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Despite considerable efforts to control tuberculosis (TB) among Ethiopian immigrants in Israel, an outbreak of TB among second-generation Ethiopian immigrants that involved native Israelis occurred between January 2011 and December 2019. The aim of this article is to report on this outbreak and discuss the patient and health system barriers that led to its propagation. Overall, 13 culture-positive TB patients were diagnosed in this outbreak. An additional 36 cases with identical mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes were identified through cross-checking with the National TB Laboratory Registry. Among the 32 close contacts of the index case, 18 (56.3%) reported for screening and treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) was recommended for 11 (61.1%) of them. However, none completed treatment and eight eventually developed TB. Of the 385 close contacts identified in this outbreak, 286 (74.3%) underwent contact investigation, 154 (53.8%) were recommended LTBI treatment, but only 26 (16.9%) completed the treatment. Routine contact investigation and treatment practice measures failed to contain the cascade of infection and disease, leading to the spread of the infecting strain of TB. This report highlights the challenges to identify the high-risk group and address barriers to care among such a vulnerable population.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Patient beliefs and goals can facilitate discussion of recovery expectations, patient-provider collaboration and maximization of goal achievement. In this study, we sought to address an evidence gap and examine the association of preoperative self-assessment of goals with preoperative and 6-week knee function and gait speed among total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the VERITAS randomized, controlled trial conducted from 11/2016-03/2018 that included adults age ≥ 18 years with scheduled and completed unilateral TKA followed by post-surgical physical therapy. Patients rated their ability to perform various activities of daily living goals scaled from 0 (unable to perform) to 10 (full performance). Patients were categorized by pre-surgical (baseline) goal rating: low = 0-2, intermediate = 3-4, and high = 5-10. Outcomes including gait speed and the KOOS were assessed within 10 days prior to surgery and 6-weeks post-surgery. Descriptive statistics and outcomes were compared for patients by preoperative goal rating using Chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests and ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests as appropriate. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of 288 patients (mean age 65±8; 62.5% women; 82% white), 102 had a low goal rating (GR), 86 intermediate, and 99 high. Patients with low GR preoperatively generally had lower baseline mean scores than intermediate and high GR patients, respectively, on the KOOS (33.9/35.6/39.8; p<0.001) and lower gait speed (m/s) compared to intermediate and high GR patients at baseline (0.9/1.1/1.0; p = 0.009). The low, intermediate, and high GR groups, respectively, showed no difference across mean KOOS scores (61.0/61.2/61.9; p = 0.63) or gait speed (m/s) (1.0/1.0/1.0, p = 0.33) at 6 weeks postoperative. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In this study, adults who perceived greater difficulty with a pre-selected activity goal, exhibited lower function prior to TKA but showed no differences in function 6-weeks after surgery. Follow-up studies will describe the association between goal-setting preoperatively and patient goal attainment and satisfaction following surgery.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Young women (18 – 45 years of age) with breast cancer have complex medical and psychosocial needs. Educational materials are often used as tools in patient-centered communication. However, these materials disseminate complex health information in print-heavy formats and can be difficult to understand for women with varying health literacy levels. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In the first phase of this study, the principal investigator (PI) will recruit 40 diverse women to participate in four focus groups (FG) to explore the perceived usefulness of the most frequently used cancer educational materials. The PI will also obtain demographics and heath literacy levels of the FG participants using the Newest Vital Sign. In the second phase, the PI will assess the literacy demands of the ten most frequently used cancer educational print materials and five most frequently used websites described by the FG participants. The perceptions of the usefulness of materials and the literacy demands will then be used to appraise the effectiveness of materials within patient-centered cancer communication. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Results from this study will provide a patient-centered blueprint that will be used to design more effective educational materials that treatment centers can incorporate into their patient-centered cancer communication process. The next step of this research will be to determine providers’ perceptions of cancer education materials used to exchange information within the patient-centered communication process. This will complement the patient findings and inform the development of the provider aspect of a communication intervention centered on designing educational materials for women with various health literacy levels within the patient-centered cancer communication process. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Detecting the usefulness of cancer educational materials, as perceived by young women with breast cancer, is foundational to developing communication interventions that improve cancer outcomes. This study will identify how materials can be improved in the critical informational-exchange component of the patient-communication process.
