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The consumption of fructose has increased in children and adolescents and is partially responsible for the high incidence of metabolic diseases. The lifestyle during postnatal development can result in altered metabolic programming, thereby impairing the reproductive system and fertility during adulthood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a high-fructose diet in the male reproductive system of pubertal and adult rats. Male Wistar rats (30 d old) were assigned to four different groups: Fr30, which received fructose (20%) in water for 30 d and were euthanized at postnatal day (PND) 60; Re-Fr30, which received fructose (20%) for 30 d and were euthanized at PND 120; and two control groups C30 and Re-C30, which received water ad libitum and were euthanized at PND 60 and 120, respectively. Fructose induced an increase in abnormal seminiferous tubules with epithelial vacuoles, degeneration, and immature cells in the lumen. Moreover, Fr30 rats showed altered spermatogenesis and daily sperm production (DSP), as well as increased serum testosterone concentrations. After discontinuing high-fructose consumption, DSP and sperm number decreased significantly. We observed tissue remodeling in the epididymis, with a reduction in stromal and epithelial compartments that might have influenced sperm motility. Therefore, we concluded that fructose intake in peripubertal rats led to changes in the reproductive system observed both during puberty and adulthood.
To investigate the timing and routes of contamination of the rooms of patients newly admitted to the hospital.
Observational cohort study and simulations of pathogen transfer.
A Veterans’ Affairs hospital.
Patients newly admitted to the hospital with no known carriage of healthcare-associated pathogens.
Interactions between the participants and personnel or portable equipment were observed, and cultures of high-touch surfaces, floors, bedding, and patients’ socks and skin were collected for up to 4 days. Cultures were processed for Clostridioides difﬁcile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Simulations were conducted with bacteriophage MS2 to assess plausibility of transfer from contaminated floors to high-touch surfaces and to assess the effectiveness of wearing slippers in reducing transfer.
Environmental cultures became positive for at least 1 pathogen in 10 (59%) of the 17 rooms, with cultures positive for MRSA, C. difficile, and VRE in the rooms of 10 (59%), 2 (12%), and 2 (12%) participants, respectively. For all 14 instances of pathogen detection, the initial site of recovery was the floor followed in a subset of patients by detection on sock bottoms, bedding, and high-touch surfaces. In simulations, wearing slippers over hospital socks dramatically reduced transfer of bacteriophage MS2 from the floor to hands and to high-touch surfaces.
Floors may be an underappreciated source of pathogen dissemination in healthcare facilities. Simple interventions such as having patients wear slippers could potentially reduce the risk for transfer of pathogens from floors to hands and high-touch surfaces.
The principle and practice of pro bono, or volunteer legal services for poor and other marginalized groups, is an increasingly important feature of civil justice systems around the world. Recent surveys have identified pro bono initiatives in more than eighty countries - including Colombia, Portugal, Nigeria, and Singapore - and the list keeps growing. Covering the spread of pro bono in across five continents, this book provides a unique comparative dataset permitting the first-ever analysis of pro bono's growing role in access to justice globally. The contributors are leading experts from around the world, whose chapters explore both the internal roots of and global influences on pro bono in transnational context. Global Pro Bono explores the dramatically expanding geographical and political reach of pro bono: documenting its essential contribution to bringing more justice to those on the margins, while underscoring its complex and contested meaning in different parts of the world.
The canopy-related terms in the transport equations for momentum, Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate were described by a perturbative expansion around a velocity scale based on the mean total kinetic energy. The quality of the series and the relative magnitude of the first orders were analysed through comparison with the results of large-eddy simulation of three canopy flows representative of real-life applications. The flows in question were those over a horizontally homogeneous forest, a sequence of forest stands and clearings, and a forested hill. The analysis gave both the highest order required for an accurate evaluation of the canopy effects and a mathematical formulation for the canopy-related terms in a Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes formulation. This offers a sounder basis and assured consistency for the turbulence modelling of canopy flows between Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes and large-eddy simulation frameworks.
We aimed at evaluating the association of maternal pre-pregnancy nutritional status with offspring anthropometry and body composition. We also evaluated whether these associations were modified by gender, diet and physical activity and mediated by birth weight.
Birth cohort study.
Waist circumference was measured with an inextensible tape, and fat and lean mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for possible confounders and allele score of BMI. We carried out mediation analysis using G-formula.
In 1982, 1993 and 2004, all maternity hospitals in Pelotas (South Brazil) were visited daily and all live births whose families lived in the urban area of the city were evaluated. These subjects have been followed up at different ages.
