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We developed the Long-term Early Development Research (LEADER) project to investigate the development of children with CHD and/or after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Both populations are at risk for delays in motor, cognitive, and language development. However, few studies to date have investigated the longitudinal development in these children.
To establish a clinical research unit, we planned three studies: a cross-sectional study in children after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (LEADER-REA Pilot Study), a longitudinal study in children after cardiopulmonary resuscitation, with a focus on evaluating various biomarkers as predictors for developmental outcome (LEADER-CPR study), and a longitudinal study in children with ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, or transposition of the great arteries after cardiac surgery (LEADER-CHD study).
Implementation of all three LEADER studies was successful and study protocols were conducted as planned. Findings from the LEADER-REA Pilot study have been recently published and data collection for both prospective trials is ongoing. Descriptive analysis of the first 20 assessments of the LEADER-CHD study showed no severe deficits in overall cognitive, motor, and language developments in the children.
Children with CHD and/or after cardiopulmonary resuscitation are at risk for developmental delay. Therefore, a detailed developmental assessment is necessary as a pre-requisite for individual developmental support. Our LEADER project has been shown to be feasible in a clinical setting and is the first step towards the establishment of a clinical research unit in our clinic with a focus on longitudinal research.
In Germany all keepers of livestock are legally required to record animal welfare indicators as part of their on-farm self-assessment. The Association for Technology and Structures in Agriculture (Kuratorium für Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft e.V. (KTBL)) has suggested the use of a particular set of animal welfare indicators in their publication Animal welfare indicators: Practical guide – Pigs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the inter-observer reliability (Inter-OR) and intra-observer reliability (Intra-OR) of these indicators with respect to the welfare of fattening pigs. For the assessment of Inter-OR, three observers evaluated six KTBL animal welfare indicators. The Inter-OR of the indicators was calculated from the results using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). ‘Excellent’ Inter-OR results were found for the indicators tail length (ICC 0.89), skin lesions (ICC 0.77) and ear lesions (ICC 0.80). In contrast, the Inter-OR of the indicators tail lesions (ICC 0.46) and faecal soiling (ICC 0.47) were considered to be only ‘fair’ and that of the indicator lameness (ICC 0.36) as ‘poor’. For the evaluation of the Intra-OR, the same three observers assessed the welfare of 162 to 200 fattening pigs using the same welfare indicators in total eight times. Again ICCs, here per indicator and observer, were used to calculate the Intra-OR. The Intra-OR of the indicators faecal soiling (ICC 0.81) and ear lesions (ICC 0.97) lay in the ‘excellent’ range on average. While the Intra-OR of the indicators skin lesions (ICC 0.67), tail length (ICC 0.74) and lameness (ICC 0.60) could still be considered as being ‘good’, the Intra-OR of the indicator tail lesions (ICC 0.52) could only be assessed as being ‘fair’. From these results the significance of the KTBL indicators could be judged as follows: it is possible to use all the chosen indicators apart from the indicator tail lesions as an internal controlling instrument or as part of an internal weak-point analysis as long as the indicators are evaluated by the same person. A comparison of the indicators tail lesions, lameness and faecal soiling when assessed by different observers should be considered critically because the Inter-OR of these three indicators could only be considered as being ‘poor’ to ‘fair’.
Nurse sow strategies are used to manage large litters on commercial pig farms. However, new-born piglets transferred to nurse sows in late lactation might be compromised in terms of growth and survival. We investigated the effects of two nurse sow strategies on piglet growth, suckling behaviour and sow nursing behaviour. At 1-day post-farrowing, the four heaviest piglets from large litters were transferred to a nurse sow either 21 (1STEP21, n=9 litters) or 7 (2STEP7, n=10 litters) days into lactation. The remainder of the litter remained with their mother and was either kept intact (remain intact (RI), n=10 litters) or had some piglets cross-fostered to equalise birth weights (remain equalised (RE), n=9 litters). The 7-day-old piglets from 2STEP7 were transferred onto a sow 21 days into lactation (2STEP21, n=10 litters). The growth of new-born piglets on 1STEP21 and 2STEP7 nurse sows was initially lower than in RI litters (F3,33.8=4.61; P<0.01), but weaning weights did not significantly differ (F4,32.7=0.78; P>0.5). After the 1st week of lactation, the weights and growth rates did not differ between treatments. Fighting behaviour during nursing bouts decreased over time. The frequency of fights was higher in 1STEP21 and 2STEP21 litters compared with RI litters (t122=3.06 and t123=3.00, respectively, P<0.05). The 2STEP21 litters had shorter nursing bouts than RI and 1STEP21 litters (t107=−2.81 and t81.7=2.8, respectively, P<0.05), which were more frequently terminated by 2STEP21 than RI sows (t595=2.93; P<0.05). Transferring heaviest piglets from RI and RE litters to nurse sows reduced the percentage of teat changes during nursing bouts (RI: F1,275=16.61; RE: F1,308=43.59; P<0.001). In conclusion, nurse sow strategies do not appear to compromise piglet growth. However, new-born piglets transferred onto sows in late lactation experienced more competition at the udder, suggesting that the sows’ stage of lactation is of importance to how achievable nurse sow strategies are. Thus, the two-step nurse sow strategy is likely the best option (in relation to growth and suckling behaviour), as it minimises the difference between piglet age and sow stage of lactation.
