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Recognizing the need for organizational change in a transition setting, we specify a research model entailing the effects of two important workplace variables on the relationship between dispositional resistance to change and organizational commitment. Organizational commitment is important because of its relationship with a host of considerations relevant to successful organizational change and development. We test the model with samples from four Ukrainian firms undergoing comparable substantive change, including in their human resource systems. The results indicate that the negative relationship between resistance to change and organization commitment is moderated by trust in management. Specifically, it is the lack of trust that exacerbates the negative influence of resistance to change on commitment. Also, high procedural justice strengthens the negative relationship, thereby reducing organizational commitment, an interesting divergence from the Western literature. These indigenous findings in a markedly different context from the West hold potential for theory that is richer and more comprehensive in its explanatory reach. The findings also provide useful insights for managers in Ukraine in their efforts to change organizational practices.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
The non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) is a common habit among American college students; It refers to the use of stimulant medications by students who do not qualify for prescription or in higher quantities or manners other than prescribed in order to improve their academic performance. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined the role of specific affective, biologically determined and inherited traits that might predict misuse of stimulants for neuroenhancement in graduate education.
To examine the role for individual temperament traits on non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) in medical college students.
We investigated 181 students using the short form of the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A). Furthermore, we assessed the association of demographic variables and health risk behaviors (drinking, smoking, use other illicit drugs) with NMUPS. Predictors were investigated using logistic regression.
The prevalence of NMUPS was 30.06% with 7.1% users being previously diagnosed with ADHD. NMUPS users had higher scores on the hyperthymic scale. The main reason for taking NMUPS was to “Increase ability to stay alert during studying” (80.1%) followed by “Allow studying for longer periods of time” (19.9%). The hyperthymic temperament score and being a user of other illicit drugs increased the odds of becoming NMUPS.
Our results suggest that personality profiles can be used to identify students with an increased risk for NMUPS for early personalized counseling and behavioral intervention based on their temperament profile.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
To determine the burden of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), the nature of antimicrobial prescribing and factors contributing to inappropriate prescribing for SSTIs in Australian aged care facilities, SSTI and antimicrobial prescribing data were collected via a standardised national survey. The proportion of residents prescribed ⩾1 antimicrobial for presumed SSTI and the proportion whose infections met McGeer et al. surveillance definitions were determined. Antimicrobial choice was compared to national prescribing guidelines and prescription duration analysed using a negative binomial mixed-effects regression model. Of 12 319 surveyed residents, 452 (3.7%) were prescribed an antimicrobial for a SSTI and 29% of these residents had confirmed infection. Topical clotrimazole was most frequently prescribed, often for unspecified indications. Where an indication was documented, antimicrobial choice was generally aligned with recommendations. Duration of prescribing (in days) was associated with use of an agent for prophylaxis (rate ratio (RR) 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.52), PRN orders (RR 2.10, 95% CI 1.42–3.11) and prescription of a topical agent (RR 1.47, 95% CI 1.08–2.02), while documentation of a review or stop date was associated with reduced duration of prescribing (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.25–0.43). Antimicrobial prescribing for SSTI is frequent in aged care facilities in Australia. Methods to enhance appropriate prescribing, including clinician documentation, are required.
The need for higher energy density batteries has spawned recent renewed interest in alternatives to lithium ion batteries, including multivalent chemistries that theoretically can provide twice the volumetric capacity if two electrons can be transferred per intercalating ion. Initial investigations of these chemistries have been limited to date by the lack of understanding of the compatibility between intercalation electrode materials, electrolytes, and current collectors. This work describes the utilization of hybrid cells to evaluate multivalent cathodes, consisting of high surface area carbon anodes and multivalent nonaqueous electrolytes that are compatible with oxide intercalation electrodes. In particular, electrolyte and current collector compatibility was investigated, and it was found that the carbon and active material play an important role in determining the compatibility of PF6-based multivalent electrolytes with carbon-based current collectors. Through the exploration of electrolytes that are compatible with the cathode, new cell chemistries and configurations can be developed, including a magnesium-ion battery with two intercalation host electrodes, which may expand the known Mg-based systems beyond the present state of the art sulfide-based cathodes with organohalide-magnesium based electrolytes.
Persons who develop tuberculosis (TB) may have subtle immune defects that could predispose to other intracellular bacterial infections (ICBIs). We obtained data on TB and five ICBIs (Chlamydia trachomatis, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Yersinia spp., Listeria monocytogenes) reported to the Tennessee Department of Health, USA, 2000–2011. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing ICBIs in persons who developed TB and ICBIs in the Tennessee population, adjusted for age, sex, race and ethnicity were estimated. IRRs were not significantly elevated for all ICBIs combined [IRR 0·87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·71–1·06]. C. trachomatis rate was lowest in the year post-TB diagnosis (IRR 0·17, 95% CI 0·04–0·70). More Salmonella infections occurred in extrapulmonary TB compared to pulmonary TB patients (IRR 14·3, 95% CI 1·67–122); however, this appeared to be related to HIV co-infection. TB was not associated with an increased risk of other ICBIs. In fact, fewer C. trachomatis infections occurred after recent TB diagnosis. Reasons for this association, including reduced exposure, protection conferred by anti-TB drugs or macrophage activation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection warrant further investigation.
