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Grape marc (GPM) is a viticulture by-product that is rich in secondary compounds, including condensed tannins (CT), and is used as a supplement in livestock feeding practices. The aim of this study was to determine whether feeding GPM to lactating dairy cows would alter the milk proteome through changes in nitrogen (N) partitioning. Ten lactating Holstein cows were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) top-dressed with either 1.5 kg dry matter (DM)/cow/day GPM (GPM group; n = 5) or 2.0 kg DM/cow/day of a 50:50 beet pulp: soy hulls mix (control group; n = 5). Characterization of N partitioning and calculation of N partitioning was completed through analysis of plasma urea-N, urine, feces, and milk urea-N. Milk samples were collected for general composition analysis, HPLC quantification of the high abundance milk proteins (including casein isoforms, α-lactalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of the low abundance protein enriched milk fraction. No differences in DMI, N parameters, or calculated N partitioning were observed across treatments. Dietary treatment did not affect milk yield, milk protein or fat content or yield, or the concentrations of high abundance milk proteins quantified by HPLC analysis. Of the 127 milk proteins that were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis, 16 were affected by treatment, including plasma proteins and proteins associated with the blood-milk barrier, suggesting changes in mammary passage. Immunomodulatory proteins, including butyrophilin subfamily 1 member 1A and serum amyloid A protein, were higher in milk from GPM-fed cows. Heightened abundance of bioactive proteins in milk caused by dietary-induced shifts in mammary passage could be a feasible method to enhance the healthfulness of milk for both the milk-fed calf and human consumer. Additionally, the proteome shifts observed in this trial could provide a starting point for the identification of biomarkers suitable for use as indicators of mammary function.
To identify ways that the built environment may support or disrupt safe doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) in biocontainment units (BCU).
We observed interactions between healthcare workers (HCWs) and the built environment during 41 simulated PPE donning and doffing exercises.
The BCUs of 4 Ebola treatment facilities and 1 high-fidelity BCU mockup.
A total of 64 HCWs (41 doffing HCWs and 15 trained observers) participated in this study.
In each facility, we observed how the physical environment influences risky behaviors by the HCW. The environmental design impeded communication between trained observers (TOs) and HCWs because of limited window size or visual obstructions with louvers, which allowed unobserved errors. The size and configuration of the doffing area impacted HCW adherence to protocol, and lack of clear demarcation of zones resulted in HCWs inadvertently leaving the doffing area and stepping back into the contaminated areas. Lack of standard location for items resulted in equipment and supplies frequently shifting positions. Finally, different solutions for maintaining balance while removing shoe covers (ie, chair, hand grips, and step stool) had variable success. We identified the 5 key requirements that doffing areas must achieve to support safe doffing of PPE, and we developed a matrix of proposed design strategies that can be implemented to meet those requirements.
Simple, low-cost environmental design interventions can provide structure to support and improve HCW safety in BCUs. These interventions should be implemented in both current and future BCUs.
We compared rotavirus detection patterns before (2001–2006) and after (2008–2015) rotavirus vaccine introduction. We also compared rotavirus detection patterns in odd (2009, 2011, 2013, 2015) and even (2008, 2010, 2012, 2014) years post-vaccine separately. Results of stool rotavirus antigen testing from inpatient, outpatient and emergency department encounters from July 2000 to July 2015 at two paediatric hospital laboratories in Atlanta, Georgia were reviewed. Post-vaccine, rotavirus detection declined (30.2% vs. 13.7% (overall 54.6% decline, P <0.001)), occurred more frequently outside the rotavirus season (19.8% vs. 3.5%; P < 0.001), and was more common among older children (26 vs. 13 median months of age; P < 0.001). During odd years post-vaccine, rotavirus detection was significantly higher than even years (20.2% vs. 6.4%; P < 0.001). Rotavirus detection declined substantially and developed a biennial pattern in the post-vaccine era. The intensity and temporality of rotavirus detection in odd years post-vaccine resembled that observed pre-vaccine, although considerably reduced in magnitude.
A number of laser facilities coming online all over the world promise the capability of high-power laser experiments with shot repetition rates between 1 and 10 Hz. Target availability and technical issues related to the interaction environment could become a bottleneck for the exploitation of such facilities. In this paper, we report on target needs for three different classes of experiments: dynamic compression physics, electron transport and isochoric heating, and laser-driven particle and radiation sources. We also review some of the most challenging issues in target fabrication and high repetition rate operation. Finally, we discuss current target supply strategies and future perspectives to establish a sustainable target provision infrastructure for advanced laser facilities.