Innovation Concept: Effective communication for ad hoc teams is critical to successful management of multisystem trauma patients, to improve situational awareness and to mitigate risk of error. OBJECTIVES 1. Improve communication of ad hoc teams. 2. Identify system gaps. INNOVATION Team in situ simulations provide a unique opportunity to practice communication and assess systems in the real environment. Our trauma team consists of residents and staff from emergency services, general surgery, orthopedics, anaesthesia, nursing and respiratory therapy. Methods: A team of subject matter experts (SME's) from trauma, nursing, emergency medicine and simulation co-developed curriculum in response to a needs assessment that identified gaps in systems and team communication. The simulation occurred in the actual trauma bay. The on-call trauma team was paged and expected to manage a simulated multisystem trauma patient. Once the team arrived, they participated in a briefing, manikin-based simulation and a communication and system focused debriefing. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: Monthly scenarios consisted of management of a blunt trauma patient, emergency airway and massive hemorrhage protocol. Teams were assessed on communication skills and timeliness of interventions. Debriefing consisted of identification of system gaps and latent safety threats. Feedback was given by each discipline followed by SME's. Information was gathered from participant evaluations (5-point Likert scale and open ended questions) and group debrief. Feedback was themed and actions taken to co-create interventions to communication gaps and latent safety threats. As a result, cricothyroidotomy trays were standardized throughout the hospital to mitigate confusion, time delay and unfamiliarity during difficult airway interventions. Participants felt the exercise was an effective means of practicing interprofessional communication and role clarity, and improved their attitude towards the same. Conclusion: In situ simulation-based education with ad hoc trauma teams can improve interprofessional communication and identify latent safety threats for the management of multisystem trauma patients.
Introduction: Overcrowding in the Emergency Department (ED) results in delays in care, and increased patient morbidity and mortality. Innovative departmental approaches have the potential to make patient flow through the ED more efficient and reduce overcrowding by improving patient throughput. The Calgary zone ED recently piloted a new physician role, the Emergency Physician Lead (EPL), a senior physician working closely with the charge nurse and consulting services to provide physician leadership, and to troubleshoot flow issues and safety breeches such as EMS offload delays and long emergency inpatient (EIP) stays. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the EPL by determining its effect on key metrics of patient flow, and by identifying which specific EPL interventions were most effective at improving patient throughput. Methods: A retrospective cohort design was used to compare Foothills Medical Centre (FMC) ED patients seen by the EPL from March-June 2019 (n = 1343 patients) with a control group from the same period in 2018 (n = 5530). An EMR search was used to collect patient data and generate descriptive statistics, which were compared between groups by Mann-Whitney U-test. Patient handover notes left by the EPL were also collected and analyzed by two independent assessors to develop a list of actions taken by the EPL. Each patient was then coded based on the actions in the handover note, and means for each coded group were compared to control to find correlations between action and changes in key flow metrics. Results: Patients whose care involved the EPL had a 40% shorter average ED length of stay (ELOS) compared to control (515 vs 865 min, p < 0.001). The EPL was especially effective for patients with ELOS above the 90th percentile, with a 58% relative reduction. EPL patients also had lower average times from first contact with the department to first order being placed (79 vs 143 min, p < 0.001), and spent less time as EIPs after being admitted (390 vs 515 mins, p < 0.001). EPL actions aimed at early ordering of investigations or early management showed the largest relative reductions in ELOS, followed by actions related to resolving issues with consulting services (56% and 48% respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The EPL role appears to be associated with improvements in several key metrics of patient flow. Specific EPL actions were correlated with marked decreases in length of stay. The EPL may be an effective strategy to improve patient throughput and combat ED overcrowding.
