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The diurnal feeding patterns of dairy cows affects the 24 h robot utilisation of pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS). A decline in robot utilisation between 2400 and 0600 h currently occurs in pasture-based AMS, as cow feeding activity is greatly reduced during this time. Here, we investigate the effect of a temporal variation in feed quality and quantity on cow feeding behaviour between 2400 and 0600 h as a potential tool to increase voluntary cow trafficking in an AMS at night. The day was allocated into four equal feeding periods (0600 to 1200, 1200 to 1800, 1800 to 2400 and 2400 to 0600 h). Lucerne hay cubes (CP = 19.1%, water soluble carbohydrate = 3.8%) and oat, ryegrass and clover hay cubes with 20% molasses (CP = 11.8%, water soluble carbohydrate = 10.7%) were offered as the ‘standard’ and ‘preferred’ (preference determined previously) feed types, respectively. The four treatments were (1) standard feed offered ad libitum (AL) throughout 24 h; (2) as per AL, with preferred feed replacing standard feed between 2400 and 0600 h (AL + P); (3) standard feed offered at a restricted rate, with quantity varying between each feeding period (20:10:30:60%, respectively) as a proportion of the (previously) measured daily ad libitum intake (VA); (4) as per VA, with preferred feed replacing standard feed between 2400 and 0600 h (VA + P). Eight non-lactating dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. During each experimental period, treatment cows were fed for 7 days, including 3 days habituation and 4 days data collection. Total daily intake was approximately 8% greater (P < 0.001) for the AL and AL + P treatments (23.1 and 22.9 kg DM/cow) as compared with the VA and VA + P treatments (21.6 and 20.9 kg DM/cow). The AL + P and VA treatments had 21% and 90% greater (P < 0.001) dry matter intake (DMI) between 2400 and 0600 h, respectively, compared with the AL treatment. In contrast, the VA + P treatment had similar DMI to the VA treatment. Our experiment shows ability to increase cow feeding activity at night by varying feed type and quantity, though it is possible that a penalty to total DMI may occur using VA. Further research is required to determine if the implementation of variable feed allocation on pasture-based AMS farms is likely to improve milking robot utilisation by increasing cow feeding activity at night.
The current study examines experiences of interpersonal mistreatment in federal litigation among a random sample of 4,608 practicing attorneys. Using both quantitative and qualitative survey data, we documented the nature and interplay of general incivility, gender-related incivility, and unwanted sexual attention. Nearly 75% of female attorneys had experienced some form of this misconduct in the previous five years, compared to half of male attorneys. An in-depth examination of instigators revealed that not only fellow attorneys but also federal judges, court personnel, marshals, and court security officers instigated the inappropriate behavior. We further found that most attorneys responded to this mistreatment with avoidance and denial; few used or trusted existing reporting mechanisms. The current study surpassed simple prevalence estimates to document effects of interpersonal mistreatment on the professional well-being of targeted attorneys. We discuss implications of these results, drawing on theories of social dominance, sex-role spillover, cognitive stress, organizations, and intervention.
Clinicians who deal with patients with anorexia nervosa are well acquainted with their patients' inability to recognise their emaciation. The patients' insistence that they are normal weight or even overweight, against clear evidence to the contrary, led Bruch (1962) to state that the misperception reaches “delusional proportions”. Studies of body size perception in anorexia nervosa that have used the ‘body part’ method have invariably found that the patients overestimate their body size (Slade & Russell, 1973; Crisp & Kalucy, 1974; Pierloot & Houben, 1978; Garner et al, 1976; Button et al, 1977; Fries, 1977; Casper et al, 1979) but the majority have not found any significant difference in size estimation between patients and controls (Slade, 1985).
