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The presence of salt in dilatant normal faults may have a strong influence on fault mechanics in the Groningen field and on the related induced seismicity. At present, little is known of the structure of these fault zones. This study starts with the geological evolution of the Groningen area, where, during tectonic faulting, rock salt may have migrated downwards into dilatant faults. These fault zones therefore may contain inclusions of rock salt. Because of its rate-dependent mechanical properties, the presence of salt in a fault may introduce a loading-rate dependency into fault movement and affect the distribution of magnitudes of seismic events. We present a first-look study showing how these processes can be investigated using a combination of analogue and numerical modelling. Full scaling of the models and quantification of implications for induced seismicity in Groningen require further, more detailed studies: an understanding of fault zone structure in the Groningen field is required for improved predictions of induced seismicity. The analogue experiments are based on a simplified stratigraphy of the Groningen area, where it is generally thought that most of the Rotliegend faulting has taken place in the Jurassic, after deposition of the Zechstein. This suggests that, at the time of faulting, the sulphates were already transformed into brittle anhydrite. If these layers were sufficiently brittle to fault in a dilatant fashion, rock salt was able to flow downwards into the dilatant fractures. To test this hypothesis, we use sandbox experiments where we combine cohesive powder as analogue for brittle anhydrites and carbonates with viscous salt analogues to explore the developing fault geometry and the resulting distribution of salt in the faults. Using the observations from analogue models as input, numerical models investigate the stick-slip behaviour of fault zones containing ductile material qualitatively with the discrete element method (DEM). Results show that the DEM approach is suitable for modelling the seismicity of faults containing salt. The stick-slip motion of the fault becomes dependent on shear loading rate with a modification of the frequency–magnitude distribution of the generated seismic events.
This paper discusses results from the second phase of the European Ice Sheet Modelling Initiative (EISMINT). It reports the intercomparison of ten operational ice-sheet models and uses a series of experiments to examine the implications of thermomechanical coupling for model behaviour. A schematic, circular ice sheet is used in the work which investigates both steady states and the response to stepped changes in climate. The major finding is that the radial symmetry implied in the experimental design can, under certain circumstances, break down with the formation of distinct, regularly spaced spokes of cold ice which extended from the interior of the ice sheet outward to the surrounding zone of basal melt. These features also manifest themselves in the thickness and velocity distributions predicted by the models. They appear to be a common feature to all of the models which took part in the intercomparison, and may stem from interactions between ice temperature, flow and surface form. The exact nature of these features varies between models, and their existence appears to be controlled by the overall thermal regime of the ice sheet. A second result is that there is considerable agreement between the models in their predictions of global-scale response to imposed climate change.
Optical long baseline interferometry is a technique sensitive to sky projected brightness distributions, constituting a powerful tool for the study of detailed stellar surface structures. Moreover, by combining high spectral and angular resolution we obtain a technique called differential interferometry that is also sensitive to mechanisms that induce chromatic signatures, such as stellar spots and large scale mass motions (e.g. rapid rotation, non-radial pulsations, shear currents produced by hydrodynamical instabilities). We present here a study of the signatures of stellar rotation on differential interferometry observables showing that they are very sensitive to differential rotation and stellar inclination.
In traditional transit timing variations (TTVs) analysis of multi-planetary systems, the individual TTVs are first derived from transit fitting and later modelled using n-body dynamic simulations to constrain planetary masses. We show that fitting simultaneously the transit light curves with the system dynamics (photo-dynamical model) increases the precision of the TTV measurements and helps constrain the system architecture. We exemplify the advantages of applying this photo-dynamical model to a multi-planetary system found in K2 data very close to 3:2 mean motion resonance, K2-19. In this case the period of the larger TTV variations (libration period) is much longer (>1.5 years) than the duration of the K2 observations (80 days). However, our method allows to detect the short period TTVs produced by the orbital conjunctions between the planets that in turn permits to uniquely characterise the system. Therefore, our method can be used to constrain the masses of near-resonant systems even when the full libration curve is not observed.