Offspring of obese mothers had on average higher BMI, waist circumference and fat mass index than those of normal weight mothers, and these differences were higher among daughters. The magnitudes of the association were similar in the cohorts, except for height, where the association pattern was not clear. In the 1982 cohort, further adjustment for a BMI allele score had no material influence on the magnitude of the associations. Mediation analyses showed that birth weight captured part of this association.
Our findings suggest that maternal pre-pregnancy nutritional status is positively associated with offspring BMI and adiposity in offspring. And this association is higher among daughters whose mother was overweight or obese and, birth weight explains part of this association.
Trypanosoma cruzi has three biochemically and morphologically distinct developmental stages that are programmed to rapidly respond to environmental changes the parasite faces during its life cycle. Unlike other eukaryotes, Trypanosomatid genomes contain protein coding genes that are transcribed into polycistronic pre-mRNAs and have their expression controlled by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Transcriptome analyses comparing three stages of the T. cruzi life cycle revealed changes in gene expression that reflect the parasite adaptation to distinct environments. Several genes encoding RNA binding proteins (RBPs), known to act as key post-transcriptional regulatory factors, were also differentially expressed. We characterized one T. cruzi RBP, named TcZH3H12, which contains a zinc finger domain and is up-regulated in epimastigotes compared to trypomastigotes and amastigotes. TcZC3H12 knockout (KO) epimastigotes showed decreased growth rates and increased capacity to differentiate into metacyclic trypomastigotes. Transcriptome analyses comparing wild type and TcZC3H12 KOs revealed a TcZC3H12-dependent expression of epimastigote-specific genes such as genes encoding amino acid transporters and proteins associated with differentiation (PADs). RNA immunoprecipitation assays showed that transcripts from the PAD family interact with TcZC3H12. Taken together, these findings suggest that TcZC3H12 positively regulates the expression of genes involved in epimastigote proliferation and also acts as a negative regulator of metacyclogenesis.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentative characteristics and chemical composition of cochineal nopal cactus silage additives with urea or Lactobacillus buchneri (LB), as well as the association of both additives in four storage times (7, 15, 60 and 120 days) and during aerobic stability, with evaluations at 0, 48 and 96 h. Four silages were used: no additive, addition of 2% urea, addition of LB and addition of 2% urea and LB. The study was divided into two experiments: the first experiment evaluated the silages at different storage times, and the second experiment evaluated the silages during the aerobic stability test. In both experiments, the experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme (4 × 4 and 4 × 3) with three replicates per treatment. After the ensiling process, lactic acid bacteria predominated in all treatments. The concentration of lactic acid increased significantly from 60 days of ensiling. The concentration of acetic acid varied significantly between the storage times only for the silages treated with urea and LB alone. The silage treated with urea maintained a constant pH value up to 120 days of storage. During the 96 h aerobic stability test, no breaking in the stability of silages was observed. The exclusive or associated use of urea and LB promotes improvement in the fermentative characteristics of cochineal nopal cactus silage, without major alterations in the chemical composition or interfering with the aerobic stability of the silages.
Affordable nutrition refers to the relation between nutrient density of foods and their monetary cost. There are limited data on affordable nutrition in low- and middle-income countries. The present study aimed to develop a nutrient density score and nutrient affordability metrics for 377 most consumed foods in Brazil.
The foods were aggregated into seven major food groups and four NOVA food categories. Nutrient composition data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Food prices were obtained from retailer websites and were converted to prices per 100 g and 418 kJ. The Nutrient Rich Food (NRF8.2) score was based on protein, fiber, vitamins A, C and E, Ca, Fe and K. Nutrients to limit were sugar and Na. Affordability was measured as kcal/R$ and nutrients/R$.
Grains, fats and sweets were more energy dense and had lower NRF8.2 scores than dairy, vegetables and fruits. Grains, fats and sweets were the lowest cost sources of energy. Vegetables and fruits, beans, nuts and seeds and eggs and dairy were the lowest cost sources of multiple nutrients. Ultra-processed foods (48 % of total) had higher energy density and lower NRF8.2 scores than did unprocessed foods. In Brazil, fruits, vegetables and dairy products offered the most nutrients per real.
Analysis of the relationship between nutrient density of foods and their cost can help identify locally available foods that are nutrient rich, affordable and culturally acceptable. Achieving high nutrient density at an affordable cost should be the goal of Brazil’s food systems.
We present a Monte Carlo collisional scheme that models single Compton scattering between leptons and photons in particle-in-cell codes. The numerical implementation of Compton scattering can deal with macro-particles of different weights and conserves momentum and energy in each collision. Our scheme is validated through two benchmarks for which exact analytical solutions exist: the inverse Compton spectra produced by an electron scattering with an isotropic photon gas and the photon–electron gas equilibrium described by the Kompaneets equation. It provides new opportunities for numerical investigation of plasma phenomena where a significant population of high-energy photons is present in the system.
