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Our understanding of ice algal responses to the recent changes in Arctic sea ice is impeded by limited field observations. In the present study, environmental characteristics of the landfast sea-ice zone as well as primary production and macromolecular composition of ice algae and phytoplankton were studied in the Kitikmeot Sea near Cambridge Bay in spring 2017. Averaged total chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration was within the lower range reported previously for the same region, while daily carbon uptake rates of bottom-ice algae were significantly lower in this study than previously reported for the Arctic. Based on various indicators, the region's low nutrient concentrations appear to limit carbon uptake rates and associated accumulation of bottom-ice algal biomass. Furthermore, the lipids-dominant biochemical composition of bottom-ice algae suggests strong nutrient limitation relative to the distinctly different carbohydrates-dominant composition of phytoplankton. Together, the results confirm strong nitrate limitation of the local marine system.
Given its diverse disease courses and symptom presentations, multiple phenotype dimensions with different biological underpinnings are expected with bipolar disorders (BPs). In this study, we aimed to identify lifetime BP psychopathology dimensions. We also explored the differing associations with bipolar I (BP-I) and bipolar II (BP-II) disorders.
We included a total of 307 subjects with BPs in the analysis. For the factor analysis, we chose six variables related to clinical courses, 29 indicators covering lifetime symptoms of mood episodes, and 6 specific comorbid conditions. To determine the relationships among the identified phenotypic dimensions and their effects on differentiating BP subtypes, we applied structural equation modeling.
We selected a six-factor solution through scree plot, Velicer's minimum average partial test, and face validity evaluations; the six factors were cyclicity, depression, atypical vegetative symptoms, elation, psychotic/irritable mania, and comorbidity. In the path analysis, five factors excluding atypical vegetative symptoms were associated with one another. Cyclicity, depression, and comorbidity had positive associations, and they correlated negatively with psychotic/irritable mania; elation showed positive correlations with cyclicity and psychotic/irritable mania. Depression, cyclicity, and comorbidity were stronger in BP-II than in BP-I, and they contributed significantly to the distinction between the two disorders.
We identified six phenotype dimensions; in addition to symptom features of manic and depressive episodes, various comorbidities and high cyclicity constructed separate dimensions. Except for atypical vegetative symptoms, all factors showed a complex interdependency and played roles in discriminating BP-II from BP-I.
A 45-year-old man with dyspnoea and palpitations exhibited a unique systemic-to-pulmonary veno-venous connection on preoperative CT images. A window of 31.5-mm diameter was evident between the superior caval vein and the middle pulmonary vein, which was normally connected to the left atrium via a 30-mm-diameter orifice. The atrial septum was intact.
There is increasing evidence of a relationship between underweight or obesity and dementia risk. Several studies have investigated the relationship between body weight and brain atrophy, a pathological change preceding dementia, but their results are inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and cortical atrophy among cognitively normal participants.
We recruited cognitively normal participants (n = 1,111) who underwent medical checkups and detailed neurologic screening, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the health screening visits between September 2008 and December 2011. The main outcome was cortical thickness measured using MRI. The number of subjects with five BMI groups in men/women was 9/9, 148/258, 185/128, 149/111, and 64/50 in underweight, normal, overweight, mild obesity, and moderate to severe obesity, respectively. Linear and non-linear relationships between BMI and cortical thickness were examined using multiple linear regression analysis and generalized additive models after adjustment for potential confounders.
Among men, underweight participants showed significant cortical thinning in the frontal and temporal regions compared to normal weight participants, while overweight and mildly obese participants had greater cortical thicknesses in the frontal region and the frontal, temporal, and occipital regions, respectively. However, cortical thickness in each brain region was not significantly different in normal weight and moderate to severe obesity groups. Among women, the association between BMI and cortical thickness was not statistically significant.
Our findings suggested that underweight might be an important risk factor for pathological changes in the brain, while overweight or mild obesity may be inversely associated with cortical atrophy in cognitively normal elderly males.
Epidemiological studies have reported that higher education (HE) is associated with a reduced risk of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, after the clinical onset of AD, patients with HE levels show more rapid cognitive decline than patients with lower education (LE) levels. Although education level and cognition have been linked, there have been few longitudinal studies investigating the relationship between education level and cortical decline in patients with AD. The aim of this study was to compare the topography of cortical atrophy longitudinally between AD patients with HE (HE-AD) and AD patients with LE (LE-AD).
We prospectively recruited 36 patients with early-stage AD and 14 normal controls. The patients were classified into two groups according to educational level, 23 HE-AD (>9 years) and 13 LE-AD (≤9 years).
As AD progressed over the 5-year longitudinal follow-ups, the HE-AD showed a significant group-by-time interaction in the right dorsolateral frontal and precuneus, and the left parahippocampal regions compared to the LE-AD.
Our study reveals that the preliminary longitudinal effect of HE accelerates cortical atrophy in AD patients over time, which underlines the importance of education level for predicting prognosis.