Management strategies are needed to optimise the number of piglets weaned from hyper-prolific sows. Nurse sow strategies involve transferring supernumerary new-born piglets onto a sow whose own piglets are either weaned or fostered onto another sow. Such ‘nurse sows’ have extended lactations spent in farrowing crates, which could have negative implications for their welfare. This study used 47 sows, 20 of which farrowed large litters and had their biggest piglets fostered onto nurse sows which were either 1 week (2STEP7, n=9) or 3 weeks into lactation (1STEP21, n=10). Sows from which piglets were removed (R) were either left with the remainder of the litter intact (I) (remain intact (RI) sows, n=10), or had their litters equalised (E) for birth weight using piglets of the same age from non-experimental sows (remain equalised (RE) sows, n=9). Piglets from 2STEP7 were fostered onto another nurse sow which was 3 weeks into lactation (2STEP21, n=9). Back-fat thickness was measured at entry to the farrowing house, at fostering (nurse sows only) and weaning. Sows were scored for ease of locomotion and skin and claw lesions at entry to the farrowing house and weaning. Salivary cortisol samples were collected and tear staining was scored at 0900 h weekly from entry until weaning. Saliva samples were also taken at fostering. Data were analysed using GLMs with appropriate random and repeated factors, or non-parametric tests were applied where appropriate. Back-fat thickness decreased between entry and weaning for all sows (F1,42=26.59, P<0.001) and tended to differ between treatments (F4,16=2.91; P=0.06). At weaning RI sows had lower limb lesion scores than 2STEP7 and RE sows (χ24=10.8, P<0.05). No treatment effects were detected on salivary cortisol concentrations (P>0.05) and all nurse sows had a higher salivary cortisol concentration at fostering, compared with the other days (F10,426=3.47; P<0.05). Acute effects of fostering differed between nurse sow treatments (F2,113=3.45, P<0.05); 2STEP7 sows had a higher salivary cortisol concentration than 1STEP21 and 2STEP21 sows on the day of fostering. 2STEP7 sows had a higher salivary cortisol concentration at fostering, compared with 1STEP21 and 2STEP21 sows. Tear staining scores were not influenced by treatment (P>0.05). In conclusion, no difference was detected between nurse sows and non-nurse sows in body condition or severity of lesions. Although some nurse sows experienced stress at fostering, no long-term effect of the nurse sow strategies was detected on stress levels compared with sows that raised their own litter.
Background: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) accounts for approximately 20% of pediatric epilepsy cases. Of those, many are considered medically intractable and require surgical interventions. In this study, we hypothesized that mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) was less common in patients who had undergone surgery for intractable pediatric TLE than in adult series. We further hypothesized that there was a radiological and pathological discordance in identifying the cause of pediatric TLE. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of pediatric patients with TLE who had undergone surgical treatments as part of the University of Alberta’s Comprehensive Epilepsy Program between 1988 and 2018. Along with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports, post-surgical pathology results and seizure outcomes were studied Results: Of the 83 pediatric patients who had undergone temporal lobe epilepsy surgery, 28% had tumors, 22% had dual pathologies, 18% had MTS, 11% had focal cortical dysplasia, and 22% had other pathologies. In addition, for 36% of these patients, discordance between their pre-surgical MRI reports and post-surgical pathology reports were found. Conclusions: This was one of the largest retrospective cohort studies of pediatric patients who had undergone surgery for intractable TLE. This study showed that tumors, and not MTS, were the most common pathology in surgical pediatric TLE.
