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The principle and practice of pro bono, or volunteer legal services for poor and other marginalized groups, is an increasingly important feature of civil justice systems around the world. Recent surveys have identified pro bono initiatives in more than eighty countries - including Colombia, Portugal, Nigeria, and Singapore - and the list keeps growing. Covering the spread of pro bono in across five continents, this book provides a unique comparative dataset permitting the first-ever analysis of pro bono's growing role in access to justice globally. The contributors are leading experts from around the world, whose chapters explore both the internal roots of and global influences on pro bono in transnational context. Global Pro Bono explores the dramatically expanding geographical and political reach of pro bono: documenting its essential contribution to bringing more justice to those on the margins, while underscoring its complex and contested meaning in different parts of the world.
This study aimed to examine the effects of re-ensiling time and Lactobacillus buchneri on the fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages. The experiment was set up as a repeated measure design consisting of four air-exposure periods (EP)(0, 6, 12, and 24 h) microbial additive (A) (L. buchneri; or lack of there), with five replicates. Sugarcane was ground through a stationary forage chopper and ensiled in four plastic drums of 200-L capacity. After 210 days of storage, the drums were opened and half of the silage mass was treated with L. buchneri at the concentration of 105 cfu/g of forage. Subsequently, the silages were divided into stacks. The re-ensiling process was started immediately, at 0, 6, 12 and 24-hour intervals, by transferring the material to PVC mini-silos. Silos were opened after 120 days of re-ensiling. The use of L. buchneri reduced butyrate concentration but did not change ethanol or acetic acid concentrations and aerobic stability. An interaction effect between L. buchneri and re-ensiling time was observed for dry matter (DM) losses and composition. Lactobacillus buchneri is not effective in improving aerobic stability in re-ensiled sugarcane silages. However, less DM is lost in silages treated with L. buchneri and exposed to air for 24 h. Re-ensiling sugar cane in up to 24 h of exposure to air does not change final product quality.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentative characteristics and chemical composition of cochineal nopal cactus silage additives with urea or Lactobacillus buchneri (LB), as well as the association of both additives in four storage times (7, 15, 60 and 120 days) and during aerobic stability, with evaluations at 0, 48 and 96 h. Four silages were used: no additive, addition of 2% urea, addition of LB and addition of 2% urea and LB. The study was divided into two experiments: the first experiment evaluated the silages at different storage times, and the second experiment evaluated the silages during the aerobic stability test. In both experiments, the experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme (4 × 4 and 4 × 3) with three replicates per treatment. After the ensiling process, lactic acid bacteria predominated in all treatments. The concentration of lactic acid increased significantly from 60 days of ensiling. The concentration of acetic acid varied significantly between the storage times only for the silages treated with urea and LB alone. The silage treated with urea maintained a constant pH value up to 120 days of storage. During the 96 h aerobic stability test, no breaking in the stability of silages was observed. The exclusive or associated use of urea and LB promotes improvement in the fermentative characteristics of cochineal nopal cactus silage, without major alterations in the chemical composition or interfering with the aerobic stability of the silages.
We present a Monte Carlo collisional scheme that models single Compton scattering between leptons and photons in particle-in-cell codes. The numerical implementation of Compton scattering can deal with macro-particles of different weights and conserves momentum and energy in each collision. Our scheme is validated through two benchmarks for which exact analytical solutions exist: the inverse Compton spectra produced by an electron scattering with an isotropic photon gas and the photon–electron gas equilibrium described by the Kompaneets equation. It provides new opportunities for numerical investigation of plasma phenomena where a significant population of high-energy photons is present in the system.
Our aim was to analyse the association of change patterns on TV-viewing and computer/tablet use and incidence of elevated consumption of ultra-processed food consumption and lower consumption of fruits and vegetables during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Data of 39 208 Brazilian adults from a Behaviour Web Survey were used. Unhealthy nutrition habits were eating fruits or vegetables for <5 d/week and ultra-processed food (sugary foods, snacks, ready-to-eat frozen foods and embedded foods) for ≥5 d/week. For incidence indicators, we only considered participants without unhealthy behaviour before the quarantine. We created four categories of change in TV-viewing and computer/tablet use, considering a cut-off point of 4 h/d for each behaviour (1 – consistently low, 2 – become low during the quarantine, 3 – become high during the quarantine or 4 – consistently high). Analyses were adjusted for sex, age group, highest academic achievement, per capita income, working status during the quarantine, skin colour and adherence to the quarantine.
