2 (2.99) and for Bayesian rates (Global and Local) were 0.49–1.66, 0.90 (0.19) and 0–6.59, 0.98 (0.80). High-risk clusters were identified for all variables, except for HDI-income and Global Bayesian rate. Significant negative spatial relations were found between MR and income; between RR and HDI global, longevity and income; and Bayesian rates with all variables. Some areas presented different patterns: low social development/low risk and high risk/high development. These results demonstrate that social development variables should be considered, in mortality due TB.
Leprosy still represents a serious health problem in a number of countries, including Brazil. Although leprosy has been associated with poverty for a long time, it is still difficult to accurately define this relationship. Here, we evaluated in an endemic municipality the progress from 1995 to 2015 of epidemiological indicators to establish if there were any strong associations between social indicators and the occurrence of leprosy. An ecological study was conducted using the SINAN database (Brazilian leprosy-national notifiable diseases information system) in combination with georeferencing of leprosy cases. The georeferencing used the ArcGis programme and occurrence of cases was evaluated in relation to the Health Vulnerability Index (HVI), an indicator that categorises socio-economic and sanitation factors. The data identified a marked decrease in the overall prevalence of leprosy, a reduction in the new case-detection rate and a reduction in the number of cases with grade 2 disabilities (albeit with transient peaks in 2007 and 2015). Logistic regression analysis showed association of detection rates with elevated HVI. Thus, while the epidemiological indicators point to the elimination of leprosy, there is evidence of hidden cases and an association between higher rates of leprosy detection and greater social vulnerability remain.
The usefulness of molecular genetic markers as a tool for the conservation, characterisation and differentiation of domestic animal populations are shown in the following text, that summarises diverse applications to Iberian pigs.
Fat supplementation plays an important role in defining milk fatty acids (FA) composition of ruminant products. The use of sources rich in linoleic and α-linolenic acid favors the accumulation of conjugated linoleic acids isomers, increasing the healthy properties of milk. Ruminal microbiota plays a pivotal role in defining milk FA composition, and its profile is affected by diet composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of rumen FA production and microbial structure to hemp or linseed supplementation in diets of dairy goats. Ruminal microbiota composition was determined by 16S amplicon sequencing, whereas FA composition was obtained by gas-chromatography technique. In all, 18 pluriparous Alpine goats fed the same pre-treatment diet for 40±7 days were, then, arranged to three dietary treatments consisting of control, linseed and hemp seeds supplemented diets. Independently from sampling time and diets, bacterial community of ruminal fluid was dominated by Bacteroidetes (about 61.2%) and Firmicutes (24.2%) with a high abundance of Prevotellaceae (41.0%) and Veillonellaceae (9.4%) and a low presence of Ruminococcaceae (5.0%) and Lachnospiraceae (4.3%). Linseed supplementation affected ruminal bacteria population, with a significant reduction of biodiversity; in particular, relative abundance of Prevotella was reduced (−12.0%), whereas that of Succinivibrio and Fibrobacter was increased (+50.0% and +75.0%, respectively). No statistically significant differences were found among the average relative abundance of archaeal genera between each dietary group. Moreover, the addition of linseed and hemp seed induced significant changes in FA concentration in the rumen, as a consequence of shift from C18 : 2n-6 to C18 : 3n-3 biohydrogenation pathway. Furthermore, dimethylacetal composition was affected by fat supplementation, as consequence of ruminal bacteria population modification. Finally, the association study between the rumen FA profile and the bacterial microbiome revealed that Fibrobacteriaceae is the bacterial family showing the highest and significant correlation with FA involved in the biohydrogenation pathway of C18 : 3n-3.
