The Korean Twin Registry is the first nationwide twin study in Korea. We compiled 154,783 twin pairs from existing nationwide data sources, mainly from address and national health insurance data. The coverage of this registry was almost complete for the twins born since 1970, but less complete as age increased, so that there were only 990 pairs who were born before 1930. The twins' health examination (N = 54,390 persons) and questionnaire (N = 44,546 persons) results were incorporated into the registry, yielding 12,894 and 9074 concordantly informative pairs. Morbidity and mortality outcomes have been followed up since 1990, for most diseases. For preliminary analysis of complex diseases, we selected ventricular septal defects (VSD) in young twins, stomach and colorectal cancers in adult twins. We identified 353 VSDs, 284 stomach cancers, and 116 colorectal cancers among twins. The prevalence rates of cancers, but not that of VSD, were lower in twins than those in population. The difference in the cancer prevalence was marked for twins born before 1926, implying some degree of selection. Like-sex (LS) twins showed familial recurrence risks (λLS) of 41.2 for VSD and 22.4 for colorectal cancers, and 1.74 for stomach cancers. For opposite-sex (OS) twins, we could estimate λOS of 19.8 for VSD only. These results were compatible with previous studies for VSD and colorectal cancers, but not for stomach cancers. Despite the strength in size, availability of health outcomes, and some lifestyle and basic laboratory data, we need accurate zygosity information to improve the validity of the results.