Genetic variation in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) is a valuable resource for crop improvement efforts. Soybean is believed to have originated from China, Korea, and Japan, but little is known about the diversity or evolution of Korean wild soybean. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity and population structure of 733 G. soja accessions collected in Korea using 21 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The SSR loci produced 539 alleles (25.7 per locus) with a mean genetic diversity of 0.882 in these accessions. Rare alleles, those with a frequency of less than 5%, represented 75% of the total number. This collection was divided into two populations based on the principal coordinate analysis. Accessions from population 1 were distributed throughout the country, whereas most of the accessions from population 2 were distributed on the western side of the Taebaek and Sobaek mountains. The Korean G. soja collection evaluated in this study should provide useful background information for allele mining approach and breeding programmes to introgress alleles into the cultivated soybean (G. max (L). Merr.) from wild soybean.
Mutation breeding techniques have been used to induce new genetic variations and improve agronomic traits in soybean. In Korea, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has unique radiation facilities to induce plant mutations and has been conducting soybean mutation breeding programmes since the mid-1960s. Until now, the KAERI has developed five soybean mutant cultivars exhibiting early maturity, high yield and seed-coat colour change. In this paper, we review these five mutant cultivars in terms of how to successfully induce unique agronomic characteristics through mutation breeding programmes. A number of induced mutants exhibiting null lipoxygenase enzymes, altered protein patterns or Kunitz trypsin inhibitor activity could serve as genetic resources for the genetic analysis of target genes, and one mutant population has been developed for a reverse genetic study.
Despite widespread mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] consumption in Indonesia, few molecular studies have been carried out on accessions and available data are minimal. In this study, we used 30 newly developed simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers designed from the mapped sequence scaffolds of the Korean Sunhwanokdu and Gyeonggijaerae 5 mungbean genomes. These markers were used to examine loci in 83 mungbean accessions collected from diverse geographical areas in Indonesia. A total of 107 alleles were detected among the accessions with 29 polymorphic markers. However, the mean of polymorphic information content (0.33) value and diversity index (0.38) value was indicative of low genetic diversity in this germplasm. The mungbean population structure was not clearly differentiated and the number of subpopulations was unclear. Neighbour-joining tree analysis revealed that the genetic cluster did not reflect the geographical origin of the accessions. Interestingly, the most agriculturally improved varieties were genetically similar to some landraces from one of the main mungbean-producing regions. These newly developed SSR markers could be useful for detecting genetic variability as a basis for establishing a conservation strategy for mungbean germplasm with the aim of enhancing Indonesian breeding programmes.
Aim: To determine whether or not the change in cervical length (CL) over time is valuable in predicting spontaneous preterm delivery (SPTD) in asymptomatic twin pregnancies with a normal mid-trimester CL (>25 mm). Methods: This was a prospective study including 190 consecutive asymptomatic twin gestations with a CL > 25 mm at 20–24 weeks. The women underwent an initial CL measurement at the time of routine ultrasound examination between 20 and 24 weeks’ gestation, followed 4–5 weeks later by a repeat CL measurement. The primary outcome measure was SPTD at <32 completed weeks’ gestation. Multicollinearity was a concern in the multivariable model since change in CL and follow-up CL were highly correlated. Results: The rate of SPTD at <32 weeks was 4.2%. Multiple logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the change in CL and the follow-up CL were significantly associated with SPTD before 32 weeks after adjusting for baseline covariate such as in vitro fertilization. The best cut-off values for the prediction of SPTD at <32 weeks’ gestation were 13% for the change in CL with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 63.2%. There was no significant difference in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves between the change in CL and the follow-up CL. Conclusions: A greater change in CL is a good predictor of SPTD in asymptomatic twin pregnancies with a normal mid-trimester CL. However, the change in CL cannot provide data beyond the follow-up CL. In the setting of a normal mid-trimester CL, a follow-up CL measurement should be considered in asymptomatic twin pregnancies.
The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationships between three predictor variables (attitude toward school, parent-child communication, and school commitment action) and the criterion variable (parent involvement) in a representative sample and to examine if these relationships were consistent across three groups (English speaking Caucasian family, English speaking Latino family, and Spanish speaking Latino families). Using a national database (N = 9.841), multi-group SEM analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between three predictor variables and the criterion variable in three family groups. While all three predictor variables significantly predicted parent involvement in English speaking Caucasian and Latino families, only two variables (parent-child communication and school commitment actions), significantly predicted parent involvement in Spanish speaking Latino families. The results of this study suggest that when administrators, teachers and counselors in school strive to share specific school-related information with Latino families, Spanish speaking families are more likely to become involved with schools.
The effects of tannic acid (TA) supplementation (0·02 %, wt/wt) were compared with the effects of clofibrate (CF) supplementation (0·02 %, wt/wt) in apo E-deficient (apo E− / −) mice fed a AIN-76 semi-synthetic diet (normal diet) over 20 weeks. The mice were monitored for the modulation of hepatic mRNA expression and the activities of lipid-regulating enzymes. Both TA and CF supplementation lowered hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity and prevented atherosclerotic lesion formation in comparison with the control group. Hepatic carnitine palmitoyl transferase and β-oxidation activities were significantly higher in the TA and CF groups than in the control group. Both CF and TA supplementation resulted in significant decreases in hepatic HMGR mRNA levels in association with its enzyme activity. However, in contrast to CF supplementation, TA supplementation seemed to decrease the accumulation of hepatic lipids in the apo E− / − mice without increasing liver weight. These results suggest that the overall effect of TA is more desirable than CF for the alleviation of hepatic lipogenesis and atherogenesis in apo E− / − mice.