The present study evaluated the effects of maternal dyslipidaemia on blood pressure (BP), cardiorespiratory physiology and biochemical parameters in male offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed either a control (CTL) or a dyslipidaemic (DLP) diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, both CTL and DLP offspring received standard diet. On the 30th and 90th day of life, blood samples were collected for metabolic analyses. Direct measurements of BP, respiratory frequency (RF), tidal volume (VT) and ventilation (VE) under baseline condition, as well as during hypercapnia (7 % CO2) and hypoxia (KCN, 0·04 %), were recorded from awake 90-d-old male offspring. DLP dams exhibited raised serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) (4·0-fold), TAG (2·0-fold), VLDL+LDL (7·7-fold) and reduced HDL-cholesterol (2·4-fold), insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis at the end of lactation. At 30 d of age, the DLP offspring showed an increase in the serum levels of TC (P<0·05) and VLDL+LDL (P<0·05) in comparison with CTL offspring. At 90 d of age, DLP offspring exhibited higher mean arterial pressure (MAP, approximately 34 %). In the spectral analysis, the DLP group showed augmented low-frequency (LF) power and LF:high-frequency (HF) ratio when compared with CTL offspring. In addition, the DLP animals showed a larger delta variation in arterial pressure after administration of the ganglionic blocker (P=0·0003). We also found that cardiorespiratory response to hypercapnia and hypoxia was augmented in DLP offspring. In conclusion, the present data show that maternal dyslipidaemia alters cardiorespiratory physiology and may be a predisposing factor for hypertension at adulthood.
Recent studies with Nile tilapia have shown divergent results regarding the possibility of selecting on morphometric measurements to promote indirect genetic gains in fillet yield (FY). The use of indirect selection for fillet traits is important as these traits are only measurable after harvesting. Random regression models are a powerful tool in association studies to identify the best time point to measure and select animals. Random regression models can also be applied in a multiple trait approach to analyze indirect response to selection, which would avoid the need to sacrifice candidate fish. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the genetic relationships between several body measurements, weight and fillet traits throughout the growth period and to evaluate the possibility of indirect selection for fillet traits in Nile tilapia. Data were collected from 2042 fish and was divided into two subsets. The first subset was used to estimate genetic parameters, including the permanent environmental effect for BW and body measurements (8758 records for each body measurement, as each fish was individually weighed and measured a maximum of six times). The second subset (2042 records for each trait) was used to estimate genetic correlations and heritabilities, which enabled the calculation of correlated response efficiencies between body measurements and the fillet traits. Heritability estimates across ages ranged from 0.05 to 0.5 for height, 0.02 to 0.48 for corrected length (CL), 0.05 to 0.68 for width, 0.08 to 0.57 for fillet weight (FW) and 0.12 to 0.42 for FY. All genetic correlation estimates between body measurements and FW were positive and strong (0.64 to 0.98). The estimates of genetic correlation between body measurements and FY were positive (except for CL at some ages), but weak to moderate (−0.08 to 0.68). These estimates resulted in strong and favorable correlated response efficiencies for FW and positive, but moderate for FY. These results indicate the possibility of achieving indirect genetic gains for FW and by selecting for morphometric traits, but low efficiency for FY when compared with direct selection.
In this study, we isolate and analyse a new set of microsatellite loci for Cattleya walkeriana. Twenty-two primer pairs were screened for C. walkeriana (n = 32) and assessed for their transferability to Cattleya loddigesii (n = 12) and Cattleya nobilior (n = 06). All loci amplified for C. walkeriana; however, for C. loddigesii and C. nobilior, four and five primers, respectively, did not present amplification. The polymorphic loci presented between 2 and 13 alleles per locus for both C. walkeriana and C. loddigesii, with respective averages of 5.1 and 4.2. For C. nobilior, we found between two and five alleles per locus, with an average of 2.6. For C. walkeriana, observed heterozygosity varied from 0.100 to 0.966, whereas expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.097 to 0.900. The observed and expected heterozygosity for C. loddigesii and C. nobilior were also estimated. We found no significant linkage disequilibrium between any pair of loci, and evidence of null alleles at four loci (Cw16, Cw24, Cw30 and Cw31) for C. walkeriana. The combined power to exclude the first parent and combined non-exclusion probability of identity were 0.999 and 2.3 × 10−20, respectively. These new loci can be used in studies of germplasm resources, and assessments of genotypic and genetic diversity and population structure, thus improving the accuracy of such analyses and their applicability in the conservation and protection of these endangered species.