Common sources of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 infection have been identified by investigating outbreaks and by case-control studies of sporadic infections. We conducted an analysis to attribute STEC O157 infections ascertained in 1996 and 1999 by the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) to sources. Multivariable models from two case-control studies conducted in FoodNet and outbreak investigations that occurred during the study years were used to calculate the annual number of infections attributable to six sources. Using the results of the outbreak investigations alone, 27% and 15% of infections were attributed to a source in 1996 and 1999, respectively. Combining information from both data sources, 65% of infections in 1996 and 34% of infections in 1999 were attributed. The results suggest that methods to incorporate data from multiple surveillance systems and over several years are needed to improve estimation of the number of illnesses attributable to exposure sources.
There is increasing emphasis on the need for effective ways of sharing knowledge to enhance environmental management and sustainability. Knowledge exchange (KE) are processes that generate, share and/or use knowledge through various methods appropriate to the context, purpose, and participants involved. KE includes concepts such as sharing, generation, coproduction, comanagement, and brokerage of knowledge. This paper elicits the expert knowledge of academics involved in research and practice of KE from different disciplines and backgrounds to review research themes, identify gaps and questions, and develop a research agenda for furthering understanding about KE. Results include 80 research questions prefaced by a review of research themes. Key conclusions are: (1) there is a diverse range of questions relating to KE that require attention; (2) there is a particular need for research on understanding the process of KE and how KE can be evaluated; and (3) given the strong interdependency of research questions, an integrated approach to understanding KE is required. To improve understanding of KE, action research methodologies and embedding evaluation as a normal part of KE research and practice need to be encouraged. This will foster more adaptive approaches to learning about KE and enhance effectiveness of environmental management.
Several conditions that allow the preservation, storage and rapid, efficient recovery of viable Acanthamoeba castellanii organisms were investigated. The viability of trophozoites (as determined by time to confluence) significantly declined over a period of 12 months when stored at −70°C using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; 5 or 10%) as cryopreservant. As A. castellanii are naturally capable of encystment, studies were undertaken to determine whether induced encystment might improve the viability of organisms under a number of storage conditions. A. castellanii cysts stored in the presence of Mg2+ at 4°C remained viable over the study period, although time to confluence was increased from approximately 8 days to approximately 24 days over the 12-month period. Storage of cysts at −70°C with DMSO (5 or 10%) or 40% glycerol, but not 80% glycerol as cryopreservants increased their viability over the 12-month study period compared with those stored at room temperature. Continued presence of Mg2+ in medium during storage had no adverse effects and generally improved recovery of viable organisms. The present study demonstrates that A. castellanii can be stored as a non-multiplicative form inexpensively, without a need for cryopreservation, for at least 12 months, but viability is increased by storage at −70°C.
We suspended discussion of the nature of agrammatic comprehension impairment in chapter 12, in order to consider the role of working memory in sentence processing and to review the methodology of on-line language assessment. With a clearer picture of the alternative (but not necessarily irreconcilable) concepts of working memory resources utilized in volitional and automated language processing, together with an appreciation of the current state-of-the-art in behavioural and neural techniques for monitoring moment-by-moment fluctuations in processing load, we are better equipped to critically evaluate competing theories of receptive agrammatism. But to avoid needless confusion that often attends discussion of this topic, let us be clear what we mean by ‘receptive agrammatism’, how it relates to the clinical classification of aphasia (Broca's, Wernicke's, anomic, conduction and transcortical aphasia), and why this particular language syndrome has preoccupied neurolinguistic research more than any other over the last quarter century or so.
Receptive agrammatism refers to a pattern of comprehension impairment that is revealed by psycholinguistic investigations of the kind described in detail in chapter 12. Subjects manifest an inability to use syntactic cues for sentence comprehension in tests of thematic role assignment, where pragmatic and lexical cues to meaning are rigorously controlled by selection of sentence materials and other aspects of the testing situation. A pattern of comprehension impairment that can be identified as receptive agrammatism has the following attributes: (1) not better than chance performance for agent identification on reversible passive constructions, (2) poor performance on object relative clauses and other structures involving departures from canonical word order, and (3) selective ‘blindness’ to the presence of semantically opaque function words or grammatical affixes.
In the two preceding chapters, we have explored in a preliminary way two different paths to understanding the human ‘language faculty’ (Chomsky, 1965; Jackendoff, 1997) or our capacity for spoken language communication. The linguistic approach seeks to isolate and describe the elements of a system of spoken communication by studying varieties of linguistic expressions in the world's languages and human language in general. The neuropathological approach examines types of language breakdown in response to brain damage of various kinds. It is hoped that the search for parallels or correspondences in these two very different domains will yield empirical constraints on a theory of language that could not otherwise be discovered if these two strands of inquiry were conducted in isolation from one another. For example, a fundamental distinction that grammarians draw between lexis and rule in the architecture of the language faculty may turn out to have a correspondence – or not – in the classification of language pathologies, reflecting the organization of language capacities in the human brain. We have already provided you with some classical findings from these two domains, which provides at least a foundation for speculation and further inquiry.