Our aim was to analyse the association of change patterns on TV-viewing and computer/tablet use and incidence of elevated consumption of ultra-processed food consumption and lower consumption of fruits and vegetables during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Data of 39 208 Brazilian adults from a Behaviour Web Survey were used. Unhealthy nutrition habits were eating fruits or vegetables for <5 d/week and ultra-processed food (sugary foods, snacks, ready-to-eat frozen foods and embedded foods) for ≥5 d/week. For incidence indicators, we only considered participants without unhealthy behaviour before the quarantine. We created four categories of change in TV-viewing and computer/tablet use, considering a cut-off point of 4 h/d for each behaviour (1 – consistently low, 2 – become low during the quarantine, 3 – become high during the quarantine or 4 – consistently high). Analyses were adjusted for sex, age group, highest academic achievement, per capita income, working status during the quarantine, skin colour and adherence to the quarantine.
Brazilian adults (nationally representative).
Logistic regression models revealed that high TV-viewing and computer/tablet use incidence were associated with higher odds for elevated frequency of ultra-processed food consumption (TV-viewing: OR 1·70; 95 % CI 1·37, 2·12; computer/tablet: OR 1·73; 95 % CI 1·31, 2·27) and low consumption of fruit and vegetables (TV-viewing: OR 1·70; 95 % CI 1·29, 2·23; computer/tablet: OR 1·53; 95 % CI 1·08, 2·17) incidence. Consistent high computer/tablet use also presented higher odds for incidence of elevated frequency of ultra-processed food consumption.
Participants with incidence of sedentary behaviours were also more likely to present incidence of unhealthy diet during the COVID-19 pandemic quarantine.
Background: Based on data obtained from hospitals in the city of Belo Horizonte (population ~3,000,000), we evaluated relevant factors such as death, age, duration of surgery, potential for contamination and surgical site infection, plastic surgery, and craniotomy. The possibility of predicting surgical site infection (SSI) was then analyzed using pattern recognition algorithms based on MLP (multilayer perceptron). Methods: Data were collected by the hospital infection control committees (CCIHs) in hospitals in Belo Horizonte between 2016 and 2018. The noisy records were filtered, and the occurrences were analyzed. Finally, the predictive power of SSI of 5 types MLP was evaluated experimentally: momentum, backpropagation standard, weight decay, resilient propagation, and quick propagation. The model used 3, 5, 7, and 10 neurons in the occult layer and with resamples varied the number of records for testing (65% and 75%) and for validation (35% and 25%). Comparisons were made by measuring the AUC (area under the curve (range, 0–1). Results: From 1,096 records of craniotomy, 289 were usable for analysis. Moreover, 16% died; averaged age was 56 years (range, 40–65); mean time of surgery was 186 minutes (range, 95–250 minutes); the number of hospitalizations ranged from 1 (90.6%) to 8 (0.3%). Contamination among these cases was rated as follows: 2.7% contaminated, 23.5% potentially contaminated, 72.3% clean. The SSI rate reached 4%. The prediction process in AUCs ranged from 0.7 to 0.994. In plastic surgery, from 3,693 records, 1,099 were intact, with only 1 case of SSI and no deaths. The average age for plastic surgery was 41 years (range, 16–91); the average time of surgery was 218.5 minutes (range, 19–580 minutes); the number of hospitalizations ranged from 1 (77.4%) to 6 times (0.001%). Contamination among these cases was rated as follows: 27.90% potential contamination, 1.67% contaminated, and 0.84% infected. The prediction process ranged in AUCs from 0.2 to 0.4. Conclusions: We identified a high noise index in both surgeries due to subjectivity at the time of data collection. The profiles of each surgery in the statistical analyses were different, which was reflected in the analyzed structures. The MLP for craniotomy surgery demonstrated relevant predictive power and can guide intelligent monitoring software (available in www.sacihweb.com). However, for plastic surgeries, MLPs need more SSI samples to optimize outcomes. To optimize data collection and to enable other hospitals to use the SSI prediction tool, a mobile application was developed.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dexamethasone on development, viability, antrum formation and ultrastructural integrity of bovine secondary follicles cultured in vitro for 18 days. Bovine ovaries were obtained from slaughterhouses and secondary follicles of ~150–200 µm diameter were isolated and cultured in the laboratory in TCM-199+ alone or supplemented with different concentrations of dexamethasone (1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/ml). Follicle viability was evaluated after the culture period, using calcein-AM (viable) and ethidium homodimer (nonviable). Follicle diameters and antrum formation were evaluated at days 0, 6, 12 and 18. Before or after in vitro culture, follicles were fixed for histological and ultrastructural analysis. Follicle diameters were evaluated using analysis of variance and Kruskal–Wallis test, while chi-squared test was used to evaluate the percentage of viable follicles and antrum formation (P < 0.05). Follicles cultured for 6 days with all treatments increased their diameters significantly, but there was no significant difference between treatments at the end of the culture period. In vitro cultured follicles showed antral cavity formation at the end of the culture period, but no influence of dexamethasone was seen. Ultrastructural analysis showed that follicles cultured with dexamethasone (1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/ml) had well preserved granulosa cells. However, oocytes from follicles cultured with 10, 100 or 1000 ng/ml dexamethasone showed signs of degeneration. It can be concluded that follicles cultured in vitro in the presence of dexamethasone demonstrated continuous in vitro growth, but oocytes from follicles cultured with 10, 100 or 1000 ng/ml dexamethasone had poor ultrastructure.