Authors recently have suggested that family enrneshment is not synonymous with high levels of closeness or cohesion. A model proposed by Green and Werner clarifies the cohesion-enmeshment domain by distinguishing between closeness-caregiving and intrusiveness as separate relationship processes. This paper examines the cross-cultural applicability of this perspective through a study of 61 married couples in France. The French version of the California Inventory for Family Assessment (CIFA), a self-report measure designed to assess clinically relevant marital dimensions, was employed. In general, spouses' reports of their marital process demonstrated high internal consistency reliabilities. Factor analysis showed meaningful factor structures distinguishing closeness-caregiving and intrusiveness, as predicted, as well as openness of communication. Significant correlations were obtained between CIFA scales and scores on the Marital Adjustment Test. These results are similar for French and American couples. Research implications for studying relationships among French-speaking couples are underlined.
To characterise the mortality and neurological outcomes of paediatric cardiac patients requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation for more than 30 minutes prior to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulation and to identify risk factors associated with adverse outcomes in this population.
Materials and methods:
Observational retrospective cohort study in paediatric cardiac patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation for greater than 30 minutes prior to cannulation in a tertiary children’s hospital, from July 2000 to July 2013.
Seventy-three paediatric cardiac patients requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation for more than 30 minutes prior to cannulation were included in the study. Survival to hospital discharge was 43.8%, with 75% of survivors having either normal neurologic function or only mild disability. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that increased use of calcium during resuscitation (odds ratio 14.5, p 0.01), cardiopulmonary resuscitation duration >50 minutes (odds ratio 4.12, p 0.03), >6 interruptions of chest compressions during cannulation (odds ratio 6.40, p 0.03), the need for continuous renal replacement therapy (odds ratio 11.1, p 0.001), and abnormal pupillary response during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (odds ratio 33.9, p 0.006) were independent predictors for hospital mortality.
Survival after cardiopulmonary resuscitation for more than 30 minutes prior to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulation in our paediatric cardiac cohort was 43.8%. Factors associated with mortality included calcium use during resuscitation, longer cardiopulmonary resuscitation, increased chest compression pauses during cannulation, the use of continuous renal replacement therapy, and abnormal pupils during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. A prospective assessment of these factors in paediatric cardiac patients may be beneficial in improving outcomes.
Narrow-windrow burning has been a successful form of harvest weed seed control in Australian cropping systems, but little is known about the efficacy of narrow-windrow burning on weed seeds infesting U.S. cropping systems. An experiment was conducted using a high-fire kiln that exposed various grass and broadleaf weed seeds to temperatures of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 C for 20, 40, 60, and 80 s to determine the temperature and time needed to kill weed seeds. Weeds evaluated included Italian ryegrass, barnyardgrass, johnsongrass, sicklepod, Palmer amaranth, prickly sida, velvetleaf, pitted morningglory, and hemp sesbania. Two field experiments were also conducted over consecutive growing seasons, with the first experiment aimed at determining the amount of heat produced during burning of narrow windrows of soybean harvest residues (chaff and straw) and the effect of this heat on weed seed mortality. The second field experiment aimed to determine the effect of wind speed on the duration and intensity of burning narrow windrows of soybean harvest residues. Following exposure to the highest temperature and longest duration in the kiln, only sicklepod showed any survival (<1% average); however, in most cases, the seeds were completely destroyed (ash). A heat index of only 22,600 was needed to kill all seeds of Palmer amaranth, barnyardgrass, and Italian ryegrass. In the field, all seeds of the evaluated weed species were completely destroyed by narrow-windrow burning of 1.08 to 1.95 kg m−2 of soybean residues. The burn duration of the soybean harvest residues declined as wind speed increased. Findings from the kiln and field experiments show that complete kill is likely for weed seeds concentrated into narrow windrows of burned soybean residues. Given the low cost of implementation of narrow-windrow burning and the seed kill efficacy on various weed species, this strategy may be an attractive option for destroying weed seed.