A 1993 result of Alon and Füredi gives a sharp upper bound on the number of zeros of a multivariate polynomial over an integral domain in a finite grid, in terms of the degree of the polynomial. This result was recently generalized to polynomials over an arbitrary commutative ring, assuming a certain ‘Condition (D)’ on the grid which holds vacuously when the ring is a domain. In the first half of this paper we give a further generalized Alon–Füredi theorem which provides a sharp upper bound when the degrees of the polynomial in each variable are also taken into account. This yields in particular a new proof of Alon–Füredi. We then discuss the relationship between Alon–Füredi and results of DeMillo–Lipton, Schwartz and Zippel. A direct coding theoretic interpretation of Alon–Füredi theorem and its generalization in terms of Reed–Muller-type affine variety codes is shown, which gives us the minimum Hamming distance of these codes. Then we apply the Alon–Füredi theorem to quickly recover – and sometimes strengthen – old and new results in finite geometry, including the Jamison–Brouwer–Schrijver bound on affine blocking sets. We end with a discussion of multiplicity enhancements.
Through this study we aimed to assess the educational level and employment status of adults with CHD in Germany.
Data were acquired from an online survey carried out in 2015 by the German National Register for Congenital Heart Defects. A total of 1458 adults with CHD participated in the survey (response rate: 37.6%). For 1198 participants, detailed medical information, such as main cardiac diagnosis and information from medical reports, was available.
Of the participants surveyed (n=1198), 54.5% (n=653) were female, and the mean age was 30 years. The majority of respondents (59.4%) stated that they had high education levels and that they were currently employed (51.1%). Patients with simple CHD had significantly higher levels of education (p<0.001) and were more likely to be employed (p=0.01) than were patients with complex CHD.
More than half of the participants had high education levels and the majority were employed. The association between CHD and its severity and individuals’ educational attainment should be investigated more closely in future studies.
We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) carriage in slaughterhouse workers and the association with occupational exposure to slaughter animals and products. Stool samples from 334 employees in a Dutch pig slaughterhouse were obtained. Presence of ESBL was determined by selective plating, microarray analysis, and gene sequencing. Questionnaires were used to collect personal and occupational information. The overall prevalence of ESBL carriage was 4·8% (16/334). All ESBL-producing isolates were Escherichia coli. The ESBL genes detected were blaCTX-M-1 (n = 8), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 3), blaCTX-M-27 (n = 2), blaCTX-M-24 (n = 1), blaCTX-M-55 (n = 1), and blaSHV-12 (n = 1). A higher prevalence of ESBL was seen in workers in jobs with as tasks ‘removal of lungs, heart, liver, tongue’ (33%), and ‘removal of head and spinal cord’ (25%). For further analysis, participants were divided in two groups based on potential exposure to ESBL as related to their job title. One group with an assumed higher exposure to ESBL (e.g. stable work, stabbing, dehairing, removal of organs) and another group with an assumed lower exposure to ESBL (e.g. refrigeration, packaging and expedition). In the ‘higher exposure’ group, ten out of 95 (10·5%) were carrying ESBL vs. six out of 233 (2·6%) in the ‘lower exposure’ group. Human ESBL carriage was significantly associated with job exposure in the slaughterhouse (OR 4·5, CI 1·6–12·6). Results suggest that ESBL carriage in slaughterhouse workers overall is comparable with the Dutch population. Within the slaughterhouse population a difference in carriage exists depending on their position along the slaughter line and tasks involved.
The method of stellar velocity variations measurement has recently shown its capability by discovering tens of extra-solar planets. Accuracies achieved today are in the range of 3 to 10 m/s. The spectrograph EMILIE coupled to the Absolute Astronomical Accelerometer (AAA) system and established at the 1.52 m telescope of the Observatoire de Haute Provence is an instrument which aims at reaching an accuracy better than 1 m/s, long term. Results on some typical stars are presented.
Following the recent evidence for the presence of an excess of power around 1 mHz in the frequency spectrum of the Doppler shift measurements for Procyon (Martic et al., 1999), we searched for individual frequencies of p-modes from three independent observing runs (5, 10 and 15 nights). All observations (December 1997, November 1998, January 1999) were made with the ELODIE spectrograph on the 1.93 m telescope at Observatoire de Haute Provence. The individual peaks in cleaned power spectra of each time series in the interval of excess power are compared with the predicted p-mode frequencies from stellar models (Chaboyer et al., 1999) for Procyon A.