Helicoverpa armigera is a pest of several crops causing significant economic impact. We evaluated the insect development on different vegetative and reproductive structures of cotton, maize, and soybean compared to artificial diet. One hundred individuals were evaluated per structure (cotton leaves and bolls; maize leaves, grains, and silk; soybean leaves and pods) and artificial diet. Centesimal analyses were performed on quantifiable nutrient contents in diets. The viability of immatures (eggs, larvae, and pupae) ranged from 30% on maize leaf to 74% on cotton bolls, while on the artificial diet, it was 70%. Maize, cotton, and soybean leaves provided viability of 30, 37, and 42%, respectively, revealing these leaves tissues are less favorable to the development of H. armigera immatures compared to ‘reproductive tissues’. Centesimal composition of diets compared 14 common components in all diets, which correlated significantly with larval and pupal stages and/or pupal weight. Of the 12 dietary components that significantly affected larval development time, half were negatively correlated, indicating a decrease in developmental time from their increments. In general, when insects were confined separately to substrates, the artificial diet was the most suitable for H. armigera development compared to the evaluated natural diets. However, in natural conditions, the variability of available hosts must be considered. In addition, it is acceptable for moths to select more suitable hosts for oviposition, while their larvae move to other more suitable tissues of the same plant or even migrate to other plants.
Protein supplementation may be beneficial for patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). This study compared the effects of whey protein isolate (WP) and casein (CA) supplementation on nutritional status and immune parameters of CLD patients who were randomly assigned to take 20 g of WP or CA twice per d as a supplement for 15 d. Body composition, muscle functionality and plasmatic immunomarkers were assessed before and after supplementation. Patients were also classified according to the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) into less (MELD < 15) and more (MELD ≥ 15) severe disease groups. Malnutrition, determined by the Subjective Global Assessment at baseline, was observed in 57·4 % and 54·2 % of patients in the WP and CA groups, respectively (P = 0·649). Protein intake was lower at baseline in the WP group than in the CA group (P = 0·035), with no difference after supplementation (P = 0·410). Both the WP and CA MELD < 15 groups increased protein intake after supplementation according to the intragroup analysis. No differences were observed in body composition, muscle functionality, most plasma cytokines (TNF, IL-6, IL-1β and interferon-γ), immunomodulatory proteins (sTNFR1, sTNFR2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) or immunomodulatory hormones (adiponectin, insulin and leptin) after supplementation in the WP groups at the two assessed moments. WP supplementation increased the levels of interferon-γ-induced protein-10/CXCL10 (P = 0·022), eotaxin-1/CCL11 (P = 0·031) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CCL2 (P = 0·018) and decreased IL-5 (P = 0·027), including among those in the MELD ≥ 15 group, for whom IL-10 was also increased (P = 0·008). Thus, WP consumption by patients with CLD impacted the immunomodulatory responses when compared with CA with no impact on nutritional status.
On coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) wards, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid was frequently detected on high-touch surfaces, floors, and socks inside patient rooms. Contamination of floors and shoes was common outside patient rooms on the COVID-19 wards but decreased after improvements in floor cleaning and disinfection were implemented.
