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The aim of this study is to develop predictive models to predict organ at risk (OAR) complication level, classification of OAR dose-volume and combination of this function with our in-house developed treatment decision support system.
Materials and methods
We analysed the support vector machine and decision tree algorithm for predicting OAR complication level and toxicity in order to integrate this function into our in-house radiation treatment planning decision support system. A total of 12 TomoTherapyTM treatment plans for prostate cancer were established, and a hundred modelled plans were generated to analyse the toxicity prediction for bladder and rectum.
The toxicity prediction algorithm analysis showed 91·0% accuracy in the training process. A scatter plot for bladder and rectum was obtained by 100 modelled plans and classification result derived. OAR complication level was analysed and risk factor for 25% bladder and 50% rectum was detected by decision tree. Therefore, it was shown that complication prediction of patients using big data-based clinical information is possible.
We verified the accuracy of the tested algorithm using prostate cancer cases. Side effects can be minimised by applying this predictive modelling algorithm with the planning decision support system for patient-specific radiotherapy planning.
To examine the hypothesis that the association between vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms is dependent upon total cholesterol level in a representative national sample of the South Korean population.
This was a population-based cross-sectional study.
The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, 2010–2012).
We included 7198 adults aged 20–88 years.
The incidence of depressive symptoms in individuals with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<20 ng/ml) was 1·54-fold (95 % CI 1·20, 1·98) greater than in individuals without vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≥20 ng/ml). The relationship was stronger in individuals with normal-to-borderline serum total cholesterol (serum total cholesterol<240 mg/dl; OR=1·60; 95 % CI 1·23, 2·08) and non-significant in individuals with high serum total cholesterol (OR=0·97; 95 % CI 0·52, 1·81) after adjustment for confounding variables (age, sex, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking status, regular exercise, income level, education level, marital status, changes in body weight, perceived body shape, season of examination date and cholesterol profiles).
The association between vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms was weakened by high serum total cholesterol status. These findings suggest that both vitamin D and total cholesterol are important targets for the prevention and treatment of depression.
During the past decade, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has emerged and spread across the world.1 The major carbapenemase enzymes currently being reported are KPC, NDM-1, VIM, IMP, and OXA.2 Because carbapenemase can be effectively transmitted via mobile genetic elements, and current therapeutic options for CPE infections are extremely limited, CPE may be one of the most serious contemporary threats to public health. However, very little is known about the characteristics of CPE carriage during hospitalization. The aims of this study were to investigate the clearance rate of CPE carriage and determine the number of consecutive negative cultures required to confirm CPE clearance. We also examined CPE transmission among hospitalized patients.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1361–1362
Genetic variation in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) is a valuable resource for crop improvement efforts. Soybean is believed to have originated from China, Korea, and Japan, but little is known about the diversity or evolution of Korean wild soybean. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity and population structure of 733 G. soja accessions collected in Korea using 21 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The SSR loci produced 539 alleles (25.7 per locus) with a mean genetic diversity of 0.882 in these accessions. Rare alleles, those with a frequency of less than 5%, represented 75% of the total number. This collection was divided into two populations based on the principal coordinate analysis. Accessions from population 1 were distributed throughout the country, whereas most of the accessions from population 2 were distributed on the western side of the Taebaek and Sobaek mountains. The Korean G. soja collection evaluated in this study should provide useful background information for allele mining approach and breeding programmes to introgress alleles into the cultivated soybean (G. max (L). Merr.) from wild soybean.
Despite widespread mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] consumption in Indonesia, few molecular studies have been carried out on accessions and available data are minimal. In this study, we used 30 newly developed simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers designed from the mapped sequence scaffolds of the Korean Sunhwanokdu and Gyeonggijaerae 5 mungbean genomes. These markers were used to examine loci in 83 mungbean accessions collected from diverse geographical areas in Indonesia. A total of 107 alleles were detected among the accessions with 29 polymorphic markers. However, the mean of polymorphic information content (0.33) value and diversity index (0.38) value was indicative of low genetic diversity in this germplasm. The mungbean population structure was not clearly differentiated and the number of subpopulations was unclear. Neighbour-joining tree analysis revealed that the genetic cluster did not reflect the geographical origin of the accessions. Interestingly, the most agriculturally improved varieties were genetically similar to some landraces from one of the main mungbean-producing regions. These newly developed SSR markers could be useful for detecting genetic variability as a basis for establishing a conservation strategy for mungbean germplasm with the aim of enhancing Indonesian breeding programmes.