In the near future, ruminants may be forced to consume low-quality water since potable drinking water will become increasingly scarce in some regions of the world. A completely randomized design trial was completed to evaluate the effect of increasing concentrations of total dissolved salts (TDS) (640, 3187, 5740 and 8326 mg TDS/l) in drinking water on the performance, diet digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, nitrogen (N) and water balance using 24 Red Sindhi heifers (200 ± 5 kg) that were fed Buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) grass hay and concentrate in a ratio of 50 : 50. After a 15-day diet adaptation period, the digestion study was completed over a 5-day period and the performance trial was completed over a 56-day period. Dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed:gain, intake and digestibility of most feed components were unaffected by the concentration of salt in the water. However, intake and digestibility of neutral detergent fibre declined linearly as TDS inclusion rate increased. Further, the inclusion of TDS resulted in a linear increase in the intake of drinking water and total (food plus drinking) water intake. Similarly, TDS inclusion levels resulted in a linear increase in total water excretion, with urine being the major route of water excretion. In contrast, increasing concentrations of TDS caused a linear decrease in creatinine and allantoin excretions. Finally, increasing the inclusion rate of TDS resulted in a linear decrease in N retention and a linear increase in urinary N excretion, which may pose a considerable challenge for farmers with respect to the reduction and management of nutrient losses.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the compatibility between the Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) curves proposed for the Brazilian littoral and mangrove dynamics along a fluvial valley in the state of southern Bahia. This was done integrating geomorphological, sedimentological, palynological, and stable isotopic data from two cores collected at the mouth of the Jucuruçu River and at a site 23 km inland, near the city of Prado, northeastern Brazil. Core PR07, sampled from a fluvial plain at about 4.5±1 m above the RSL, reveals mangrove pollen (5–20%) and estuarine/terrestrial organic matter (δ13C=~–25‰, C/N=7.3–67) between 4.5 m (~7400 cal yr BP) and 1.75 m depth (~5350 cal yr BP). Core PR11, sampled from a mangrove tidal flat, also revealed mangrove pollen taxa (5-28%) since 660 cal yr BP. Core PR07 indicated absence of mangrove pollen and increase of sedimentary organic matter sourced from terrestrial C3 plants (δ13C=~–27‰, C/N=22–159) during the last 5350 cal yr BP. Probably, the changes in vegetation and sedimentary organic matter identified in core PR07 were caused by the combined effects of the RSL fluctuations, with a highstand at about 5350 cal yr BP of 2.7±1.35 m, and changes in fluvial discharge.
We conducted a survival analysis with competing risks to estimate the mortality rate and predictive factors for immunodeficiency-related death in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) in northeast Brazil. A cohort with 2372 PLWH was enrolled between July 2007 and June 2010 and monitored until 31 December 2012 at two healthcare centres. The event of interest was immunodeficiency-related death, which was defined based on the Coding Causes of Death in HIV Protocol (CoDe). The predictor variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, illicit drugs, tobacco, alcohol, nutritional status, antiretroviral therapy, anaemia and CD4 cell count at baseline; and treatment or chemoprophylaxis for tuberculosis (TB) during follow-up. We used Fine & Gray's model for the survival analyses with competing risks, since we had regarded immunodeficiency-unrelated deaths as a competing event, and we estimated the adjusted sub-distribution hazard ratios (SHRs). In 10 012·6 person-years of observation there were 3·1 deaths/100 person-years (2·3 immunodeficiency-related and 0·8 immunodeficiency-unrelated). TB (SHR 4·01), anaemia (SHR 3·58), CD4 <200 cells/mm3 (SHR 3·33) and being unemployed (SHR 1·56) were risk factors for immunodeficiency-related death. This study discloses a 13% coverage by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in our state and adds that anaemia at baseline or the incidence of TB may increase the specific risk of dying from HIV-immunodeficiency, regardless of HAART and CD4.