Accurate estimates of methane (CH4) production by cattle in different contexts are essential to developing mitigation strategies in different regions. We aimed to: (i) compile a database of CH4 emissions from Brazilian cattle studies, (ii) evaluate prediction precision and accuracy of extant proposed equations for cattle and (iii) develop specialized equations for predicting CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. Data of nutrient intake, diet composition and CH4 emissions were compiled from in vivo studies using open-circuit respiratory chambers, SF6 technique or the GreenFeed® system. A final dataset containing intake, diet composition, digestibility and CH4 emissions (677 individual animal observations, 40 treatment means) obtained from 38 studies conducted in Brazil was used. The dataset was divided into three groups: all animals (GEN), lactating dairy cows (LAC) and growing cattle and non-lactating dairy cows (GCNL). A total of 54 prediction equations available in the literature were evaluated. A total of 96 multiple linear models were developed for predicting CH4 production (MJ/day). The predictor variables were DM intake (DMI), gross energy (GE) intake, BW, DMI as proportion of BW, NDF concentration, ether extract (EE) concentration, dietary proportion of concentrate and GE digestibility. Model selection criteria were significance (P < 0.05) and variance inflation factor lower than three for all predictors. Each model performance was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2006) Tier 2 method performed better for GEN and GCNL than LAC and overpredicted CH4 production for all datasets. Increasing complexity of the newly developed models resulted in greater performance. The GCNL had a greater number of equations with expanded possibilities to correct for diet characteristics such as EE and NDF concentrations and dietary proportion of concentrate. For the LAC dataset, equations based on intake and animal characteristics were developed. The equations developed in the present study can be useful for accurate and precise estimation of CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. These equations could improve accuracy of greenhouse gas inventories for tropical countries. The results provide a better understanding of the dietary and animal characteristics that influence the production of enteric CH4 in tropical production systems.
Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected disease and endemic in Brazil. In the Brazilian Northeast Region, it affects millions of people. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the spatiotemporal trends of CD mortality in the Northeast of Brazil. This ecological study was designed, in which the unit of analysis was the municipality of the Brazilian northeast. The data source was the Information System of Mortality. It was calculated relative risk from socioeconomic characteristics. Mortality rates were smoothed by the Local Empirical Bayes method. Spatial dependency was analysed by the Global and Local Moran Index. Scan spatial statistics were also used. A total of 11 287 deaths by CD were notified in the study. An expressive parcel of this number was observed among 70-year-olds or more (n = 4381; 38.8%), no schooling (n = 4381; 38.8%), mixed-race (n = 4381; 62.3%), male (n = 6875; 60.9%). It was observed positive spatial autocorrelation, mostly in municipalities of the state of Bahia, Piauí (with high-high clusters), and Maranhão (with low-low clusters). The spatial scan statistics has presented a risk of mortality in 24 purely spatial clusters (P < 0.05). The study has identified the spatial pattern of CD mortality mostly in Bahia and Piauí, highlighting priority areas in planning and control strategies of the health services.
To evaluate the involvement of nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in schizophrenia-like behaviour in young animals exposed to maternal immune activation (MIA).
To this aim, on the 15th gestational day, the females received an injection of lipopolysaccharides. When the animals completed 7, 14 and 45 postnatal days, they were killed and the whole brain was dissected for biochemical analysis. Animals with 45 postnatal days were submitted to behavioural tests of locomotor activity, social interaction and stereotyped movements.
It was observed that the animals presented schizophrenia-like behaviour at 45 postnatal days associated with the increase of NLRP3 inflammasome expression and IL-1β levels on 7, 14 and 45 postnatal days.
This study shows that MIA may be associated with a schizophrenia-like behaviour. This behaviour can be induced to a neuroinflammatory profile in the brain. These evidences may base future studies on the relationship between neuroinflammation and psychiatric disorders.
This study aimed to examine the effects of re-ensiling time and Lactobacillus buchneri on the fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages. The experiment was set up as a repeated measure design consisting of four air-exposure periods (EP)(0, 6, 12, and 24 h) microbial additive (A) (L. buchneri; or lack of there), with five replicates. Sugarcane was ground through a stationary forage chopper and ensiled in four plastic drums of 200-L capacity. After 210 days of storage, the drums were opened and half of the silage mass was treated with L. buchneri at the concentration of 105 cfu/g of forage. Subsequently, the silages were divided into stacks. The re-ensiling process was started immediately, at 0, 6, 12 and 24-hour intervals, by transferring the material to PVC mini-silos. Silos were opened after 120 days of re-ensiling. The use of L. buchneri reduced butyrate concentration but did not change ethanol or acetic acid concentrations and aerobic stability. An interaction effect between L. buchneri and re-ensiling time was observed for dry matter (DM) losses and composition. Lactobacillus buchneri is not effective in improving aerobic stability in re-ensiled sugarcane silages. However, less DM is lost in silages treated with L. buchneri and exposed to air for 24 h. Re-ensiling sugar cane in up to 24 h of exposure to air does not change final product quality.