Brazilian adults (nationally representative).
Logistic regression models revealed that high TV-viewing and computer/tablet use incidence were associated with higher odds for elevated frequency of ultra-processed food consumption (TV-viewing: OR 1·70; 95 % CI 1·37, 2·12; computer/tablet: OR 1·73; 95 % CI 1·31, 2·27) and low consumption of fruit and vegetables (TV-viewing: OR 1·70; 95 % CI 1·29, 2·23; computer/tablet: OR 1·53; 95 % CI 1·08, 2·17) incidence. Consistent high computer/tablet use also presented higher odds for incidence of elevated frequency of ultra-processed food consumption.
Participants with incidence of sedentary behaviours were also more likely to present incidence of unhealthy diet during the COVID-19 pandemic quarantine.
Background: Based on data obtained from hospitals in the city of Belo Horizonte (population ~3,000,000), we evaluated relevant factors such as death, age, duration of surgery, potential for contamination and surgical site infection, plastic surgery, and craniotomy. The possibility of predicting surgical site infection (SSI) was then analyzed using pattern recognition algorithms based on MLP (multilayer perceptron). Methods: Data were collected by the hospital infection control committees (CCIHs) in hospitals in Belo Horizonte between 2016 and 2018. The noisy records were filtered, and the occurrences were analyzed. Finally, the predictive power of SSI of 5 types MLP was evaluated experimentally: momentum, backpropagation standard, weight decay, resilient propagation, and quick propagation. The model used 3, 5, 7, and 10 neurons in the occult layer and with resamples varied the number of records for testing (65% and 75%) and for validation (35% and 25%). Comparisons were made by measuring the AUC (area under the curve (range, 0–1). Results: From 1,096 records of craniotomy, 289 were usable for analysis. Moreover, 16% died; averaged age was 56 years (range, 40–65); mean time of surgery was 186 minutes (range, 95–250 minutes); the number of hospitalizations ranged from 1 (90.6%) to 8 (0.3%). Contamination among these cases was rated as follows: 2.7% contaminated, 23.5% potentially contaminated, 72.3% clean. The SSI rate reached 4%. The prediction process in AUCs ranged from 0.7 to 0.994. In plastic surgery, from 3,693 records, 1,099 were intact, with only 1 case of SSI and no deaths. The average age for plastic surgery was 41 years (range, 16–91); the average time of surgery was 218.5 minutes (range, 19–580 minutes); the number of hospitalizations ranged from 1 (77.4%) to 6 times (0.001%). Contamination among these cases was rated as follows: 27.90% potential contamination, 1.67% contaminated, and 0.84% infected. The prediction process ranged in AUCs from 0.2 to 0.4. Conclusions: We identified a high noise index in both surgeries due to subjectivity at the time of data collection. The profiles of each surgery in the statistical analyses were different, which was reflected in the analyzed structures. The MLP for craniotomy surgery demonstrated relevant predictive power and can guide intelligent monitoring software (available in www.sacihweb.com). However, for plastic surgeries, MLPs need more SSI samples to optimize outcomes. To optimize data collection and to enable other hospitals to use the SSI prediction tool, a mobile application was developed.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dexamethasone on development, viability, antrum formation and ultrastructural integrity of bovine secondary follicles cultured in vitro for 18 days. Bovine ovaries were obtained from slaughterhouses and secondary follicles of ~150–200 µm diameter were isolated and cultured in the laboratory in TCM-199+ alone or supplemented with different concentrations of dexamethasone (1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/ml). Follicle viability was evaluated after the culture period, using calcein-AM (viable) and ethidium homodimer (nonviable). Follicle diameters and antrum formation were evaluated at days 0, 6, 12 and 18. Before or after in vitro culture, follicles were fixed for histological and ultrastructural analysis. Follicle diameters were evaluated using analysis of variance and Kruskal–Wallis test, while chi-squared test was used to evaluate the percentage of viable follicles and antrum formation (P < 0.05). Follicles cultured for 6 days with all treatments increased their diameters significantly, but there was no significant difference between treatments at the end of the culture period. In vitro cultured follicles showed antral cavity formation at the end of the culture period, but no influence of dexamethasone was seen. Ultrastructural analysis showed that follicles cultured with dexamethasone (1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/ml) had well preserved granulosa cells. However, oocytes from follicles cultured with 10, 100 or 1000 ng/ml dexamethasone showed signs of degeneration. It can be concluded that follicles cultured in vitro in the presence of dexamethasone demonstrated continuous in vitro growth, but oocytes from follicles cultured with 10, 100 or 1000 ng/ml dexamethasone had poor ultrastructure.
