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The overarching goal of this work is to support creative ideation in engineering design with the aim of overcoming design fixation. We study the impact of abstract representations and ways to frame the problem in design briefs on the creativity of concept sketches. Framing/Reframing involves shifting perspectives on the design purpose and to reveal insights and opportunities. Two Framing/Reframing techniques are tested: the Ishikawa/Fishbone Diagram to identify root causes and a blend of Parnes’ Restatement/SCAMPER method to encourage divergence in problem perception. Abstract representations of requirements were used as stimuli to foster transfer and associative thinking. Using a full-factorial experimental design with brief variations, C-Sketch ideas developed by first-year engineering/architecture students were evaluated for their creativity. Our results showed a positive interaction effect for novelty and usefulness when the Fishbone Reframing method was used with abstract representation, but there was no difference in creativity scores when comparing the two Framing/Reframing methods between each other.
The parent-child relationship undergoes substantial reorganization over the transition to adolescence. Navigating this change is a challenge for parents because teens desire more behavioral autonomy as well as input in decision-making processes. Although it has been demonstrated that changes in parental socialization approaches facilitates adolescent adjustment, very little work has been devoted to understanding the underlying mechanisms supporting parents’ abilities to adjust caregiving during this period. Guided by self-regulation models of parenting, the present study examined how parental physiological and cognitive regulatory capacities were associated with hostile and insensitive parent conflict behavior over time. From a process-oriented perspective, we tested the explanatory role of parents’ dysfunctional child-oriented attributions in this association. A sample of 193 fathers, mothers, and their early adolescent (ages 12–14) participated in laboratory-based research assessments spaced approximately 1 year apart. Parental physiological regulation was measured using square root of the mean of successive differences during a conflict task; cognitive regulation was indicated by set-shifting capacity. Results showed that parental difficulties in vagal regulation during parent-adolescent conflict were associated with increased hostile conflict behavior over time; however, greater set-shifting capacity moderated this association for fathers only. In turn, father's dysfunctional attributions regarding adolescent behavior mediated the moderating effect. The results highlight how models of self-regulation and social cognition may explain the determinants of hostile parenting with differential implications for fathers during adolescence.
Subcutaneous immunotherapy is an effective and safe treatment for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Different symptom scores are used to evaluate the efficacy of subcutaneous immunotherapy in clinical trials.
A total of 58 allergic rhinitis patients sensitised to house dust mites, with or without mild asthma, were included. Symptom score, medication score, visual analogue scale score and quality of life were assessed before and after 6, 12 and 24 months of subcutaneous immunotherapy.
After two years of subcutaneous immunotherapy, asthma symptom scores nearly reached zero, whereas the scores remained higher for nasal symptoms. The changes in asthma symptom scores were markedly different (p < 0.05) and occurred faster than the changes in nasal symptom scores when compared between monosensitised and polysensitised groups. Significant reductions in visual analogue scale score and medication score were demonstrated after subcutaneous immunotherapy.
Two-year subcutaneous immunotherapy with house dust mite vaccine is an effective treatment for both monosensitised and polysensitised allergic patients. The changes in asthma symptom scores were markedly different and occurred quicker than the changes in nasal symptom scores in Chinese house dust mite allergic patients.
To investigate lung function in Chinese patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and examine its association with histopathological features.
The lung function of 99 patients with nasal polyps was measured. Haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry staining were performed to evaluate any inflammatory cells and epithelial tissue remodelling.
Predicted maximal expiratory flow rate at 25 per cent vital capacity was reduced (p < 0.05) in epithelial hyperplasia, and predicted maximal expiratory flow rate at 50 per cent vital capacity was reduced (p < 0.05) in goblet cell hyperplasia. Both peripheral blood eosinophilia and tissue eosinophilia nasal polyps manifested significantly reduced: forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio, predicted maximal expiratory flow rate at 25, 50 and 75 per cent of vital capacity, and predicted maximal mid-expiratory flow. Peripheral blood eosinophils were negatively correlated with predicted maximal expiratory flow rate at 25 and 50 per cent of vital capacity, and predicted maximal mid-expiratory flow. Eosinophils in tissue were negatively correlated with all lung function parameters investigated except predicted forced vital capacity.
Clinicians should be aware of lung function decline in nasal polyps patients, especially in those with tissue eosinophilia.