However, it is time to draw some critical methodological distinctions in the interests of making our search for correspondences and a cross-disciplinary theory of language more precise. The distinctions that we draw here will anticipate issues discussed more fully in subsequent chapters.
Thus far, we have not entirely neglected but certainly down-played the role of the lexicon in speech perception. In chapters 5 and 6 we sought to make a case that speech recognizers must be able to build phonological representations of possible word forms, purely on the basis of acoustic phonetic input. Otherwise, it is difficult to account for the robustness and flexibility of our ‘bottom-up’ speech recognition capabilities. But it is also true that the goal of speech recognition is to identify words in the service of understanding whole utterances, and that there are a host of ‘top-down’ lexical, semantic and discourse effects that arise as a consequence of lexical retrieval mechanisms. Such effects express themselves in (a) the different ways that we respond perceptually to words (e.g. kelp) versus non-words (whether pronounceable like klep – a possible word – or phonotactically illegal, like tlep), (b) neighbourhood effects, arising from the fact that particular words vary in the number of phonologically near neighbours that compete for matching to the acoustic signal, and (c) other effects, such as phoneme restoration (see below), which may or may not be lexical in origin, but nevertheless require explanation.
The account given in previous chapters has characterized speech perception as an active process whereby phonological forms are constructed from speech-specific (phonetic) features in the acoustic signal, via the application of specialized perceptual analysers that exploit tacit knowledge of the sound pattern of the language and the sound production constraints of the human vocal tract.
This book is intended as a self-contained introduction to the study of the language–brain relationship for students of cognitive science, linguistics and speech pathology. The essentially interdisciplinary nature of the subject matter posed considerable difficulties for the author and will likely do so also for the reader. So please be warned. Despite my considerable efforts to keep the pathways open between the villages of the cognate disciplines concerned, the jungle is everywhere and its capacity for re-growth is relentless.
As appropriate for an introductory text, the book is accessible to a wide readership. Foundational concepts and issues on the nature of language, language processing and brain language disorders (aphasiology) are presented in the first four chapters. This section of the book should be complementary with many stand-alone introductory courses in linguistics, psychology or neuroanatomy. Subsequent sections deal with successively ‘higher’ levels of language processing and their respective manifestations in brain damage: speech perception (chapters 5–8); word structure and meaning (lexical processing and its disorders; chapters 9–11); syntax and syntactic disorder (agrammatism; chapters 12–14); discourse and the language of thought disorder (chapters 15–16), followed by a brief final chapter, speculating on unsolved problems and possible ways forward. Each major section of the book begins by posing the principal questions at an intuitive level which is hopefully accessible to all. The often quite specialized research methods by which answers to these questions have been sought are then introduced, in a selective review of the literature.
In the previous chapter, we drew some tentative conclusions and made some quite strong claims about speech perception: that it is a ‘bottom-up’, highly modular process; that the objects of speech perception are abstract, hierarchically structured phonological targets; that speech differs in important respects from other kinds of auditory perception; that special, species-specific neural machinery may be required to support speech perception. It is time to consider more closely the experimental evidence to see if these claims can be substantiated, to examine the tools that have been developed for studying speech perception, and to approach the controversies that currently animate the field. We will not attempt a comprehensive review, but simply explore some long-standing themes and introduce the specialized experimental paradigms with which one needs to be familiar to understand current research.
One of the guiding themes of speech perception research has been the question of whether ‘speech is special’: whether specific adaptation of the perceptual system has occurred with the evolution of human language to support the demands of spoken communication. Several key concepts and experimental paradigms have been developed in an attempt to answer this question. Two early paradigms, dichotic listening and categorical perception, provide the foundational concepts for understanding contemporary issues. Specifically, the dichotic listening paradigm raises questions of hemispheric specialization and cortical mechanisms for speech perception that remain central to contemporary neuroimaging studies.
The previous chapter's discussion of lexical semantics sought to address the fundamental problem of how word meanings are modified by context in sentence processing. These considerations are central to the goal of developing a combinatorial semantics of natural language processing – a task that is beyond the grasp of current theory or computation. However, it is important not to lose sight of the fact that words and idioms (phrase-like chunks of the kick-the-bucket variety) are also discrete linguistic entities, and that isolated word recognition, retrieval and production constitute a quasi-modular component of linguistic competence in its own right. Severe word-finding difficulties constitute a criterial symptom for a diagnosis of anomic aphasia or serve as a sign of incipient Alzheimer's disease. Phonemic or semantic paraphasias are characteristic features of fluent speech production in Wernicke's aphasia and may be accompanied by an agnosia (perceptual deficit) for the phonological form or the meanings of isolated words.
Indeed it has been argued that an initial stage of context-independent word recognition is required, in which all of the possible roles that a given word may play in different linguistic contexts are activated (perhaps in proportion to their likelihood of use), prior to the selective inhibitory or excitatory effects of context which rapidly constrain the system to settle on a dominant interpretation. This in fact was the conclusion to which Swinney (1979) was led in his celebrated ‘bug’ study of CMLP reported previously (chapter 10).