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Despite the advances in child maltreatment research, there is still the need for comprehensive information about how abuse affects a broad range of categories of young adult functioning, and the extent to which these vary by sex. We examined the associations between child physical abuse (PA) and sexual abuse (SA) and six areas of functioning (mental health, physical health, life satisfaction, illegal substance use, alcohol problems and daily smoking).
Data were obtained from the 1983 Ontario Child Health Study and follow-up in 2000/2001 (n = 1893). Multilevel regression estimated the adjusted associations for PA (with severity) and SA with each of the outcomes. Estimates with an entire sample were presented with sex-by-abuse interactions to examine sex differences and then presented separately by sex.
In the adjusted model, severe PA and SA were associated with impairment in mental health, and both forms of PA (severe and non-severe) and SA were associated with low life satisfaction. In addition, severe PA was associated with illegal substance use. Child abuse variables were not associated with poor physical health, alcohol problems or smoking. Although sex-stratified analyses revealed different patterns, there was no significant sex difference in the integrated sample.
This is among the first community-based studies to show a strong association between child PA and SA and low life satisfaction in young adults. The abuse effects were similar for both sexes.
Controversy exists regarding whether people in the community who meet criteria for a non-psychotic mental disorder diagnosis are necessarily in need of treatment. Some have argued that these individuals require treatment and that policy makers need to develop outreach programs for them, whereas others have argued that the current epidemiologic studies may be diagnosing symptoms of distress that in many cases are self-limiting and likely to remit without treatment. All prior studies that have addressed this issue have been cross-sectional. We examined the longitudinal outcomes of individuals with depressive, anxiety and substance use (DAS) disorder(s) who had not previously received any treatment.
Data came from a nationally representative US sample. A total of 34 653 non-institutionalized adults (age ≥20 years) were interviewed at two time points, 3 years apart. DAS disorders, mental health service use and quality of life (QoL) were assessed at both time points.
Individuals with a DAS disorder who had not previously received any treatment were significantly more likely than those who had been previously treated to have remission of their index disorder(s) without subsequent treatment, to be free of co-morbid disorder(s) and not to have attempted suicide during the 3-year follow-up period (50.7% v. 33.0% respectively, p < 0.05). At wave 2, multiple linear regression demonstrated that people with a remission of their baseline DAS disorder(s) had levels of functioning similar to those without a DAS disorder.
Individuals with an untreated DAS disorder at baseline have a substantial likelihood of remission without any subsequent intervention.
Although it has been posited that exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increases vulnerability to deployment stress, previous literature in this area has demonstrated conflicting results. Using a cross-sectional population-based sample of active military personnel, the present study examined the relationship between ACEs, deployment related stressors and mood and anxiety disorders.
Data were analyzed from the 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey – Canadian Forces Supplement (CCHS-CFS; n = 8340, age 18–54 years, response rate 81%). The following ACEs were self-reported retrospectively: childhood physical abuse, childhood sexual abuse, economic deprivation, exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce/separation, parental substance abuse problems, hospitalization as a child, and apprehension by a child protection service. DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders [major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic attacks/disorder and social phobia] were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).
Even after adjusting for the effects of deployment-related traumatic exposures (DRTEs), exposure to ACEs was significantly associated with past-year mood or anxiety disorder among men [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.34, 99% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.73, p < 0.01] and women [aOR 1.37, 99% CI 1.00–1.89, p = 0.01]. Participants exposed to both ACEs and DRTEs had the highest prevalence of past-year mood or anxiety disorder in comparison to those who were exposed to either ACEs alone, DRTEs alone, or no exposure.
ACEs are associated with several mood and anxiety disorders among active military personnel. Intervention strategies to prevent mental health problems should consider the utility of targeting soldiers with exposure to ACEs.
This work concerns an enlarged analysis of the problem of asymptotic compensation for a
class of discrete linear distributed systems. We study the possibility of asymptotic
compensation of a disturbance by bringing asymptotically the observation in a given
tolerance zone 𝒞. Under convenient hypothesis, we show the existence and the
unicity of the optimal control ensuring this compensation and we give its
Amorphous Se70Te30–xCdx (x = 0, 10) are obtained by thermal
evaporation under vacuum of bulk materials on pyrographite and glass
substrates. The I – V characteristic curves for the two film compositions are
typical for a memory switch. They exhibited a transition from an ohmic
region in the lower field followed by non-ohmic region in the high field
region in the preswitching region, which has been explained by the
Poole-Frenkel effect. The temperature dependence of current in the ohmic
region is found to be of thermally activated process. The mean value of the
increases linearly with
increasing film thickness in the thickness range (100–491 nm), while it
decreases exponentially with increasing temperature in the temperature range
(293–343 K) for both compositions. The results are explained in accordance
with the electrothermal model for the switching process. The effect of Cd on
these parameters is also investigated.