Despite increased awareness that non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) poses a significant public health concern on college campuses worldwide, few studies have prospectively investigated the incidence of NSSI in college and considered targeting college entrants at high risk for onset of NSSI.
Using data from the Leuven College Surveys (n = 4,565; 56.8%female, Mage = 18.3, SD = 1.1), students provided data on NSSI, sociodemographics, traumatic experiences, stressful events, perceived social support, and mental disorders. A total of 2,163 baseline responders provided data at a two-year annual follow-up assessment (63.2% conditional response rate).
One-year incidence of first onset NSSI was 10.3% in year 1 and 6.0% in year 2, with a total of 8.6% reporting sporadic NSSI (1–4 times per year) and 7.0% reporting repetitive NSSI (≥ 5 times per year) during the first two years of college. Many hypothesized proximal and distal risk factors were associated with the subsequent onset of NSSI (ORs = 1.5–18.2). Dating violence prior to age 17 and severe role impairment in daily life were the strongest predictors. Multivariate prediction suggests that an intervention focused on the 10% at highest risk would reach 23.9% of students who report sporadic, and 36.1% of students who report repetitive NSSI during college (cross-validated AUCs =.70–.75).
The college period carries high risk for the onset of NSSI. Individualized web-based screening may be a promising approach for detecting young adults at high risk for self-injury and offering timely intervention.
Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) can be prevented through infection prevention practices and antibiotic stewardship. Diagnostic stewardship (ie, strategies to improve use of microbiological testing) can also improve antibiotic use. However, little is known about the use of such practices in US hospitals, especially after multidisciplinary stewardship programs became a requirement for US hospital accreditation in 2017. Thus, we surveyed US hospitals to assess antibiotic stewardship program composition, practices related to CDI, and diagnostic stewardship.
Surveys were mailed to infection preventionists at 900 randomly sampled US hospitals between May and October 2017. Hospitals were surveyed on antibiotic stewardship programs; CDI prevention, treatment, and testing practices; and diagnostic stewardship strategies. Responses were compared by hospital bed size using weighted logistic regression.
Overall, 528 surveys were completed (59% response rate). Almost all (95%) responding hospitals had an antibiotic stewardship program. Smaller hospitals were less likely to have stewardship team members with infectious diseases (ID) training, and only 41% of hospitals met The Joint Commission accreditation standards for multidisciplinary teams. Guideline-recommended CDI prevention practices were common. Smaller hospitals were less likely to use high-tech disinfection devices, fecal microbiota transplantation, or diagnostic stewardship strategies.
Following changes in accreditation standards, nearly all US hospitals now have an antibiotic stewardship program. However, many hospitals, especially smaller hospitals, appear to struggle with access to ID expertise and with deploying diagnostic stewardship strategies. CDI prevention could be enhanced through diagnostic stewardship and by emphasizing the role of non–ID-trained pharmacists and clinicians in antibiotic stewardship.
Advanced spectroscopic sensors recently flown to the Moon have revealed unexpected discoveries about Earth’s nearest neighbor as well as provided detailed insights and constraints about how early crust evolves on an airless planetary body. Discussed here are (a) global assessment of the variety and distribution of major lunar mineral components and lithologies; (b) some of the remarkable new findings, such as the pervasive presence of OH across the surface and new rock types identified (Mg-spinel anorthosite) that are not identified in current lunar samples; and (c) expectations for the future as additional modern sensors provide a stronger foundation for remote compositional analysis of the Moon. Spectroscopic data continue to provide the cornerstone for identifying and understanding the regional and global character of lunar compositional variations and document key products and processes of crustal evolution.