In many cells throughout the body, vitamin D is converted into its active form calcitriol and binds to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which functions as a transcription factor to regulate various biological processes including cellular differentiation and immune response. Vitamin D-metabolising enzymes (including CYP24A1 and CYP27B1) and VDR play major roles in exerting and regulating the effects of vitamin D. Preclinical and epidemiological studies have provided evidence for anti-cancer effects of vitamin D (particularly against colorectal cancer), although clinical trials have yet to prove its benefit. In addition, molecular pathological epidemiology research can provide insights into the interaction of vitamin D with tumour molecular and immunity status. Other future research directions include genome-wide research on VDR transcriptional targets, gene–environment interaction analyses and clinical trials on vitamin D efficacy in colorectal cancer patients. In this study, we review the literature on vitamin D and colorectal cancer from both mechanistic and population studies and discuss the links and controversies within and between the two parts of evidence.
In the present paper, the phylogeographies of two monogenean species, Pseudokuhnia minor and Kuhnia scombri, on the same species of host, Scomber japonicus, were studied. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene were sequenced for 264 individuals of P. minor and 224 individuals of K. scombri collected from 10 localities along the coast of China. Genetic diversity of K. scombri was higher than that of P. minor, which may imply that P. minor has a lower evolution rate and/or is a younger species. The neighbour-joining (NJ) trees of both parasites were comprised of two clades without association to sample sites, which is the signature of remixing populations following past division. Analyses of molecular variance and pairwise fixation index revealed different genetic structures for the populations of these two closely related species along the coast of China: P. minor without significant genetic structure, while K. scombri has some genetic differentiation. Both neutrality tests and mismatch distribution suggested that the populations of these two species of parasites experienced population expansion in the late Pleistocene era due to the glacial–interglacial cycles induced by climatic oscillations.
Background: Global variation in the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is generally ascribed to differences in genetic and environmental risk factors. Here we investigate temporal trends in the incidence of MS and related disorders in British Columbia, Canada, from 1986 to 2010, focusing particularly on the Asian ethnic subpopulation.
Methods: A longitudinal database was screened to identify newly diagnosed cases of MS and related disorders, including neuromyelitis optica and clinically isolated syndromes. Age-standardized, sex-specific mean annual incidence was calculated for the Asian and non-Asian population of British Columbia for 5-year intervals from 1986 to 2010. Temporal changes and cohort differences in incidence rates and demographic characteristics were evaluated. Results: During this period, the incidence of MS and related disorders in the non-Asian population remained relatively unchanged, from 10.41 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.87-10.97) to 9.91 (95% CI: 9.46-10.39) per 100,000 (p=0.167). In contrast, incidence in the Asian population doubled during the same period. This increase was driven by a precipitous rise in the incidence of MS in females from 0.71 (95% CI: 0.01-1.50) to 2.08 (95% CI: 1.43-2.91) per 100,000 (p=0.004), including both Canadian-born and immigrant Asians. The incidence of neuromyelitis optica did not change significantly during this period. Conclusions: The incidence of MS may be increasing among females in the Asian ethnic population of British Columbia.
To evaluate the accuracy of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Clostridium difficile–associated disease (CDAD) detection, after hospital CDAD rates significantly increased following real-time PCR initiation for CDAD diagnosis.
Hospital-wide surveillance study following examination of CDAD incidence density rates by interrupted time series design.
Large university-based hospital.
Hospitalized adult patients.
CDAD rates were compared before and after real-time PCR implementation in a university hospital and in the absence of physician and infection control practice changes. After real-time PCR introduction, all hospitalized adult patients were screened for C. difficile by testing a fecal specimen by real-time PCR, toxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and toxigenic culture.
CDAD hospital rates significantly increased after changing from cell culture cytotoxicity assay to a real-time PCR assay. One hundred ninety-nine hospitalized subjects were enrolled, and 101 fecal specimens were collected. C. difficile was detected in 18 subjects (18%), including 5 subjects (28%) with either definite or probable CDAD and 13 patients (72%) with asymptomatic C. difficile colonization.