The Cambrian-Ordovician Diversity Plateau, between the Cambrian Explosion and the Ordovician Radiation, is punctuated by a series of well-documented Laurentian trilobite extinction events. These events define the bounding surfaces of trilobite ‘biomeres’ that correspond to North American stages, including those of the Sunwaptan and Skullrockian. Trilobites show a consistent pattern of recovery across these boundaries, and commonly each extinction and replacement of taxa is interpreted as a single event as changing environmental conditions spurred shoreward migration of shelf or oceanic faunas that displaced established cratonic faunas. Linguliform brachiopods are also abundant in strata of this interval, and we investigate their stratigraphic distribution across the Sunwaptan–Skullrockian Stage boundary in Texas through high-resolution stratigraphic sampling of subtidal sediments. We document complete genus- and species-level turnover of the linguliform brachiopod fauna coincident with trilobite extinction events, suggesting that these brachiopods were affected by the same factors that affected trilobites. The Skullrockian replacement fauna was cosmopolitan, with ties to Gondwana and Kazakhstan and to the Laurentian shelf environment. The timing of appearances of taxa suggests that the faunal migration onto the Laurentian shelf came from elsewhere during a transgression. The disappearance of the Sunwaptan fauna and the arrival of the Skullrockian fauna are distinct events. We suggest that ‘biomere’ events may be complex, and the cause of the extinction is not necessarily the same event that facilitates the appearance of a replacement fauna. We describe one new species, Schizambon langei.
Over the last decade, archaeologists have turned to large radiocarbon (14C) data sets to infer prehistoric population size and change. An outstanding question concerns just how direct of an estimate 14C dates are for human populations. In this paper we propose that 14C dates are a better estimate of energy consumption, rather than an unmediated, proportional estimate of population size. We use a parametric model to describe the relationship between population size, economic complexity and energy consumption in human societies, and then parametrize the model using data from modern contexts. Our results suggest that energy consumption scales sub-linearly with population size, which means that the analysis of a large 14C time-series has the potential to misestimate rates of population change and absolute population size. Energy consumption is also an exponential function of economic complexity. Thus, the 14C record could change semi-independent of population as complexity grows or declines. Scaling models are an important tool for stimulating future research to tease apart the different effects of population and social complexity on energy consumption, and explain variation in the forms of 14C date time-series in different regions.
The decomposition of the 21 cm rotation curve of galaxies into contribution from the disk and dark halo depends on the adopted mass to light ratio (M/L) of the disk. Given the vertical velocity dispersion (σz) of stars in the disk and its scale height (hz), the disk surface density and hence the M/L can be estimated. Earlier works have used this technique to conclude that galaxy disks are submaximal. Here we address an important conceptual problem: star-forming spirals have an old (kinematically hot) disk population and a young cold disk population. Both of these populations contribute to the integrated light spectra from which σz is measured. The measured scale height hz is for the old disk population. In the Jeans equation, σz and hz must pertain to the same population. We have developed techniques to extract the velocity dispersion of the old disk from integrated light spectra and from samples of planetary nebulae. We present the analysis of the disk kinematics of the galaxy NGC 628 using IFU data in the inner regions and planetary nebulae as tracers in the outer regions of the disk. We demonstrate that using the scale height of the old thin disk with the vertical velocity dispersion of the same population, traced by PNe, results in a maximal disk for NGC 628. Our analysis concludes that previous studies underestimate the disk surface mass density by ~ 2, sufficient to make a maximal disk for NGC 628 appear like a submaximal disk.
We investigate the stellar halo of the nearby elliptical Virgo-cluster galaxy M49 using Planetary Nebulae (PNe). M49 is the second-brightest galaxy of the Virgo cluster and is at the center of the Virgo subcluster B. We present an extended catalogue extracted from a narrow-band survey carried out with Subaru’s Suprime Cam, consisting of 735 PNe down to a limiting magnitude of m5007 = 29.3. This PNe population traces the halo out to 155 kpc from the galaxy’s center, which provides accurate measurement of the luminosity-specific PN-number (α-parameter) in the inner and outer regions of M49’s halo. We are also able to determine the morphological variation of the planetary nebulae luminosity function (PNLF), that may trace different parent stellar populations. This enables us to identify the transition from the PN-scarce, possibly metal-rich, galaxy halo to the PN-rich, metal-poor, outer component.
Toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 have caused cholera epidemics, but other serogroups – such as O75 or O141 – can also produce cholera toxin and cause severe watery diarrhoea similar to cholera. We describe 31 years of surveillance for toxigenic non-O1, non-O139 infections in the United States and map these infections to the state where the exposure probably originated. While serogroups O75 and O141 are closely related pathogens, they differ in how and where they infect people. Oysters were the main vehicle for O75 infection. The vehicles for O141 infection include oysters, clams, and freshwater in lakes and rivers. The patients infected with serogroup O75 who had food traceback information available ate raw oysters from Florida. Patients infected with O141 ate oysters from Florida and clams from New Jersey, and those who only reported being exposed to freshwater were exposed in Arizona, Michigan, Missouri, and Texas. Improving the safety of oysters, specifically, should help prevent future illnesses from these toxigenic strains and similar pathogenic Vibrio species. Post-harvest processing of raw oysters, such as individual quick freezing, heat-cool pasteurization, and high hydrostatic pressurization, should be considered.
Recent progress in graphite target production for sub-milligram environmental samples in our facility is presented. We describe an optimized hydrolysis procedure now routinely used for the preparation of CO2 from inorganic samples, a new high-vacuum line dedicated to small sample processing (combining sample distillation and graphitization units), as well as a modified graphitization procedure. Although measurements of graphite targets as small as 35 μg C have been achieved, system background and measurement uncertainties increase significantly below 150 μg C. As target lifetime can become critically short for targets <150 μg C, the facility currently only processes inorganic samples down to 150 μg C. All radiocarbon measurements are made at the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC) accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facility. Sample processing and analysis are labor-intensive, taking approximately 3 times longer than samples ≥ 500 μg C. The technical details of the new system, graphitization yield, fractionation introduced during the process, and the system blank are discussed in detail.
Recent progress in preparation/combustion of submilligram organic samples at our laboratories is presented. Routine methods had to be modified/refined to achieve acceptable and consistent procedural blanks for organic samples smaller than 1000 μg C. A description of the process leading to a modified combustion method for smaller organic samples is given in detail. In addition to analyzing different background materials, the influence of different chemical reagents on the overall radiocarbon background level was investigated, such as carbon contamination arising from copper oxide of different purities and from different suppliers. Using the modified combustion method, small amounts of background materials and known-age standard IAEA-C5 were individually combusted to CO2. Below 1000 μg C, organic background levels follow an inverse mass dependency when combusted with the modified method, increasing from 0.13 ± 0.05 pMC up to 1.20 ± 0.04 pMC for 80 μg C. Results for a given carbon mass were lower for combustion of etched Iceland spar calcite mineral, indicating that part of the observed background of bituminous coal was probably introduced by handling the material in atmosphere prior to combustion. Using the modified combustion method, the background-corrected activity of IAEA-C5 agreed to within 2 σ of the consensus value of 23.05 pMC down to a sample mass of 55 μg C.
Radiocarbon ages were measured on replicate samples of burnt grain and 5 mollusk species collected from a single sealed layer at an archaeological site (Hornish Point) on the west coast of South Uist, Scotland. The aim was to examine the impact of using different mollusk species on ΔR determinations that are calculated using the paired terrestrial/marine sample approach. The mollusk species examined inhabit a range of environments and utilize a variety of food sources within the intertidal zone. Several authors have suggested that these factors may be responsible for observed variations in the 14C activity of mollusk shells that were contemporaneous in a single location. This study found no significant variation in the 14C ages of the mollusk species, and consequently, no significant variation in calculated values of ΔR. The implication is that in an area where there are no carboniferous rocks or significant local inputs of freshwater to the surface ocean, any of a range of marine mollusk species can be used in combination with short-lived terrestrial material from the same secure archaeological context to accurately determine a ΔR value for a particular geographic location and period in time.