The transport equation for the mean turbulent energy dissipation rate
along the centreline of a fully developed channel flow is derived by applying the limit at small separations to the two-point budget equation. Since the ratio of the isotropic energy dissipation rate to the mean turbulent energy dissipation rate
is sufficiently close to 1 on the centreline, our main focus is on the isotropic form of the transport equation. It is found that the imbalance between the production of
due to vortex stretching and the destruction of
caused by the action of viscosity is governed by the diffusion of
by the wall-normal velocity fluctuation. This imbalance is intrinsically different from the advection-driven imbalance in decaying-type flows, such as grid turbulence, jets and wakes. In effect, the different types of imbalance represent different constraints on the relation between the skewness of the longitudinal velocity derivative
and the destruction coefficient
of enstrophy in different flows, thus resulting in non-universal approaches of
towards a constant value as the Taylor microscale Reynolds number,
, increases. For example, the approach is slower for the measured values of
along either the channel or pipe centreline than along the axis in the self-preserving region of a round jet. The data for
collected in different flows strongly suggest that, in each flow, the magnitude of
is bounded, the value being slightly larger than 0.5.
Studies of the relationship between obesity and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in nationally representative population samples are limited. Our study aimed to determine if overweight and obesity were independently associated with the risk for CKD in the 2010 Health Survey for England (HSE).
The HSE is an annually conducted cross-sectional study. In 2010 serum creatinine was included to determine the incidence of CKD in the population. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min per 1·73 m2 using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula. Multivariable logistic regression models were developed to calculate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for CKD risk by BMI (reference category: BMI=18·5–24·9 kg/m2) and adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, smoking, diabetes and hypertension.
A random sample of nationally representative households in England.
Adults (n 3463) with calculable eGFR and BMI were included.
The prevalence of CKD was 5·9 %. The risk of CKD was over 2·5 times higher in obese participants compared with normal-weight participants in the fully adjusted model (BMI=30·0–39·9 kg/m2: adjusted OR=2·78 (95 % CI 1·75, 4·43); BMI ≥ 40·0 kg/m2: adjusted OR=2·68 (95 % CI 1·05, 6·85)).
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of CKD in a national sample of the UK population, even after adjustment for known CKD risk factors, which may have implications for CKD screening and future national health service planning and delivery.
SPHERE, the Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch instrument for the VLT
is optimized towards reaching the highest contrast in a limited field of view and at short
distances from the central star, thanks to an extreme AO system. SPHERE is very well
suited to study the close environment of Betelgeuse, and has a strong potential for
detecting the ejection activity around this key red supergiant.
A high occurrence rate of consanguineous marriages may favour the onset and increased frequency of autosomal recessive diseases in a population. The population of Monte Santo, Bahia, Brazil, has a high frequency of rare genetic diseases such as mucopolysaccharidosis type VI, whose observed frequency in this population is 1:5000, while the incidence of this disease recorded in other regions of the world varies from 1:43,261 in Turkey to 1:1,505,160 in Switzerland. To verify the influence of consanguineous marriage on the increased frequency of observed genetic diseases in this population, the population structure and frequency of different types of marriage during different time periods were evaluated. A total of 9765 marriages were found in an analysis of parish marriage records from the city. Over three periods, 1860–1895, 1950–1961 and 1975–2010, the inbreeding rates were 37.1%, 13.2% and 4.2% respectively. Although there was a high rate of inbreeding, endogamic marriages were the dominant marriage type in all three periods. In the most recent period, there was an increase in the number of exogamous marriages and those among immigrants, but most of these occurred among individuals from cities that neighbour Monte Santo. The low rate of migration and high frequency of endogamic and consanguineous marriages show that growth of this population is predominantly internal and could explain the occurrence, and increase in frequency, of recessive genetic diseases in the city.
We present long term site testing statistics based on DIMM and GSM data obtained at Dome C, Antarctica. These data have been collected on the bright star Canopus since the end of 2003. We give values of the integrated turbulence parameters in the visible (wavelength 500 nm). The median value we obtained for the seeing are 1.2 arcsec, 2.0 arcsec and 0.8 arcsec at respective elevations of 8m, 3m and 20m above the ground. The isoplanatic angle median value is 4.0 arcsec and the median outer scale is 7.5m. We found that both the seeing and the isoplanatic angle exhibit a strong dependence with the season (the seeing is larger in winter while the isoplanatic angle is smaller).