The majority of healthcare-associated diarrhea is not attributable to CDAD, and the prevalence of asymptomatic C. difficile colonization exceeds CDAD rates in healthcare facilities. PCR detection of asymptomatic C. difficile colonization among patients with non-CDAD diarrhea may be contributing to rising CDAD rates and a significant number of CDAD false positives. PCR may be useful for CDAD screening, but further study is needed to guide interpretation of PCR detection of C. difficile and the value of confirmatory tests. A gold standard CDAD diagnostic assay is needed.
With the ATNF Mopra telescope we are performing a survey in the 12CO(1–0) line to map the molecular gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud. For some regions we also obtained interferometric maps of the high density gas tracers HCO+ and HCN with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Here we discuss the properties of the elongated molecular complex that stretches about 2 kpc southward from 30 Doradus. Our data suggest that the complex, which we refer to as the ‘molecular ridge’, is not a coherent feature but consists of many smaller clumps that share the same formation history. Likely triggers of molecular-cloud formation are shocks and shearing forces that are present in the surrounding south-eastern Hi overdensity region, a region influenced by strong ram pressure and tidal forces. The molecular ridge is at the western edge of the the overdensity region where a bifurcated velocity structure transitions into a single disk velocity component. We find that the 12CO(1–0) and Hi emission peaks in the molecular ridge are typically near each other but never coincide. A likely explanation is the conversion of warmer, low-opacity Hi to colder, high-opacity Hi from which H2 subsequently forms. On smaller scales we find that very dense molecular gas, as traced by interferometric HCO+ and HCN maps, is associated with star formation along shocked filaments and with rims of expanding shell-like structures, both created by feedback from massive stars.
Mg@ZnO thin films were prepared by DC/RF magnetron co-sputtering in (N2+O2) ambient conditions using metallic Mg and Zn targets. We present a comprehensive study of the effects of film thickness, variation of O2 content in the working gas and annealing temperature on the structural, optical and magnetic properties. The band gap energy of the films is found to increase from 4.1 to 4.24 eV with the increase of O2 partial pressures from 5 to 20 % in the working gas. The films are found to be ferromagnetic at room temperature and the saturation magnetization increases initially with the film’s thickness reaching a maximum value of 14.6 emu/cm3 and then decreases to finally become diamagnetic beyond 95 nm thickness. Intrinsic strain seems to play an important role in the observed structural and magnetic properties of the Mg@ZnO films. On annealing, the as-obtained ‘mostly amorphous’ films in the temperature range 600 to 800°C become more crystalline and consequently the saturation magnetization values reduce.
We report on preliminary studies of low (14 at.%) and high (53at.%) concentration Mn doped MgO films deposited by co-sputtering from metallic Mn and Mg targets. The structural, surface morphologies and magnetic properties of the films of different thickness were studied. All the as grown films are found to be amorphous and film surfaces are found to be flawless and homogeneous. We observe at room temperature robust ferromagnetic loops with a saturation magnetization value that is a function of film thickness reaching a maximum of ∼38.5 emu/cm3 in the Mn0.53Mg0.47O film at a thickness of ∼92 nm. In thicker films room-temperature ferromagnetic ordering is suppressed and eventually at a thickness around 120nm the expected diamagnetism of the bulk appears. The origin of ferromagnetism may be attributed to cation defects at the Mg-site.
Background: The genetic region coding for low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein1 (LRP1) is considered an intriguing susceptibility locus for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is characterized by episodic memory impairment and represents the prodromal stage of AD. Our aim in this study is to investigate the relationship between LRP1 genetic variation and aMCI, and the influence of LRP1 on cognitive performance.
Methods: We performed a case-control association study analyzing five polymorphisms in LRP1 gene by TaqMan Assays-on-Demand SNP Genotyping. All samples were derived from Chinese subjects (109 cases, 104 healthy controls) and assessed using multi-dimension neuropsychological instruments.
Results: We identified haplotypes within the region containing the LRP1 gene. Of these, haplotype TAA (T: rs1800194; A: rs11837145; A: rs10876967) was significantly associated with aMCI, being over-represented in aMCI versus healthy controls. Haplotype TAA was associated with poor performance on episodic memory in all subjects.
Conclusions: This study confirms the association between genetic variants in LRP1 and aMCI. Moreover, we have identified a relationship between LRP1 genetic variation and specific aspects of neurocognitive function. Our convergent results suggest that LRP1 plays an important role in cognitive function and possibly in the pathogenesis of aMCI.