In 2003, a National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC) 5MV tandem accelerator mass spectrometer was installed at SUERC, providing the radiocarbon laboratory with 14C measurements to 4–5‰ repeatability. In 2007, a 250kV single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS) was added to provide additional 14C capability and is now the preferred system for 14C analysis. Changes to the technology and to our operations are evident in our copious quality assurance data: typically, we now use the 134-position MC-SNICS source, which is filled to capacity. Measurement of standards shows that spectrometer running without the complication of on-line δ13C evaluation is a good operational compromise. Currently, 3‰ 14C/13C measurements are routinely achieved for samples up to nearly 3 half-lives old by consistent sample preparation and an automated data acquisition algorithm with sample random access for measurement repeats. Background and known-age standard data are presented for the period 2003–2008 for the 5MV system and 2007–2008 for the SSAMS, to demonstrate the improvements in data quality.
The dune of Oitavos, the underlying paleosol, and Helix sp. gastropod shells found within the paleosol were dated using a combination of radiocarbon and blue optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The organic component of the paleosol produced a significantly older age (∼20,000 cal BP) than the OSL age measurement (∼15,000 yr), while 14C age measurements on the inorganic component and the gastropods produced ages of ∼35,000 yr and ∼34,000 yr, respectively. Rare-earth element analyses provide evidence that the gastropods incorporate geological carbonate, making them an unreliable indicator of the age of the paleosol. We propose that the 14C age of the small organic component of the paleosol is also likely to be unreliable due to incorporation of residual material. The OSL age measurement of the upper paleosol (∼15,000 yr) is consistent with the age for the base of the dune (∼14,500 yr). The younger OSL age for the top of the dune (∼12,000 yr) suggests that it was built up by at least 2 sand pulses or that there was a remobilization of material at the top during its evolution, prior to consolidation.
We have discovered a number of very small isolated H II regions 20-30 kpc from their nearest galaxy. The H II regions appear as tiny emission line dots (ELdots) in narrow band images obtained by the NOAO Survey for Ionization in Neutral Gas Galaxies (SINGG). We have spectroscopic confirmation of 5 isolated H II regions in 3 systems. The Hα luminosities of the H II regions are equivalent to the ionizing flux of only 1 large or a few small OB stars each. These stars appear to have formed in situ and represent atypical star formation in the low density environment of galaxy outskirts. In situ star formation in the intergalactic medium offers an alternative to galactic wind models to explain metal enrichment. In interacting systems (2 out of 3), isolated H II regions could be a starting point for tidal dwarf galaxies.
We present the results of an HI aperture synthesis mosaic of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), made by combining data from 1344 separate pointing centers using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The resolution of the mosaiced image is 1′ (15 pc, using a distance to the LMC of 50 kpc).
The MACHO microlensing experiment's time-sampled photometry database contains blue and red lightcurves for nearly 9 million stars in the central bar region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We have identified known LMC Planetary Nebulae (PN) in the database and find one, Jacoby 5, to be variable. We additionally present data on the “parent populations” of LMC PN, and discuss the star formation history of the LMC bar.
The present account refers mainly to research work published in the period 1973–1975. Due to the limited space available, and the rapidly increasing number of contributions in the field of Commission. 28, it has not been possible to write an all-inclusive report. As in the previous IAU volumes, the report is not intended as a repetition of the summaries given in the Astronomy and Astrophysics Abstracts. In stressing the importance of certain areas of research, the personal views of the writer(s) cannot be entirely avoided.
The scientific interests of Division VII are concerned with the Galactic system. Its two constituent commissions are Commission 33 (Structure and Dynamics of the Galactic System) and Commission 37 (Star Clusters and Associations). Please refer to the reports of these two commissions for the scientific highlights and lists of major conferences in this area.
Study of the Galactic system involves a wide range of astrophysics and astronomical techniques, and the fields covered by many other commissions are therefore of very significant interest to Division VII. In particular, astronomers with interests in the Galactic system could consider reading also the reports of Commissions 5, 7, 24-30, 34-36, 40, 44 and 45, among others.