The ASTEP project aims at detecting and characterizing transiting planets from Dome C, Antarctica, and qualifying this site for photometry in the visible. The first phase of the project, ASTEP South, is a fixed 10 cm diameter instrument pointing continuously towards the celestial South Pole. Observations were made almost continuously during 4 winters, from 2008 to 2011. The point-to-point RMS of 1-day photometric lightcurves can be explained by a combination of expected statistical noises, dominated by the photon noise up to magnitude 14. This RMS is large, from 2.5 mmag at R = 8 to 6% at R = 14, because of the small size of ASTEP South and the short exposure time (30 s). Statistical noises should be considerably reduced using the large amount of collected data. A 9.9-day period eclipsing binary is detected, with a magnitude R = 9.85. The 2-season lightcurve folded in phase and binned into 1,000 points has a RMS of 1.09 mmag, for an expected photon noise of 0.29 mmag. The use of the 4 seasons of data with a better detrending algorithm should yield a sub-millimagnitude precision for this folded lightcurve. Radial velocity follow-up observations reveal a F-M binary system. The detection of this 9.9-day period system with a small instrument such as ASTEP South and the precision of the folded lightcurve show the quality of Dome C for continuous photometric observations, and its potential for the detection of planets with orbital periods longer than those usually detected from the ground.
ASTEP (Antarctic Search for Transiting Exo Planets) is a research program funded mainly by French ANR grants and by the French Polar Institute (IPEV), dedicated to the photometric study of exoplanetary transits from Antarctica.
The preliminary “pathfinder” instrument ASTEP–South is described in another communication (Crouzet et al., these proceedings), and we focus in this presentation on the main instrument of the ASTEP program: “ASTEP–400”, a 40 cm robotized and thermally-controlled photometric telescope operated from the French-Italian Concordia station (Dome C, Antarctica).
ASTEP–400 has been installed at Concordia during the 2009-2010 summer campaign. Since, the telescope has been operated in nominal conditions during 2010 and 2011 winters, and the 2012 winterover is presently in progress. Data from the first two winter campaigns are available and processed. We give a description of the ASTEP–400 telescope from the mechanical, optical and thermal point of view. Control and software issues are also addressed. We end with a discussion of some astronomical results obtained with ASTEP–400.
The Dome C high plateau is unique for coronagraphic observations: sky brightness is reduced, water vapour is low, seeing is excellent and continuity of observations on several weeks is possible. ESCAPE (the Extreme Solar Coronagraphy Antarctic Program Experiment) will perform 2-dimensional spectroscopy of the forbidden line of FeXIV at 530.285 nm: precise line profile analysis will allow the diagnostic of the nature of waves by simultaneous measurements of velocities and intensities in the corona. ESCAPE is proposed to Institut Paul-Emile Victor (IPEV) for a campaign in 2012–2013 at Dome C/Concordia since all subsystems are available in particular thanks to an ESA STARTIGER 2010 R&D “Toward a New Generation of Formation Flying Coronagraph”. Using state-of-the-art technologies developed for Space missions (a Three Mirrors Anastigmat telescope, the TMA, a 4 stages Liquid Crystal Tunable-filter Polarimeter, the LCTP) allows us to propose an automated Coronal Green Line full-field Polarimeter for unique observations (waves nature and intensity to address coronal heating) with the best possible performances on Earth and for preparing and testing the technologies for the next steps in Space. No other site would allow such coronagraphic performances (the sky brightness is a factor 2 to 4 better than in Hawaï) and with high spatial resolution (better than an arcsec is possible).
We report the results of comparison of radiation-induced defects (1 MeV electrons) in n+-p-p+ Si diodes doped with gallium or boron ranging in concentration from 8 × 1014 to 5 × 1016 cm-3, together with the impact of oxygen on radiation –induced defects. Present results provide evidence for new defects states in addition to those previously reported in gallium- and boron-doped Si. The combined boron and gallium data provide enough information to gain valuable insight into the role of the dopants on radiation-induced defects in Si. The interesting new future of our results is that the gallium appears to strongly suppress the radiation induced defect, especially hole level EV+0.36 eV, which is thought to act as a recombination center. Similarly the dominant electron level at EC-0.18 eV in B-doped Si (which act as a donor) has not been observed in Ga-doped CZ-grown Si.
The slip lines introduced in Si wafers during rapid thermal processing (RTP) were revealed with focused reflectance microwave probe (RMP) method. The signal intensity of RMP which is related to optically injected excess carrier concentration decreases at slip lines. The region in which the signal intensity decreased is in good agreement with results of X-ray topography and theoretical analysis considering thermal stress caused by temperature drop at the wafer periphery during RTP. According these results, it is considered that carrier lifetime is decreased by slip dislocations which are effective recombination centers.