Low thermal budget annealing approaches, such as millisecond annealing or solid-phase epitaxy (SPE) of amorphized silicon, electrically activate implanted dopants while minimizing diffusion. However, it is also important to anneal damage to the crystal lattice in order to minimize junction leakage. Annealing experiments were performed on low-energy B implants into both crystalline silicon and into wafers pre-amorphized by Ge implantation. Some wafers also received As implants for halo-style doping, and in some cases the halo implants were pre-annealed at 1050°C before the B-doping. The B-implants were annealed by either SPE at 650°C, spike annealing at 1050°C, or by millisecond annealing with flash-assisted RTP™ (fRTP™) at temperatures between 1250°C and 1350°C. Residual damage was characterized by photoluminescence and non-contact junction leakage current measurements, which permit rapid assessment of damage removal efficacy. Damage from the heavy ions used for the halo and pre-amorphization implants dominates the defect annealing behaviour. The halo doping is the critical factor in determining junction leakage current. Millisecond annealing at high temperatures helps to minimize residual damage while limiting diffusion.
TiO2 nanostructures with various morphologies and crystal structures were obtained by calcination of alkaline hydrothermal synthesized hydrogen titanate at different temperatures. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared samples were investigated by degradation of methyl orange aqueous solution under ultraviolet irradiation. The effects of the phase composition, crystallinity, surface area and shape of the nanostructures were evaluated. The results showed that high crystallinity, pure anatase phase and nanowire structure are favorable for the photocatalysis. The dependence of the photocatalytic activity on the surface area is not significant as usually expected.
Nanosized Co-doped ZnO samples were synthesized using an ultrasonic spray assisted chemical vapour deposition method. Microstructural and magnetic properties of these samples were studied. The room-temperature ferromagnetism was observed in the Co-doped ZnO. Also, x-ray analysis revealed a wurtzite ZnO structure with a small change of the lattice constants due to the doping of Co in ZnO. Raman spectroscopy of the Co-doped ZnO films indicated direct substitution of Co. Scanning electron microscopy showed nanostructured Co-doped ZnO with a ring or cup shape. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed nano grains within the rings of an average diameter of around 10 nm. Both energy dispersive spectroscopy and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy indicated a uniform distribution of Co.
ZnO, which exhibits a direct bandgap of 3.37 eV at room temperature with a large exciton binding energy of 60 meV,is of considerable technological importance because of its potential use in short-wavelength devices, such as ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. The fabrication and application of 1-D ZnO nanostructures has attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this work, we produced single crystal nanowires of zinc oxide using a novel self-seeded growth using ultrasonic spray assisted chemical vapour deposition, in which a nanocrystalline seed layer was first deposited onto a glass substrate and the nanowires subsequently grown using a different precursor concentration and substrate temperature. The diameter of the nanowires is in the range of 20-80 nm and the length of the wires is as long as 10 μm. The single crystal nature of the nanowires was revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The formation of liquid droplets due to the reducing atmosphere and the higher temperature during the nanowire growth was found to be the key step of the ZnO nanowire formation.
Objective: To explore whether prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease is associated with lower levels of parental distress and greater satisfaction with decisions about cardiothoracic surgery when compared to postnatal diagnosis. Methodology: A combined quantitative–qualitative design was used. Participants included the parents of 31 neonates (30 mothers and 22 fathers) admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit between 1 November 2001 and 1 May 2002 for repair of congenital cardiac malformations. Participants completed self-report measures of anxiety, optimism, and life events pre-operatively, and semi-structured qualitative interviews assessing satisfaction with decision-making within 1 week of the operation. Results: At the time of surgery, mothers of neonates receiving the diagnosis prenatally did not differ from mothers of neonates receiving the diagnosis postnatally on measures of anxiety, optimism, and life events. Fathers of neonates receiving the diagnosis prenatally, however, reported more optimism, lower state and trait anxiety, and fewer negative life events than fathers of neonates receiving the diagnosis postnatally. When we analyzed the interviews, we found that, regardless of the timing of the diagnosis, parents felt as though they made a genuine choice for their baby to have surgery. Conclusions: In this pilot study, fathers who learned prenatally that their child had a congenital cardiac malformation were less distressed than those who discovered this fact only postnatally. From the parental perspective, nonetheless, distress and urgency do not impair their ability to make decisions about neonatal cardiac surgery.