The aim of this paper (further developed in Barban et al. 1999) is to present new evidence of the possible stellar origin of the observed excess power in the power spectrum of Procyon A presented in Martic et al. (1999) by comparing these observational data with theoretical predictions and numerical simulations.
We summarize some of the results obtained by spectral analysis of EXOSAT ME observations of stellar coronal sources. We focus on time-resolved spectroscopy of stellar flares and on the determination of the temperature structure of quiescent RS CVn binaries
We present a series of statistical tests using homogeneous data and measurements for a sample of Seyfert galaxies. These galaxies were selected from mostly isotropic properties, their far infrared fluxes and warm infrared colors, which provide a considerable advantage over the criteria used by most investigators in the past, like ultraviolet excess. Our results provide strong support for a Unified Model in which Seyferts 2’s contain a torus seen more edge-on than in Seyferts l’s and show that previous results showing the opposite were most likely due to selection effects.
The spectrograph EMILIE (Bouchy et al., 1999; Bouchy, 1999; Bouchy et al., 2000) coupled to the Absolute Astronomical Accelerometer (AAA, Connes, 1985; Schmitt, 1997) and implemented at the 152-cm Coudé telescope of the Observatoire de Haute Provence is dedicated to high-precision Doppler measurements. The AAA method uses a sliding reference spectrum constrained to track the stellar lines and to use the spectrograph as a null-checking device. The goal of AAA is to eliminate the calibration of the spectrograph as well as the displacement of the spectra across the CCD pixels due to the earth motion (and suspected to introduce a systematic error in the RV measurement). Here we report seismological results obtained with AAA on the Sun and the bright stars Procyon and ζ Her A that are expected to present solar-like oscillations.
Intracranial volume (ICV) has been proposed as a measure of maximum lifetime brain size. Accurate ICV measures require neuroimaging which is not always feasible for epidemiologic investigations. We examined head circumference as a useful surrogate for ICV in older adults.
99 older adults underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). ICV was measured by Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 (SPM8) software or Functional MRI of the Brain Software Library (FSL) extraction with manual editing, typically considered the gold standard. Head circumferences were determined using standardized tape measurement. We examined estimated correlation coefficients between head circumference and the two MRI-based ICV measurements.
Head circumference and ICV by SPM8 were moderately correlated (overall r = 0.73, men r = 0.67, women r = 0.63). Head circumference and ICV by FSL were also moderately correlated (overall r = 0.69, men r = 0.63, women r = 0.49).
Head circumference measurement was strongly correlated with MRI-derived ICV. Our study presents a simple method to approximate ICV among older patients, which may prove useful as a surrogate for cognitive reserve in large scale epidemiologic studies of cognitive outcomes. This study also suggests the stability of head circumference correlation with ICV throughout the lifespan.
To identify the source of a pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium gordonae
University Hospital in Chicago, Ilinois.
Hospital patients with M. gordonae-positive clinical cultures.
An increase in isolation of M. gordonae from clinical cultures was noted immediately following the opening of a newly constructed hospital in January 2012. We reviewed medical records of patients with M. gordonae-positive cultures collected between January and December 2012 and cultured potable water specimens in new and old hospitals quantitatively for mycobacteria.
Of 30 patients with M. gordonae-positive clinical cultures, 25 (83.3%) were housed in the new hospital; of 35 positive specimens (sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, gastric aspirate), 32 (91.4%) had potential for water contamination. M. gordonae was more common in water collected from the new vs. the old hospital [147 of 157 (93.6%) vs. 91 of 113 (80.5%), P=.001]. Median concentration of M. gordonae was higher in the samples from the new vs. the old hospital (208 vs. 48 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL; P<.001). Prevalence and concentration of M. gordonae were lower in water samples from ice and water dispensers [13 of 28 (46.4%) and 0 CFU/mL] compared with water samples from patient rooms and common areas [225 of 242 (93%) and 146 CFU/mL, P<.001].