The method for the direct measurement of subcritical crack growth in silica optical fiber with 125μm in diameter was developed. The obtained crack velocity da/dt as a function of stress intensity factor KI was expressed by means of log da/dt vs log KI linear relation with slope n. The obtained value of n showed 22.6 (25 °C,60%r.h.) with small standard deviation 0.7. These results indicate that the postulated crack growth law used for the lifetime prediction is valid and the present approach can solve the problem in the conventional method for evaluating the value of n where the evaluated value has been widely scattered.
Nanocrystalline Nb100−xCux (0 ≤ x ≤ 30) alloys of 8 – 25 nm grain size are synthesized with the mechanical alloying technique. Differential scanning calorimetry reveals two separate stages of grain growth. In the first stage, the grain growth is associated with migration of solute Cu atoms to grain boundaries. Grain growth stops as the grain boundaries are saturated with Cu. The second reaction takes place either when the threshold for the nucleation of an Fcc Cu phase in the grain boundary is overcome by thermal activation, or when segregating Cu atoms in the grain boundary are driven by diffusion to the growing Cu grains, and the Cu concentration in the grain boundary drops. This increases the grain boundary energy, and initiates a second stage of rapid grain growth.
Nanocrystalline metal powders can be synthesized by mechanical attrition in a highenergy ball mill. A general relation determining the grain size of these materials is inferred. The ultimate grain size of nanocrystalline metals (typically 6 − 22 nm) is governed by the competition between the severe plastic deformation introduced during ball milling and the recovery behavior of the material. The lower bound grain size achievable by mechanical attrition is given by the minimum distance between two dislocations in a pile-up within a grain for all pure metals. Foar binary alloys the ultimate grain size depends on the composition of the material. Varying the composition changes the grain size reversibly. This can be explained by introducing solid solution hardening effects in the general relation for the lower bound grain size in pure metals. Thus, the proposed model for the ultimate grain size achievable by ball milling seems to be. applicable to all metals and alloys subjected to heavy mechanical deformation. However, reversible grain size changes are not restricted to mechanical attrition, but have also been observed for nanocrystalline Pd-H solid solutions produced by hydriding at constant pressure. Solid solutions prepared at different compositions, i.e. samples with different compositions, exhibit different grain sizes. Cycling between different temperatures/compositions changes the grain size reversibly. This cannot be explained by a model based on plastic deformation as in the case of ball-milled metal powders. The results are compared with data for ball-milled powders and samples prepared by inert gas condensation. The grain size changes are discussed with respect to the compositional changes and the grain boundary energy of the material.
The combination of atomic-resolution Z-contrast microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and first-principles theory has proved to be a powerful means for structure property correlations at interfaces and nanostructures. The scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) now routinely provides atomic-sized electron beams, allowing simultaneous Z-contrast imaging and EELS as shown in Fig. 1. The feasiblity of correcting the inherently large spherical aberration of microscope objective lenses promises to at least double the achievable resolution. The potential benefits for the STEM, however, may turn out to be much greater than those for the conventional TEM because it is very much less sensitive to chromatic instabilities. The 100 kV VG Microscopes HB501UX at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is now fitted with an aberration corrector constructed by Nion Co., which improved its resolution from 2.2 Å (full-width-half-maximum probe intensity) to around 1.3 Å. It is now very comparable in performance to the uncorrected 300 kV HB603U STEM at ORNL which, before correction, also had a directly interpretable resolution of 1.3 Å, although information transfer had been demonstrated down to 0.78 Å8. Initial results after installing an aberration corrector on the 300 kV STEM indicate a resolution of 0.84 Å. The theoretically achievable probe size in the absence of instabilities is predicted to be 0.5 Å.
The organic-inorganic polymer hybrids consisting of carbon-carbon and siloxane chains were prepared by radical polymerization of vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTS) and 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MAS) followed by hydrolytic polycondensation. Polyvinyltrimethoxysilane (PVTS) and poly(3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane) (S-PMA) with various molecular weights Mw=3900–64800 were prepared by polyaddition of VTS and MAS, respectively. PVTS and S-PMA provided transparent and flexible free-standing films and coating films. With increasing carbon-carbon chain length, the elasticity of the films increased, while the tensile strength and Young's modulus decreased. The adhesive strength of the coating films on organic substrates was particularly dependent on the solubility parameter, polarity and crystallinity of each substrate. The pencil-hardness of coating films was clearly increased with increasing degree of condensation of sila-functional group in PVTS and S-PMA.