Helicoverpa armigera is a pest of several crops causing significant economic impact. We evaluated the insect development on different vegetative and reproductive structures of cotton, maize, and soybean compared to artificial diet. One hundred individuals were evaluated per structure (cotton leaves and bolls; maize leaves, grains, and silk; soybean leaves and pods) and artificial diet. Centesimal analyses were performed on quantifiable nutrient contents in diets. The viability of immatures (eggs, larvae, and pupae) ranged from 30% on maize leaf to 74% on cotton bolls, while on the artificial diet, it was 70%. Maize, cotton, and soybean leaves provided viability of 30, 37, and 42%, respectively, revealing these leaves tissues are less favorable to the development of H. armigera immatures compared to ‘reproductive tissues’. Centesimal composition of diets compared 14 common components in all diets, which correlated significantly with larval and pupal stages and/or pupal weight. Of the 12 dietary components that significantly affected larval development time, half were negatively correlated, indicating a decrease in developmental time from their increments. In general, when insects were confined separately to substrates, the artificial diet was the most suitable for H. armigera development compared to the evaluated natural diets. However, in natural conditions, the variability of available hosts must be considered. In addition, it is acceptable for moths to select more suitable hosts for oviposition, while their larvae move to other more suitable tissues of the same plant or even migrate to other plants.
Protein supplementation may be beneficial for patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). This study compared the effects of whey protein isolate (WP) and casein (CA) supplementation on nutritional status and immune parameters of CLD patients who were randomly assigned to take 20 g of WP or CA twice per d as a supplement for 15 d. Body composition, muscle functionality and plasmatic immunomarkers were assessed before and after supplementation. Patients were also classified according to the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) into less (MELD < 15) and more (MELD ≥ 15) severe disease groups. Malnutrition, determined by the Subjective Global Assessment at baseline, was observed in 57·4 % and 54·2 % of patients in the WP and CA groups, respectively (P = 0·649). Protein intake was lower at baseline in the WP group than in the CA group (P = 0·035), with no difference after supplementation (P = 0·410). Both the WP and CA MELD < 15 groups increased protein intake after supplementation according to the intragroup analysis. No differences were observed in body composition, muscle functionality, most plasma cytokines (TNF, IL-6, IL-1β and interferon-γ), immunomodulatory proteins (sTNFR1, sTNFR2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) or immunomodulatory hormones (adiponectin, insulin and leptin) after supplementation in the WP groups at the two assessed moments. WP supplementation increased the levels of interferon-γ-induced protein-10/CXCL10 (P = 0·022), eotaxin-1/CCL11 (P = 0·031) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CCL2 (P = 0·018) and decreased IL-5 (P = 0·027), including among those in the MELD ≥ 15 group, for whom IL-10 was also increased (P = 0·008). Thus, WP consumption by patients with CLD impacted the immunomodulatory responses when compared with CA with no impact on nutritional status.
On coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) wards, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid was frequently detected on high-touch surfaces, floors, and socks inside patient rooms. Contamination of floors and shoes was common outside patient rooms on the COVID-19 wards but decreased after improvements in floor cleaning and disinfection were implemented.
