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Healthy lifestyle habits are the cornerstone in the management of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Nevertheless, dietary studies on FH-affected populations are scarce. The present study analyses dietary habits, adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern and physical activity in an adult population with FH and compares them with their non-affected relatives.
Data came from SAFEHEART, a nationwide study in Spain.
Individuals (n 3714) aged ≥18 years with a genetic diagnosis of FH (n2736) and their non-affected relatives (n 978). Food consumption was evaluated using a validated FFQ.
Total energy intake was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Percentage of energy from fats was also lower in the FH population (35 % in men, 36 % in women) v. those non-affected (38 % in both sexes, P<0·005), due to the lower consumption of saturated fats (12·1 % in FH patients, 13·2 % in non-affected, P<0·005). Consumption of sugars was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·05). Consumption of vegetables, fish and skimmed milk was higher in the FH population (P<0·005). Patients with FH showed greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Active smoking was lower and moderate physical activity was higher in people with FH, especially women (P<0·005).
Adult patients with FH report healthier lifestyles than their non-affected family members. They eat a healthier diet, perform more physical activity and smoke less. However, this patient group’s consumption of saturated fats and sugars still exceeds guidelines.
The purpose of this work is to study the effect of SiO2- and Al2O3-NPs on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the weld bead (WB) created by a process of Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) between two AISI 1025 steel plates. Also it was necessary consider the chemical compositions of slags and burned fluxes, in order to determine the elements that are deposited and contribute in the final microstructure of WB. The welding materials to form each WB were a M12K electrode, a commercial fused flux (CFF) and AISI 1025 steel plates bevelled at 45°. In addition SiO2- or Al2O3-NPs an ethylic alcohol mixture were applied directly to the beveled surfaces, just before the SAW process, which was carried out according to the AWS A5.17 norm. Microstructural and phase changes at the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Welding Zone (WZ) were analysed by metallographic Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopies. The mechanical properties of the WBs were determined through Tensile, Charpy impact and Vickers Hardness tests. By means of metallography of WBs, it was determined that the length of the AF needles increases in 113 and 183 % when adding SiO2- or Al2O3-NPs, respectively. Related to the mechanical properties of the WB, the tensile and yield strength decreases with both additions, SiO2- or Al2O3-NPs. The microhardness at WZ was found to decrease by adding such oxide-NPs. Moreover, the impact energy absorbed by the WBs increases approximately by 83 or 57% due to SiO2- or Al2O3-NPs addition, respectively.
The formation process(es) of fullerenes in space is still uncertain and several mechanisms have been proposed in the literature. In particular, the most accepted idea to explain the simultaneous presence of fullerenes and PAH-like emission in the H-rich circumstellar envelopes of PNe is that these molecular species may be formed from the photochemical processing of a carbonaceous compound with a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic structures, which should be a major constituent of their circumstellar envelopes. Here we present seeing-limited narrow-band mid-IR GTC/CanariCam images of the fullerene-containing PN IC 418. The narrow-band images cover the 9−13, 11.3, and 17.4 μm emission features (and their adjacent continua) in this extended PN. We study the relative sub-arcsecond spatial distribution of the nebula in these filters with the intention of getting some clues about the formation process of fullerenes in H-rich circumstellar environments.
Bulk outflow or global expansion velocities are presented for a large number of planetary nebulae (PNe) that span a wide range of evolutionary stages and different stellar populations. The sample comprises 133 PNe from the Galactic bulge, 100 mature and highly evolved PNe from the disk, 11 PNe from the Galactic halo and 15 PNe with very low central star masses and low metallicities, for a total of 259 PNe. These results reveal from a statistical perspective the kinematic evolution of the expansion velocities of PNe in relation to changing characteristics of the central star’s wind and ionizing luminosity and as a function of the evolutionary rate determined by the central (CS) mass. The large number of PNe utilized in this work for each group of PNe under study and the homogeneity of the data provide for the first time a solid benchmark form observations for model predictions, as has been described by López et al. (2016).
The present work is a study on alkali activation of Mexican blast furnace slag, using sodium silicate. The aim is to produce an optimal specimen, homogeneous without carbonation, and with small fraction of crystalline phases, similar to CSH, which provide mechanical properties suitable to use in the construction industry. The samples were prepared using sodium silicate activator solutions with modulus (SiO2/Na2O) of 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75. The weight percentage of Na2O in the activator solutions was added at 4, 6 and 8% relative to the slag weight. The prepared samples were stored in sealed molds, at room temperature (20°C), during 7 days. The X-ray diffraction has revealed the presence of an amorphous phase, semi crystalline clinotobermorite phase and signals of calcium carbonate for the samples of 4 and 6 % of Na2O; in contrast with the 8% Na2O, where the latter signals almost disappeared. The specimen selected as optimal was prepared with an activator concentration of 8% of Na2O /Slag, and SiO2/Na2O of 1.25. A specimen under these optimal conditions was prepared with accelerated curing (40°C, humidity, 48 hours), and a compressive strength test was attained, with an average value of 52 MPa at 3 days.