The opioid crisis in the USA requires immediate action through clinical and translational research. Already built network infrastructure through funding by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) provides a major advantage to implement opioid-focused research which together could address this crisis. NIDA supports training grants and clinical trial networks; NCATS funds the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Program with over 50 NCATS academic research hubs for regional clinical and translational research. Together, there is unique capacity for clinical research, bioinformatics, data science, community engagement, regulatory science, institutional partnerships, training and career development, and other key translational elements. The CTSA hubs provide unprecedented and timely response to local, regional, and national health crises to address research gaps [Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program, Center for Leading Innovation and Collaboration, Synergy paper request for applications]. This paper describes opportunities for collaborative opioid research at CTSA hubs and NIDA–NCATS opportunities that build capacity for best practices as this crisis evolves. Results of a Landscape Survey (among 63 hubs) are provided with descriptions of best practices and ideas for collaborations, with research conducted by hubs also involved in premier NIDA initiatives. Such collaborations could provide a rapid response to the opioid epidemic while advancing science in multiple disciplinary areas.
Oxidative stress is implicated in the aetiology of schizophrenia, and the antioxidant defence system (AODS) may be protective in this illness. We examined the major antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in prefrontal brain and its correlates with clinical and demographic variables in schizophrenia.
GSH levels were measured in the dorsolateral prefrontal region of 28 patients with chronic schizophrenia using a magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequence specifically adapted for GSH. We examined correlations of GSH levels with age, age at onset of illness, duration of illness, and clinical symptoms.
We found a negative correlation between GSH levels and age at onset (r = −0.46, p = 0.015), and a trend-level positive relationship between GSH and duration of illness (r = 0.34, p = 0.076).
Our findings are consistent with a possible compensatory upregulation of the AODS with longer duration of illness and suggest that the AODS may play a role in schizophrenia.
The physiology of mesophotic Scleractinia varies with depth in response to environmental change. Previous research has documented trends in heterotrophy and photosynthesis with depth, but has not addressed between-site variation for a single species. Environmental differences between sites at a local scale and heterogeneous microhabitats, because of irradiance and food availability, are likely important factors when explaining the occurrence and physiology of Scleractinia. Here, 108 colonies of Agaricia lamarcki were sampled from two locations off the coast of Utila, Honduras, distributed evenly down the observed 50 m depth range of the species. We found that depth alone was not sufficient to fully explain physiological variation. Pulse Amplitude-Modulation fluorometry and stable isotope analyses revealed that trends in photochemical and heterotrophic activity with depth varied markedly between sites. Our isotope analyses do not support an obligate link between photosynthetic activity and heterotrophic subsidy with increasing depth. We found that A. lamarcki colonies at the bottom of the species depth range can be physiologically similar to those nearer the surface. As a potential explanation, we hypothesize sites with high topographical complexity, and therefore varied microhabitats, may provide more physiological niches distributed across a larger depth range. Varied microhabitats with depth may reduce the dominance of depth as a physiological determinant. Thus, A. lamarcki may ‘avoid’ changes in environment with depth, by instead existing in a subset of favourable niches. Our observations correlate with site-specific depth ranges, advocating for linking physiology and abiotic profiles when defining the distribution of mesophotic taxa.
Introduction: Oxygen is commonly administered to prehospital patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We conducted a systematic review to determine if oxygen administration, in AMI, impacts patient outcomes. Methods: We conducted a systematic search using MeSH terms and keywords in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central, clinicaltrials.gov and ISRCTN for relevant randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing oxygen administration and no oxygen administration. The outcomes of interest were: mortality (≤30 days, in-hospital, and intermediate 2-11 months), infarct size, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Risk of Bias assessments were performed and GRADE methodology was employed to assess quality and overall confidence in the effect estimate. A meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5 software. Results: Our search yielded 1192 citations of which 48 studies were reviewed as full texts and a total of 8 studies were included in the analysis. All evidence was considered low or very low quality. Five studies reported on mortality finding low quality evidence of no benefit or harm. Low quality evidence demonstrated no benefit or harm from supplemental oxygen administration. Similarly, no benefit or harm was found in MACE or infarct size (very low quality). Normoxia was defined as oxygen saturation measured via pulse oximetry at ≥90% in one recent study and ≥94% in another. Conclusion: We found low and very low quality evidence that the administration of supplemental oxygen to normoxic patients experiencing AMI, provides no clear harm nor benefit for mortality or MACE. The evidence on infarct size was inconsistent and warrants further prospective examination.