Accurate estimates of methane (CH4) production by cattle in different contexts are essential to developing mitigation strategies in different regions. We aimed to: (i) compile a database of CH4 emissions from Brazilian cattle studies, (ii) evaluate prediction precision and accuracy of extant proposed equations for cattle and (iii) develop specialized equations for predicting CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. Data of nutrient intake, diet composition and CH4 emissions were compiled from in vivo studies using open-circuit respiratory chambers, SF6 technique or the GreenFeed® system. A final dataset containing intake, diet composition, digestibility and CH4 emissions (677 individual animal observations, 40 treatment means) obtained from 38 studies conducted in Brazil was used. The dataset was divided into three groups: all animals (GEN), lactating dairy cows (LAC) and growing cattle and non-lactating dairy cows (GCNL). A total of 54 prediction equations available in the literature were evaluated. A total of 96 multiple linear models were developed for predicting CH4 production (MJ/day). The predictor variables were DM intake (DMI), gross energy (GE) intake, BW, DMI as proportion of BW, NDF concentration, ether extract (EE) concentration, dietary proportion of concentrate and GE digestibility. Model selection criteria were significance (P < 0.05) and variance inflation factor lower than three for all predictors. Each model performance was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2006) Tier 2 method performed better for GEN and GCNL than LAC and overpredicted CH4 production for all datasets. Increasing complexity of the newly developed models resulted in greater performance. The GCNL had a greater number of equations with expanded possibilities to correct for diet characteristics such as EE and NDF concentrations and dietary proportion of concentrate. For the LAC dataset, equations based on intake and animal characteristics were developed. The equations developed in the present study can be useful for accurate and precise estimation of CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. These equations could improve accuracy of greenhouse gas inventories for tropical countries. The results provide a better understanding of the dietary and animal characteristics that influence the production of enteric CH4 in tropical production systems.
Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected disease and endemic in Brazil. In the Brazilian Northeast Region, it affects millions of people. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the spatiotemporal trends of CD mortality in the Northeast of Brazil. This ecological study was designed, in which the unit of analysis was the municipality of the Brazilian northeast. The data source was the Information System of Mortality. It was calculated relative risk from socioeconomic characteristics. Mortality rates were smoothed by the Local Empirical Bayes method. Spatial dependency was analysed by the Global and Local Moran Index. Scan spatial statistics were also used. A total of 11 287 deaths by CD were notified in the study. An expressive parcel of this number was observed among 70-year-olds or more (n = 4381; 38.8%), no schooling (n = 4381; 38.8%), mixed-race (n = 4381; 62.3%), male (n = 6875; 60.9%). It was observed positive spatial autocorrelation, mostly in municipalities of the state of Bahia, Piauí (with high-high clusters), and Maranhão (with low-low clusters). The spatial scan statistics has presented a risk of mortality in 24 purely spatial clusters (P < 0.05). The study has identified the spatial pattern of CD mortality mostly in Bahia and Piauí, highlighting priority areas in planning and control strategies of the health services.
To evaluate the involvement of nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in schizophrenia-like behaviour in young animals exposed to maternal immune activation (MIA).
To this aim, on the 15th gestational day, the females received an injection of lipopolysaccharides. When the animals completed 7, 14 and 45 postnatal days, they were killed and the whole brain was dissected for biochemical analysis. Animals with 45 postnatal days were submitted to behavioural tests of locomotor activity, social interaction and stereotyped movements.
It was observed that the animals presented schizophrenia-like behaviour at 45 postnatal days associated with the increase of NLRP3 inflammasome expression and IL-1β levels on 7, 14 and 45 postnatal days.
This study shows that MIA may be associated with a schizophrenia-like behaviour. This behaviour can be induced to a neuroinflammatory profile in the brain. These evidences may base future studies on the relationship between neuroinflammation and psychiatric disorders.
The farrowing process is one of the most energy-demanding activities for the modern hyperprolific sow. This study evaluated the effects of supply of energy on the expected date of farrowing on the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance during the first 24 h after birth. A total of 80 sows were used. The sows and their respective litters were considered as the experimental unit. On the expected day of farrowing, the sows were allocated to one of the following groups: sows that did not have access to feed from farrowing induction until the end of the farrowing process (CON, n = 40); sows fed 500 g of energetic supplement, which consisted of 250 g of the basal lactation diet plus 250 g of cane sugar, 18 h after farrowing induction (SUP, n = 40). The farrowing duration, farrowing assistance, birth interval, number of total born, stillborn and mummified piglets were recorded for each sow. Piglets were weighed individually at birth and 24 h later. The interval from birth to first suckle was evaluated individually for each piglet in 16 randomly selected litters (eight litters per treatment group). Blood glucose concentrations of six sows were measured shortly after expulsion of the first piglet. Farrowing duration, farrowing assistance and stillborn rate tended to be greater (P = 0.06, P = 0.09 and P = 0.07, respectively) in sows from the CON group compared to sows from the SUP group. However, there was no difference (P > 0.05) between the groups for birth interval. Colostrum intake was greater (P < 0.05) for piglets from the SUP group compared to piglets from the CON group. Additionally, BW gain of the piglets suckling the SUP group was greater (P < 0.05) than those suckling the CON group at 24 h after birth. The blood glucose concentrations during the expulsive stage of farrowing were greater (P < 0.05) in the SUP group than for sows from the CON group. In conclusion, supplying modern hyperprolific sows energy on the expected day of farrowing is a valuable nutritional intervention to improve the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance in early life.