High flavonoid consumption can improve vascular health. Exploring flavonoid–metabolome relationships in population-based settings is challenging, as: (i) there are numerous confounders of the flavonoid–metabolome relationship; and (ii) the set of dependent metabolite variables are inter-related, highly variable and multidimensional. The Metabolite Fingerprint Score has been developed as a means of approaching such data. This study aims to compare its performance with that of more traditional methods, in identifying the metabolomic fingerprint of high and low flavonoid consumers. This study did not aim to identify biomarkers of intake, but rather to explore how systemic metabolism differs in high and low flavonoid consumers. Using liquid chromatography–tandem MS, 174 circulating plasma metabolites were profiled in 584 men and women who had complete flavonoid intake assessment. Participants were randomised to one of two datasets: (a) training dataset, to determine the models for the discrimination variables (n 399); and (b) validation dataset, to test the capacity of the variables to differentiate higher from lower total flavonoid consumers (n 185). The stepwise and full canonical variables did not discriminate in the validation dataset. The Metabolite Fingerprint Score successfully identified a unique pattern of metabolites that discriminated high from low flavonoid consumers in the validation dataset in a multivariate-adjusted setting, and provides insight into the relationship of flavonoids with systemic lipid metabolism. Given increasing use of metabolomics data in dietary association studies, and the difficulty in validating findings using untargeted metabolomics, this paper is of timely importance to the field of nutrition. However, further validation studies are required.
Nutrition during pregnancy can impact on the susceptibility of the offspring to CVD. Postnatal consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA), associated with partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO), increases the risk of atherosclerosis, whereas evidence for those TFA associated with ruminant-derived dairy products and meat remain equivocal. In this study, we investigate the impact of maternal consumption of dietary PHVO (P) and ruminant milk fat (R) on the development of atherosclerosis in their offspring, using the transgenic apoE*3 Leiden mouse. Dams were fed either chow (C) or one of three high-fat diets: a diet reflecting the SFA content of a ‘Western’ diet (W) or one enriched with either P or R. Diets were fed during either pregnancy alone or pregnancy and lactation. Weaned offspring were then transferred to an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. Atherosclerosis was assessed as lipid staining in cross-sections of the aorta. There was a significant effect of maternal diet during pregnancy on development of atherosclerosis (P=0·013) in the offspring with those born of mothers fed R or P during pregnancy displaying smaller lesions that those fed C or W. This was not associated with changes in total or lipoprotein cholesterol. Continuing to feed P during lactation increased atherosclerosis compared with that seen in offspring of dams fed P only during pregnancy (P<0·001). No such effect was seen in those from mothers fed R (P=0·596) or W (P=901). We conclude that dietary TFA have differing effects on cardiovascular risk at different stages of the lifecycle.
Community-based conservation efforts are designed to foster local stewardship of important ecological resources. However, inequitable distribution of costs and benefits in communities surrounding protected areas can negatively impact livelihoods, increase wealth disparities and create conflict. To examine the potential for conflict between host communities involved in a community-based conservation program and neighbouring (non-host) communities, we explored local residents’ attitudes towards conservation at Tiwai Island Wildlife Sanctuary (TIWS) in Sierra Leone. Intercept surveys (n = 368) were conducted in 18 villages (eight host, ten non-host) within 8 km of TIWS during 2010. Results revealed significant differences between residents of the host and non-host villages with respect to attitudes towards resource use and overall support for site protection. The most substantial discrepancies centred on perceived benefits associated with TIWS, and these drastically different perspectives generated a high potential for conflict. To minimize conflict and foster broader community support for conservation, managers must carefully consider how benefits associated with protected areas are communicated and distributed across protected area-proximate landscapes.
We discuss two themes from Chandra cluster observations. First, we describe the interaction of buoyant, radio emitting plasma bubbles with the hot intracluster gas. Second we summarize the Chandra observations of “cold” fronts (sharp discontinuities in gas density and temperature) separating cool, denser gas clouds from the hotter intracluster medium.
To describe current Ebola treatment center (ETC) locations, their capacity to care for Ebola virus disease patients, and infection control infrastructure features.
A 19-question survey was distributed electronically in April 2015. Responses were collected via email by June 2015 and analyzed in an electronic spreadsheet.
The survey was sent to and completed by site representatives of each ETC.
The survey was sent to all 55 ETCs; 47 (85%) responded.