To compare the characteristics and risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in a nationwide survey, using shared case detection and recording systems.
Retrospective cohort study.
Twenty-six hospitals participating in the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS).
From 2006 to 2009, all patients undergoing THA and TKA in KONIS were enrolled.
SSI occurred in 161 (2.35%) of 6,848 cases (3,422 THAs and 3,426 TKAs). Pooled mean SSI rates were 1.69% and 2.82% for THA and TKA, respectively. Of the cases we examined, 42 (26%) were superficial-incisional SSIs and 119 (74%) were “severe” SSIs; of the latter, 24 (15%) were deep-incisional SSIs and 95 (59%) were organ/space SSIs. In multivariate analysis, a duration of preoperative hospital stay of greater than 3 days was a risk factor for total SSI after both THA and TKA. Diabetes mellitus, revision surgery, prolonged duration of surgery (above the 75th percentile), and the need for surgery due to trauma were independent risk factors for total and severe SSI after THA, while male sex and an operating room without artificial ventilation were independent risk factors for total and severe SSI after TKA. A large volume of surgeries (more than 10 procedures per month) protected against total and severe SSI, but only in patients who underwent TKA.
Risk factors for SSI after arthroplasty differ according to the site of the arthroplasty. Therefore, clinicians should take into account the site of arthroplasty in the analysis of SSI and the development of strategies for reducing SSI.
The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationships between three predictor variables (attitude toward school, parent-child communication, and school commitment action) and the criterion variable (parent involvement) in a representative sample and to examine if these relationships were consistent across three groups (English speaking Caucasian family, English speaking Latino family, and Spanish speaking Latino families). Using a national database (N = 9.841), multi-group SEM analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between three predictor variables and the criterion variable in three family groups. While all three predictor variables significantly predicted parent involvement in English speaking Caucasian and Latino families, only two variables (parent-child communication and school commitment actions), significantly predicted parent involvement in Spanish speaking Latino families. The results of this study suggest that when administrators, teachers and counselors in school strive to share specific school-related information with Latino families, Spanish speaking families are more likely to become involved with schools.
Intravascular or intracardiac stenosis occurs in various congenital heart diseases or after surgical repair. Although balloon angioplasty is the first option for relieving stenosis, frequently restenosis occurs because of elastic recoil or kingking component. The use of a self-expandable stent and covered stent in congenital heart disease has been reported for selected cases. In general, they have been performed for coarctation of the aorta or aortic aneurysm. We now report successful implantation of a self-expandable stent with a self-expandable covered stent graft in a case of lateral tunnel dehiscence with stenosis after a Fontan operation.
We present a rapid and sensitive surface acoustic wave (SAW) immunosensor that utilizes gold staining as a signal enhancement method. A sandwich immunoassay was performed on sensing area of the SAW sensor, which could specifically capture and detect cardiac markers (cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase (CK)-MB, and myoglobin). The analytes in human serum were captured on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that were conjugated in advance with detection antibodies. Introduction of these complexes to the capture antibody-immobilized sensor surface resulted in a classic AuNP-based sandwich immunoassay format that has been used for signal amplification. In order to achieve further signal enhancement, a gold staining method was performed, which demonstrated that it is possible to obtain gold staining-mediated signal augmentation on a mass-sensitive device. The sensor response due to gold staining varied as a function of cardiac marker concentration.