M. gordonae was common in potable water. The pseudo-outbreak of M. gordonae was likely due to increased concentrations of M. gordonae in the potable water supply of the new hospital. A silver ion-impregnated 0.5-μm filter may have been responsible for lower concentrations of M. gordonae identified in ice/water dispenser samples. Hospitals should anticipate that construction activities may amplify the presence of waterborne nontuberculous mycobacterial contaminants.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin (BTPC) supplementation on plasma metabolites and milk production in postpartum dairy cows. A total of fifty-two Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive either: (1) 10 ml of saline (NaCl 0.9%, control group); (2) 1000 mg of butaphosphan and 0.5 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC1 group); and (3) 2000 mg of butaphosphan and 1.0 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC2 group). All cows received injections every 5 days from calving to 20 days in milk (DIM). Blood samples were collected every 15 days from calving until 75 DIM to determine serum concentration of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, urea, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), aminotransferase aspartate (AST) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT). The body condition score (BCS) and milk production were evaluated from calving until 90 DIM. Increasing doses of BTPC caused a linear reduction in plasma concentrations of NEFA and cholesterol. Supplementation of BTPC also reduced concentrations of BHB but it did not differ between the two treatment doses. Milk yield and milk protein had a linear increase with increasing doses of BTPC. A quadratic effect was detected for milk fat and total milk solids according to treatment dose, and BTPC1 had the lowest mean values. Concentrations of glucose, urea, P, Mg, AST, GGT, milk lactose and BCS were not affected by treatment. These results indicate that injections of BTPC during the early postpartum period can reduce NEFA and BHB concentrations and increase milk production in Holstein cows.
Structure and phase transitions of (1 − y)((1 − x)Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3–xBi1/2K1/2TiO3)–yK0.5Na0.5NbO3 (x; y) piezoceramics (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.4; 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.05) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, neutron diffraction, temperature-dependent x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. The local crystallographic structure at room temperature (RT) does not change by adding K0.5Na0.5NbO3 to Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3–xBi1/2K1/2TiO3 for x = 0.2 and 0.4. The average crystal structure and microstructure on the other hand develop from mainly long-range polar order with ferroelectric domains to short-range order with polar nanoregions displaying a more pronounced relaxor character. The (0.1; 0) and (0.1; 0.02) compositions exhibit monoclinic Cc space group symmetry, which transform into Cc + P4bm at 185 and 130 °C, respectively. This high temperature phase is stable at RT for the morphotropic phase boundary compositions of (0.1; 0.05) and all compositions with x = 0.2. For the compositions of (0.1; 0) and (0.1; 0.02), local structural changes on heating are evidenced by Raman; for all other compositions, changes in the long-range average crystal structure were observed.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prepartum somatotropin injection in late-pregnant Holstein heifers on metabolism, milk production and resumption of postpartum ovulation. For this study, 31 late-pregnant Holstein heifers were used. The heifers were assigned randomly into two treatments: (1) 500 mg sc injections of somatotropin (somatotropin treatment, n = 15) at −35 and −21 days, and, if pertinent, at −7 days from expected calving date and (2) no treatment (control group, n = 16). Blood samples were collected weekly from −5 to 7 weeks after calving. Heifers with progesterone concentrations in plasma above 1 ng/ml in two consecutive postpartum samples were considered as having resumed ovarian activity. A higher proportion (P = 0.04) of heifers treated with somatotropin resumed ovarian activity in the first 7 weeks post partum (73.3%; 11/15) compared with the control group (37.5%; 6/16). A higher number (P = 0.02) of heifers in the somatotropin treatment group also ovulated during the first postpartum follicular wave (53.3%; 8/15) compared with the control group (12.5%; 2/16), as indicated by the number of heifers ovulating in the first 3 weeks post partum. Pregnancy rate was not affected by treatments (P > 0.10) and averaged 40.0% (6/15) in somatotropin-treated and 25.0% (4/16) in control heifers when evaluated up to 150 days in milk. Somatotropin treatment increased the average daily milk production by 2.8 kg/cow per day (P < 0.0001) and reduced the somatic cell count (P = 0.009). Plasma IGF-I was higher (P < 0.05) for somatotropin-treated heifers in the prepartum period. Insulin and body condition score were higher (P < 0.05) and non-esterified fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) for somatotropin-treated cows in the early postpartum period. In conclusion, somatotropin injection during the prepartum period in late-pregnant Holstein heifers was able to increase the proportion of heifers resuming ovarian activity early post partum, inspite of higher milk production.