Of the 47 responding ETCs, there are 84 isolation beds available for adults and 91 for children; of these pediatric beds, 35 (38%) are in children’s hospitals. In total, the simultaneous capacity of the 47 reporting ETCs is 121 beds. On the basis of the current US census, there are 0.38 beds per million population. Most ETCs have negative pressure isolation rooms, anterooms, and a process for category A waste sterilization, although only 11 facilities (23%) have the capability to sterilize infectious waste on site.
Facilities developed ETCs on the basis of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidance, but specific capabilities are not mandated at this present time. Owing to the complex and costly nature of Ebola virus disease treatment and variability in capabilities from facility to facility, in conjunction with the lack of regulations, nationwide capacity in specialized facilities is limited. Further assessments should determine whether ETCs can adapt to safely manage other highly infectious disease threats.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(3):313–318
The initial growth of InAs on 11% lattice mismatched GaP substrates by molecular beam epitaxy was investigated. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM) images showed that the InAs grew in the form of three-dimensional islands of dissimilar sizes. Mismatch induced strain relief was effected by the direct introduction of (mostly) edge dislocations at the corners of the islands. An examination of HREM images of several islands revealed that the island aspect ratio decreased with the introduction of misfit dislocations. Strain relaxation in the smaller, relatively dislocation-free islands occurred by elastic deformation of InAs lattice planes, which was more effective far from the constrained island-substrate interface. As a result, these islands grew taller and narrower, with a gradient in the elastic strain energy. However, a higher aspect ratio resulted in a higher surface area – to – volume ratio, and increased the surface energy of the InAs islands. Consequently, there was a driving force for the reduction of the aspect ratio if an alternate avenue for strain relaxation existed. The alternate route was plastic deformation by the introduction of misfit dislocations. As the island grew, the strain at the island corners increased, and beyond a critical value, misfit dislocations were added. These dislocations relieved strain at the heterointerface, and promoted the islands to grow laterally, i.e., the aspect ratio decreased. Islands coalesced, and a continuous layer resulted by a nominal thickness of 3 nm. Thus, the morphology of InAs islands grown on GaP was determined by the balance between elastic and plastic deformation.
In this work, SiGe films on low temperature Si buffer layers were grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by atomic force microscope, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. Effects of the growth temperature and the thickness of the low temperature Si buffer were studied. It was demonstrated that using proper growth conditions of the low temperature Si buffer, the Si buffer became tensily strained and gave rise to the compliant effect. High-quality SiGe films with low threading dislocation density have been obtained.
Motivated by x-ray scattering experiments on heteroepitaxially grown thin films, we present model calculations of the diffuse x-ray scattering arising from misfit dislocations. The model is based on the elastic displacements from dislocations whose positions are spatially uncorrelated. These numerical results give support to a phenomenological model [Phys. Rev. B 51, 5506 (1995)] that predicts the scaling of diffuse scattering intensity with perpendicular wavevector, Qz. At low Qz the diffuse width scales inversely with the defect size, which is given by the film thickness due to the effect of the elastic image field, whereas at high Qz the diffuse width is mosaic-like, scaling with Qz. New experimental results for InxGa1−xAs/GaAs are also presented and compared to the model. The calculations are in good agreement with these experiments, as well as other measurements in the literature for high and low dislocation density.
In this study the thermo-mechanical behavior of a commercial Pt containing NiAl coating deposited on a Ni-base superalloy is compared with a Ni-rich NiAl coating sputter-deposited on a Si substrate. Both types of coatings possess high tensile room temperature stresses after thermal straining. The Pt-NiAl coating shows negligible plasticity as a result of solid solution and dispersion strengthening. In contrast, for the NiAl coatings on Si noticeable plasticity can be obtained if the film thickness exceeds the sub-micrometer range.
Studies of the effect of different electrode combinations on the device characteristics of simple three layer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) prepared with poly(ρ-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) as the emissive layer sandwiched between two metal contacts have shown that it is generally more difficult to inject electrons than holes. In order to improve the efficiency of such devices it is, therefore, necessary to develop methods to enhance the injection of electrons and we illustrate here one example where we have successfully achieved this by the introduction of a further, electron transport, layer. The result is an eight fold increase in efficiency over our best three layer PPV devices. The efficiency is also dependent on the details of the polymer electronic structure and using a family of copolymers we have been able to produce enhancements in efficiency to values of up to 30 times that of the corresponding PPV devices. Variations in the polymer electronic structure also affect the colour of emission and the same family of copolymers allow control of emission colour from blue/green to orange/red. Supramolecular control of the copolymer electronic structure can be achieved by lithographic patterning and we show that it is possible to produce regions within a single polymer film that possess different π-π* energy gaps.