Tensile strength of concrete is limited and therefore is sensitive to crack formation. Steel reinforcement is added to bear the tensile forces; nonetheless, this does not completely omit crack formation. Repair of cracks in concrete is time-consuming and expensive. Self-sealing and self-healing of cracks upon appearance would therefore be a convenient property. We propose a mechanism to obtain self-repair of the concrete by adding soluble silicates (ASS) which will induce a self-sealing and self-healing process catalyzed by natural periods of wet and dry states of the concrete. Self-sealing approaches prevent the ingress of harsh chemical substances which may deteriorate the concrete matrix. This can be achieved by self-healing of concrete cracks (e.g. further cement hydration, calcium carbonate precipitation) and autonomous healing (e.g. further hydration of partially soluble silicates added as healing agents). The autogenous healing efficiency depends on the amount of deposited reaction products (ASS), its solubility (ratio of calcium to sodium silicate), the availability of water, and the crack width (restricted by adding microfibers). The self-sealing efficiency is generally evaluated by measuring the decrease in water permeability and air flow through the crack. The healing efficiency is usually evaluated by testing concrete´s regain in mechanical properties after crack formation; by reloading the cracked and autonomously healed specimen and comparing the obtained mechanical properties with the original ones. Self-sealing and self-healing of concrete gives a broad perspective and new possibilities to make future concrete structures more durable.
The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR BSI) reduction programme and healthcare workers' compliance with recommendations. A 3-year surveillance programme of CR BSIs in all hospital settings was implemented. As part of the programme, there was a direct observation of insertion and maintenance of central venous catheters (CVCs) to determine performance. A total of 38 education courses were held over the study period and feedback reports with the results of surveillance and recommendations were delivered to healthcare workers every 6 months. A total of 6722 short-term CVCs were inserted in 4982 patients for 58 763 catheter-days. Improvements of compliance with hand hygiene was verified at the insertion (87·1–100%, P < 0·001) and maintenance (51·1–72·1%, P = 0·029) of CVCs; and the use of chlorhexidine for skin disinfection was implemented at insertion (35·7–65·4%, P < 0·001) and maintenance (33·3–45·9%, P < 0·197) of CVCs. There were 266 CR BSI incidents recorded with an annual incidence density of 5·75/1000 catheter-days in the first year, 4·38 in the second year [rate ratio (RR) 0·76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·57–1·01] and 3·46 in the third year (RR 0·60, 95% CI 0·44–0·81). The education programme clearly improved compliance with recommendations for CVC handling, and was effective in reducing the burden of CR BSIs.
In this poster we present a plan to follow-up optically early triggers from the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors, which will start operating in scientific mode in the northern summer of 2015.
Bioactive materials based on polymer/hydroxyapatite are currently being extensively investigated as materials for promotion of bone tissue regeneration and reconstruction . In this work, a material interpenetrating based on poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA), Chitosan and hydroxyapatite (HA) was prepared following the methodology of the foaming gas Damla Çetin , generating an interpenetrated network with the chitosan filled with hydroxyapatite. The materials were evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and in vitro bioactivity  (SBF) and characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The TGA studies suggested that there was not existence of possible interactions between polymers and HA but there is a thermal stability increase in the HA content. Meanwhile, SBF and its characterization by SEM, was found that the materials are bioactives as indicated by the formation of a bone-like apatite layer after immersion in simulated body ﬂuid, indicating the potential of this material for use in bone tissue engineering.
The catalytic activity of disordered binary alloy metal surfaces is investigated for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) by generating free energy diagrams and performing calculations on d-band centers of alloys. The disorder was simulated using virtual crystal approximation; then, based on periodic, self-consistent density functional theory (DFT) methods, we calculated adsorption energies of reaction intermediates. Alternative pathway for ORR mechanism, involving proton/electron transfer to adsorbed oxygen and hydroxyl, is considered. The methodology was applied to (111) surface of PdxCu1-x disordered binary alloys, with different values of x concentration. This study found that at the ORR equilibrium potential of 1.23 V, the reactivity of all surfaces is shown to be limited by the rate of OH removal from the surface. Among the surfaces studied, the surface of Pd0.80Cu0.20 shows the highest reactivity and is more active than other non-Pt alloys. These results are in excellent agreement with earlier experimental and theoretical work.