Carbosilane dendrimers adorned with either triarylamine or carbazole units in their periphery exhibit novel electrochemical behavior in which the electrochemical deposition is controlled by dendrite generation. In addition, the deposited layers remained intact in the depositing solvent, methylene chloride, allowing a second layer to be deposited on top of the first layer. We have sought to establish the suitability of this electrochemical deposition technique for use in the construction of multi-layer OLEDs, which cannot be fabricated via conventional spin-coating with a polymeric precursor. Thus, the electrochemical deposition-based process could potentially offer an ideal combination of deposition control on the one hand and multi-layer fabrication on the other. We report herein the novel electrochemical deposition behavior of arylamine or carbazole end-capped carbosilane dendrimers of the type GnNPB or GnCBP (n = 1-4) and their use for the formation of multi-layer devices for OLEDs.
The BZN pyrochlore thin films were prepared on platinized Si substrates using a reactive RF magnetron sputtering. The structures, surface morphologies, dielectric properties and voltage tunable properties of films with deposition parameters were investigated. The BZN thin films have a cubic pyrochlore phase and secondary phases of zinc niobate, bismuth niobate when crystallized at 600° 800°. The dielectric constant and tunability of thin films are O2/Ar ratio and post-annealing temperature dependent. The BZN thin films sputtered in 15% O2 and annealed at 700° had a dielectric constant of 153, tan δof~0.003 and maximum tunability of 14% at 1,000kV/cm.
We have studied the growth of undoped and n+ μc-Si:H (:CI) films by Remote Plasma CVD using SiH4/SiH2Cl2/H2/He mixtures. It was found that the μc-Si film can be fabricated by increasing flow rate of SiH2Cl2 and/or H2. The deposited undoped μc-Si film exhibited a maximum crystalline volume fraction of 85 %, obtained from Raman spectroscopy. The n-type μc-Si film, deposited with SiH4/SiH2Cl2/H2/PH3/He mixtures, shows a room temperature conductivity of 2 S/cm, conductivity activation energy of 29.8 meV and optical band gap of-2.0 eV. The optical band gap of n-type μc-S1 deposited using SiH2Cl2 is much higher compared to conventional μc-Si film.
The correlation of surface morphology with strain relaxation in the In0.15Ga0.85As epilayer on GaAs(100) grown by chemical beam epitaxy using unprecracked monoethylarsine has been investigated. The surface morphology of InGaAs was analyzed by atomic force microscopy as the epilayer thickness was increased from 0.025 to 1.668 μm. The changes in the surface morphology indicated that surface roughening is related to the process of strain relaxation in the film. The strain-induced shifts in the GaAs-like longitudinal optical phonon in the Raman spectrum also indicated that the strains in the InGaAs epilayer relax via step-wise process with increasing the film thickness beyond the critical thickness, which agrees well with the changes of surface mophology.
We have studied the effect of ion doping on the electrical properties for atmospheric pressute chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) amorphous silicon (a-Si) films. The room temperature conductivities after ion doping at optimurr doping tenperatures for n− and p-type a-Si films were found to be > 10−2 and >10−4 S/cm, respectively. The unintentional hydrogen incorporation into a-Si during ion doping enhances the quality of ion doped APCVD a-Si as compared to that of plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD) a-Si:H. We obtained the field effect mobility of > 1 cm2/Vs for APCVD a-Si TFT using ion doped n+-layer.
We have studied the effect of ion doping on the electrical properties for atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) Amorphous silicon (a-Si) films. The room temperature conductivities after ion doping at optimum doping temperatures for n- and p-type a-Si films were found to be > 10−2 and > 10−4 S/cm, respectively. The unintentional hydrogen incorporation into a-Si during ion doping enhances the quality of ion doped APCVD a-Si as compared to that of plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD) a-S.i.H. We obtained the field effect mobility of > 1 cm2/Vs for APCVD a-Si TFT using ion doped n+-layer.
We have studied the growth of microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) by layer by layer deposition technique, where the deposition and the radical exposure are done alternatively. He or hydrogen plasma exposure gives rise to the etching effect of both μc-Si and a-Si:H even though the etch rate by He plasma is much smaller. The long exposure of hydrogen radical on a-Si:H gives rise to the formation of μc-Si at low substrate temperature (Ts), whereas the hydrogen content decreases at high Ts. The growth mechanism of the crystallite is proposed on the basis of experimental results.
We have studied the improvement of the quality of undoped a-Si:H deposited by remote-plasma chemical vapour deposition. The effects of reactant gas concentration, rf power, substrate bias voltage on the electrical and optical properties have been investigated. Some hydrogen dilution of si lane improves the photoeletric property and a high rf power gives rise to the defect creation due to the ion bombardment on the growing surface. The positive substrate bias improves the quality of undoped a-Si:H.
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