Introduction: Opioids are routinely administered for analgesia to prehospital patients experiencing chest discomfort from acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We conducted a systematic review to determine if opioid administration impacts patient outcomes. Methods: We conducted a systematic search using MeSH terms and keywords in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central and Clinicaltrials.gov for relevant randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing opioid administration in AMI patients from 1990 to 2017. The outcomes of interest were: all-cause short-term mortality (≤30 days), major adverse cardiac events (MACE), platelet activity and aggregation, immediate adverse events, infarct size, and analgesia. Included studies were hand searched for additional citations. Risk of Bias assessments were performed and GRADE methodology was employed to assess quality and overall confidence in the effect estimate. Results: Our search yielded 3001 citations of which 19 studies were reviewed as full texts and a total of 9 studies were included in the analysis. The studies predominantly reported on morphine as the opioid. Five studies reported on mortality (≤30 days), seven on MACE, four on platelet activity and aggregation, two on immediate adverse events, two on infarct size and none on analgesic effect. We found low quality evidence suggesting no benefit or harm in terms of mortality or MACE. However, low quality evidence indicates that opioids increase infarct size. Low-quality evidence also shows reduced serum P2Y12 (eg: clopidogrel and ticagrelor) active metabolite levels and increased platelet reactivity in the first several hours post administration following an increase in vomiting. Conclusion: We find low and very low quality evidence that the administration of opioids in STEMI may be adversely related to vomiting and some surrogate outcomes including increased infarct size, reduced serum P2Y12 levels, and increased platelet activity. We found no clear benefit or harm on patient-oriented clinical outcomes including mortality.
For artificial agents trading off exploration (food seeking) versus (short-term) exploitation (or consumption), our experiments suggest that uncertainty (interpreted information, theoretically) magnifies food seeking. In more uncertain environments, with food distributed uniformly randomly, exploration appears to be beneficial. In contrast, in biassed (less uncertain) environments, with food concentrated in only one part, exploitation appears to be more advantageous. Agents also appear to do better in biassed environments.
Prior research into the liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite to produce few-layer graphene has focused primarily on the surface energy matching between graphite and solvent; however, the effect of other solvent properties, such as liquid viscosity, have not been systematically explored. In principle, a higher viscosity solvent should enable the production of graphene and other graphitic nanomaterials by liquid-phase exfoliation at lower shear rates than traditionally used organic solvents of low viscosity, such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Thus, at a given shear rate, more material should be exfoliated in the higher viscosity solvent. Hence, graphite suspensions in NMP, benzyl benzoate, and propylene glycol were exfoliated at various shear rates in a rheometer. Exfoliant concentrations were measured by ultraviolet- visual (UV-vis) spectroscopy and quality characterization was performed by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Graphite exfoliation in the more viscous propylene glycol solvent resulted in a higher exfoliant concentration than in the less viscous NMP and benzyl benzoate solvents across all shear rates. Benzyl benzoate lowered exfoliant levels, likely due to a poor surface energy match, resulting in particle attraction and aggregation. Characterization showed that at least some of our material is few-layer graphene.
In this paper we define almost gentle algebras, which are monomial special multiserial algebras generalizing gentle algebras. We show that the trivial extension of an almost gentle algebra by its minimal injective co-generator is a symmetric special multiserial algebra and hence a Brauer configuration algebra. Conversely, we show that any almost gentle algebra is an admissible cut of a unique Brauer configuration algebra and, as a consequence, we obtain that every Brauer configuration algebra with multiplicity function identically one is the trivial extension of an almost gentle algebra. We show that a hypergraph is associated with every almost gentle algebra A, and that this hypergraph induces the Brauer configuration of the trivial extension of A. Among other things, this gives a combinatorial criterion to decide when two almost gentle algebras have isomorphic trivial extensions.