Feeding cattle with on-pasture supplementation or feedlot diets can increase animal efficiency and system profitability while minimizing environmental impacts. However, cattle system profit margins are relatively small and nutrient supply accounts for most of the costs. This paper introduces a nonlinear profit-maximizing diet formulation problem for beef cattle based on well-established predictive equations. Nonlinearity in predictive equations for nutrient requirements poses methodological challenges in the application of optimization techniques. In contrast to other widely used diet formulation methods, we develop a mathematical model that guarantees an exact solution for maximum profit diet formulations. Our method can efficiently solve an often-impractical nonlinear problem by solving a finite number of linear problems, that is, linear time complexity is achieved through parametric linear programming. Results show the impacts of choosing different objective functions (minimizing cost, maximizing profit and maximizing profit per daily weight gain) and how this may lead to different optimal solutions. In targeting improved ration formulation on feedlot systems, this paper demonstrates how profitability and nutritional constraints can be met as an important part of a sustainable intensification production strategy.
Spontaneous abortion is considered a public health problem having several causes, including infections. Among the infectious agents, bacteria of the vaginal microbiota and Ureaplasma parvum have been associated with abortion, but their participation needs to be further elucidated. This study aims to evaluate the influence of Mollicutes on the development of spontaneous abortion. Women who underwent spontaneous abortion and those with normal birth (control) were studied. Samples of cervical mucus (CM) and placental tissue were collected to identify Mollicutes using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodology. Eighty-nine women who had a miscarriage and 20 women with normal pregnancies were studied. The presence of Mollicutes in placental tissue increased the chance of developing miscarriage sevenfold. The prevalence of U. parvum in women who experienced spontaneous abortion was 66.3% in placental tissue. A positive association was observed between the detection of U. parvum in samples of placental tissue and abortion. There was a significant increase in microbial load in placental tissue for M. hominis, U. urealyticum and U. parvum compared to the control group. Detection of U. parvum in CM in pregnant women can ascend to the region of the placental tissue and trigger a spontaneous abortion.
The description of the growth of the Japanese quails is necessary to characterize the genetic potential of these birds raised in different countries. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the genetic potential of Japanese quails by conducting a meta-analysis considering studies conducted in different countries. Only data about the subspecies Coturnix coturnix japonica were considered; studies regarding Coturnix coturnix coturnix were not examined. The criteria investigated were BW (W), age (t), year of publication and location of the study. Each set of genetic material within a publication was coded as one study. The Gompertz function was used to interpret the growth of laying quails; thus, each study was represented by Gompertz parameters. The W and t data were applied to estimate the values of Gompertz growth parameters, including BW at maturity (Wm), BW at birth (Wi), maturity rate (B) and inflection point (IP). The age at which the maximum growth rate was achieved (t*) was calculated considering the parameters Wm, Wi and B. To estimate these parameters, random regression was used to randomize the parameter Wm. The parameters estimated for each assay were used in exploratory, grouping, and principal component analyses. The values of Wi ranged from 4.1 to 11.6 g. The values of B ranged from 0.0393 to 0.1039/day, and consequently, the values of t* and IP ranged from 14 to 31 days and 9.21 to 31.03 g, respectively. These results show that there is considerable variability in the growth potential of Japanese quails. To better understand this variation, two groups were examined: Brazil and other countries, according to the grouping of Wi, Wm, B and t*; parameter B was the variable that presented the highest specificity, indicating that both groups modified the maturity rate. For the principal component analysis, the year of publication showed a relationship with the growth parameters but only for studies performed in Brazil. For studies carried out in other countries, the changes in growth parameters were not related to the year of publication. In Brazilian studies, there was a decrease in the maturity rate, but the weight at maturity was higher. Therefore, it appears that different strategies of genetic selection were adopted in Brazil compared to other countries.
This study aims to understand the main issues in design education and discuss solutions. We conducted two workshops on the state of implementation of design in the Singaporean education system at the Design Education Summit, a conference for educators. We found that the main issues were the inclusion of design education within curriculum and change of stakeholder mindsets. Several solutions were discussed, such as ways to introduce design as part of the organization culture. We summarize results into action items and recommendations.