The present study investigated the impact of a western diet during gestation and lactation on the anthropometry, serum biochemical, blood pressure and cardiovascular autonomic control on the offspring. Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to their mother’s diet received: control group (C: 18% calories of lipids) and westernized group (W: 32% calories of lipids). After weaning both groups received standard diet. On the 60th day of life, blood samples were collected for the analysis of fasting glucose and lipidogram. Cardiovascular parameters were measured on the same period. Autonomic nervous system modulation was evaluated by spectrum analysis of heart rate (HR) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP). The W increased glycemia (123±2 v. 155±2 mg/dl), low-density lipoprotein (15±1 v. 31±2 mg/dl), triglycerides (49±1 v. 85±2 mg/dl), total cholesterol (75±2 v. 86±2 mg/dl), and decreased high-density lipoprotein (50±4 v. 38±3 mg/dl), as well as increased body mass (209±4 v. 229±6 g) than C. Furthermore, the W showed higher SAP (130±4 v. 157±2 mmHg), HR (357±10 v. 428±14 bpm), sympathetic modulation to vessels (2.3±0.56 v. 6±0.84 mmHg2) and LF/HF ratio (0.15±0.01 v. 0.7±0.2) than C. These findings suggest that a western diet during pregnancy and lactation leads to overweight associated with autonomic misbalance and hypertension in adulthood.
The bioaccessibility of total lipids and fatty acids (FA) in raw and grilled gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) was determined using an in vitro digestion model. The particular impact of grilling on the FA profile of seabream was also studied. In addition, the influence of lipid class on the bioaccessibility of each FA was analysed. Grilling did not change the relative FA profile, and only the absolute values were altered. However, the relative FA profile varied across lipid classes, being more dissimilar between TAG and phospholipids. Long-chain SFA and PUFA seemed to be less bioaccessible. Moreover, grilling reduced bioaccessibility of protein, fat and many FA, with the highest reductions found in PUFA such as the DHA. Strong evidence supporting a predominantly regioselective action of lipase during in vitro digestion was found, and the impact of this phenomenon on FA bioaccessibility was assessed.
The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI), which is the total radiation arriving at Earth's atmosphere from the Sun, is one of the most important forcing of the Earths climate. Measurements of the TSI have been made employing instruments on board several space-based platforms during the last four solar cycles. However, combining these measurements is still challenging due to the degradation of the sensor elements and the long-term stability of the electronics. Here we describe the preliminary efforts to design an absolute radiometer based on the principle of electrical substitution that is under development at Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research (INPE).
The regional component (∆R) of the marine reservoir effect (MRE), which is crucial for the accurate calibration of radiocarbon ages of marine-influenced samples, was determined for the Cuban northwestern coast. Fifteen different locations were studied by 14C dating of pre-bomb known-age marine shells specimens of bivalves and gastropods from the Felipe Poey Museum collection. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C measurements were performed at the Radiocarbon Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Fluminense (LAC-UFF) and mean ΔR values were estimated. The distribution of results indicates ∆R values from −46±38 to 140±52 14C yr and a possible pattern related to the position along the coast and ocean dynamics. We present both mean values for each region and a general ∆R of 28±13 14C yr for the northwestern coast of Cuba.
The MACHO microlensing experiment's time-sampled photometry database contains blue and red lightcurves for nearly 9 million stars in the central bar region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We have identified known LMC Planetary Nebulae (PN) in the database and find one, Jacoby 5, to be variable. We additionally present data on the “parent populations” of LMC PN, and discuss the star formation history of the LMC bar.
We measure the ratio of ~ 5M⊙ blue and red LMC supergiants (representative of classical Cepheids) using the MACHO Project's 9 million star color-magnitude diagram (9M CMD) of the LMC bar. We find b/r = 0.39, which favors the Z=0.008, 5M⊙ theoretical model of Schaerer et al. (1993) over that of Fagatto et al. (1994). Next, we examine the low mass (old) and low metallicity LMC field population (Pop. II). Features in the 9M CMD and properties of LMC field RRab variables are consistent with a mean iron abundance of [Fe/H] ≈ −1.5 dex for this population. Newly discovered post-HB/early-AGB Pop. II variables are identified in order to delineate the instability strip (IS). Good agreement with the theoretical IS of Bono et al. (1997) is found. We then compare the field RRab with newly identified RRab variables in the LMC clusters NGC 1898 and NGC 1835. We find the mean colors of these cluster RRab lie near the red and blue edges of the IS, respectively, which is similar to their respective (overall) red and blue HB morphologies. Since the field RRab lie on the red side of the IS, we infer the LMC field Pop. II is likely to have a red HB morphology.