Using variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, we measure the pseudo-dielectric functions of as-deposited and annealed SiO2/SiOx multilayers (MLs). The SiO2(2nm)/SiOx(2nm) MLs have been prepared under various deposition temperature by ion beam sputtering. The annealing at temperatures ≥ 1100°C leads to the formation of Si nanocrystals (nc-Si) in the SiOx layer of MLs. Transmission electron microscopy images clearly demonstrate the existence of nc-Si. We assume a Tauc-Lorentzian lineshape for the dielectric function of nc-Si, and use an effective medium approximation for SiO2/nc-Si MLs as a mixture of nc-Si and SiO2. We successfully estimate the dielectric function of nc-Si and its volume fraction. We find that the volume fraction of nc-Si decreases after annealing, with increasing x in as-deposited SiOx layer. This result is compared to expected nc-Si volume fraction, which was estimated from stoichiometry of SiOx.
This study compared the developmental competence of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos reconstructed with different donor cells and analysed gene expression in the resulting embryos. Bovine fetal/adult ear fibroblasts and cumulus cells were used as donor cells and the developmental competence of the reconstructed embryos was monitored. The cell number and allocation in blastocysts were determined by differential staining. The Bax, E-cad, IF-tau, Hsp (heat shock protein) 70, Igf2r (insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor), DNMT (DNA methyltransferase) 1 and Mash (mammalian achaete-scute homologue) 2 genes were selected for gene expression analysis. The relative abundance (ratio to GAPDH mRNA) of gene transcripts in blastocysts was measured by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In experiment 1, development of SCNT preimplantation embryos and the cell numbers of inner cell masses and trophoblasts were not different among SCNT embryos derived from different cell types. In experiment 2, the relative expression of GAPDH and Hsp 70 transcripts was similar in all embryos. The expression of Bax, Igf2r and Mash2 transcripts was significantly increased in SCNT embryos reconstructed with adult fibroblasts. The E-cad transcript levels were reduced in SCNT embryos reconstructed with fetal fibroblasts. Relative abundance of DNMT1 in SCNT embryos derived from fetal fibroblasts was increased, and IF-tau expression in SCNT embryos derived from cumulus cells was increased. In conclusion, depending on the type of donor cells, preimplantation SCNT embryos displayed marked differences in gene expression. This may affect the developmental competence of SCNT embryos reconstructed with different cell types after implantation or during fetal growth in vivo.
We report the characterization of white light emitting devices fabricated using conjugated polymer blends. Blue emissive poly[9,9-bis(4′-n-octyloxyphenyl)fluorene-2,7-diyl-co-10-(2′-ethylhexyl)phenothiazine-3,7-diyl] [poly(BOPF-co-PTZ)] and red emissive poly(2-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-5-methoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) were used in the blends. The inefficient energy transfer between these blue and red light emitting polymers (previously deduced from the photoluminscence (PL) spectra of the blend films) enables the production of white light emission through control of the blend ratio. The PL and electroluminescence (EL) emission spectra of the blend systems were found to vary with the blend ratio. The EL devices were fabricated in the indium tin oxide [poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate)] (ITO/PEDOT-PSS)blend/LiF/Al configuration, and white light emission was obtained for one of the tested blend ratios.
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is an important mechanism for matching the ventilation/perfusion ratio in the lung, but the signal transduction pathway through which hypoxia induces vasoconstriction remains unclear. We hypothesized that the decrease in K+ current induced by hypoxia is a key mechanism for HPV, and examined the effects of the substances which are expected to accumulate during hypoxia on the activity of large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels. Pulmonary and ear arterial smooth muscle cells were isolated from the rabbit using enzymatic digestion, and large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ current (IBK,Ca) was recorded in symmetrical K+ concentrations using the inside-out mode of the patch-clamp technique. Increasing the Na+ concentration on the intracellular side suppressed IBK,Cadose dependently: 4·6, 20·9, 35·5 and 44·6 % reduction with 4, 8, 12 and 16 mM Na+, respectively. Mg2+ also reduced IBK,Ca, and the maximum reduction was obtained at 0·5 mM. Lactate, adenosine, ADP and ATP did not significantly affect IBK,Ca. There was no difference between pulmonary and ear arterial smooth muscle cells in their response to the above substances; this finding rules out modulation of BKCa channels by the various factors thought to accumulate during hypoxia as a major mechanism involved in the decrease in the K+ conductance of pulmonary arteries in hypoxia.
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