We present the ambitious project J-PAS, that will cover 8000 deg2 of the northern sky with 54 narrow-band (∼145Å) contiguous filters, all of them in the optical range (3700Å-9200Å). J-PAS will provide a low resolution spectra (R ∼ 50) in every pixel of the northern sky by 2020, leading to excellent photometric redshifts (0.3% uncertainty) of 100 million sources. J-PAS will permit the study of the 2D properties of nearby galaxies with unprecedented statistics. Some viable studies are the distribution of the star formation rate traced by Hα, the stellar populations gradients in elliptical galaxies up to a few effective radii, or the impact of environment in galaxy properties. In summary, J-PAS will bring a superb data set for 3D analysis in the local Universe.
In this study we analyze the electrical behavior of a junction formed by an ultraheavily Ti implanted Si layer processed by a Pulsed Laser Melting (PLM) and the non implanted Si substrate. This electrical behavior exhibits an electrical decoupling effect in this bilayer that we have associated to an Intermediate Band (IB) formation in the Ti supersaturated Si layer. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) measurements show a Ti depth profile with concentrations well above the theoretical limit required to the IB formation. Sheet resistance and Hall mobility measurements in the van der Pauw configuration of these bilayers exhibit a clear dependence with the different measurement currents introduced (1µA-1mA). We find that the electrical transport properties measured present an electrical decoupling effect in the bilayer as function of the temperature. The dependence of this effect with the injected current could be explained in terms of an additional current flow in the junction from the substrate to the IB layer and in terms of the voltage dependence in the junction with the measurement current.
The present study investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and dietary intake in European adolescents. The study comprised 1492 adolescents (770 females) from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. CRF was assessed by the 20 m shuttle run test. Adolescents were grouped into low and high CRF levels according to the FITNESSGRAM Standards. Dietary intake was self-registered by the adolescents using a computer-based tool for 24 h dietary recalls (HELENA-Dietary Assessment Tool) on two non-consecutive days. Weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated. Higher CRF was associated with higher total energy intake in boys (P = 0·003). No association was found between CRF and macronutrient intake (as percentage of energy), yet some positive associations were found with daily intake of bread/cereals in boys and dairy products in both boys and girls (all P < 0·003), regardless of centre, age and BMI. CRF was inversely related to sweetened beverage consumption in girls. These findings were overall consistent when CRF was analysed according to the FITNESSGRAM categories (high/low CRF). A high CRF was not related to compliance with dietary recommendations, except for sweetened beverages in girls (P = 0·002). In conclusion, a high CRF is associated with a higher intake of dairy products and bread/cereals, and a lower consumption of sweetened beverages, regardless of centre, age and BMI. The present findings contribute to the understanding of the relationships between dietary factors and physiological health indicators such as CRF.
Living specimens of the amphi-Atlantic asteroid Hacelia superba have been collected in different areas of Gazul mud volcano in the Gulf of Cadiz, south-western Iberian Peninsula, at depths of 380–487 m. This starfish displayed low abundances (~1 ind. 2000 m−2) in beam trawl catches on the mud vulcano and adjacent soft bottoms. The absence of previous records in this area could be due to a low sampling effort on bathyal hard bottoms of the Gulf of Cadiz, especially those of dormant mud volcanoes, as well as a possible misidentification as Hacelia attenuata that also occurs in the area but is restricted to infralittoral and circalitoral bottoms.
Simulated high-bumup nuclear fuel (SIMFUEL) has been leached in synthetic groundwater under oxic conditions. SIMFUEL pellets were ground and sieved to two particle sizes (50–100 and 100–315 μm). An extensive solid characterization of the fragments was carried out by various techniques. Elemental analysis has also been performed prior to the leaching tests.
The release of U and the minor components (Mo, Ba and Sr) was monitored during the long term dissolution experiments (350 days). These minor components exhibit a trend similar to uranium, high release at the beginning followed by a plateau. The M/U calculated ratios show different behavior although after a period of time, depending on the particle sizes, constant ratios were observed.
SIMHUEL powder was used in order to simulate the physical effect of bum-up on the fuel structure. This fact seems to play an important role on the uranium release. A comparison with the results given in the literature for SIMFUEL pellet leaching tests shows good agreement with the values reported.
Organic chromophores have been exploited for a wide range of discrete optical and electronic functions as well as a growing number of combined opto-electronic functions. We are pursuing development of organic and polymer materials for a range of applications that require properties including liquid crystallinity, second order optical nonlinearity, photorefractivity and, more recently, special nonlinear optical behavior involving molecular chirality.