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A cylindrical-shaped micropillar array embedded microfluidic device was proposed to enhance the dispersion of cell clusters and the efficiency of single cell encapsulation in hydrogel. Different sizes of micropillar arrays act as a sieve to break Escherichia coli (E. coli) aggregates into single cells in polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) solution. We applied the external force for the continuous breakup of cell clusters, resulting in the production of more than 70% of single cells into individual hydrogel particles. This proposed strategy and device will be a useful platform to utilize genetically modified microorganisms in practical applications.
A method allowing for the stable growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the surface of a fibrous metal mesh substrate (SUS304) was developed with the assistance of the microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. The controlled addition of up to ∼13% of O2 to the CH4 plasma reacting gas flow was found to promote the growth of the CNTs by oxidizing the amorphous carbon and removing the active H2 radicals. However, excessive amounts of O2 (i.e., fraction of O2 > ∼13%) and H2 were found to play a negative role in the growth of the CNTs. The control of the density and length of the CNTs was also achieved by varying the H2 plasma reduction time and CH4 plasma reacting time, respectively. Longer H2 reduction pretreatment of the catalytic metal islands resulted in the formation of a less dense CNT forest with craters. When the growth time of the CNTs was increased to ∼20 min, their length was increased to ∼10 μm. However, when the growth time of the CNTs exceeded 20 min, their length was significantly decreased, indicating that the continuous presence of O2 in the CH4 plasma destroys the preformed CNTs due to the oxidation reaction.
SiO2 thin films were prepared on p-type Si (100) substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using SiH2Cl2 and O3(1.5 at.%)/O2 as precursors at 300. The growth rate of the deposited films increased linearly with increasing amount of simultaneous SiH2Cl2 and O3 exposures, and was saturated at about 0.35 nm/cycle with the reactant exposures of more than 3.6×109L. A larger amount of O3/O2 than that of SiH2Cl2 was required to obtain a saturated deposition reaction. The composition of the deposited film also varied with O3/O2 exposure at a fixed SiH2Cl2 exposure. The Si/O ratio gradually decreased to 0.5 with increasing amount of O3/O2 exposure. Finally, we also compared the physical and electrical characteristics of the ALD films with those of the films deposited by conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods. In spite of low process temperature, the SiO2 film prepared by the ALD method was in wet etch rate, surface roughness, leakage current and breakdown voltage superior to that by other several CVD methods.
The optical absorption spectra of AgInS2:Co2+ single crystals grown by chemical transport reaction using iodine as a transporting medium have been studied at 6 K. The peaks can be explained by the transitions of Co2+ in the Td symmetry with the spin-orbit coupling, which means that the deviations of the atomic sites from those of the ideal wurtzite structure can be considered negligibly small. The consideration of both the crystal field parameters and the electronegativity difference between atoms may indicate that Co atoms substitute In atoms.
The integrated CVD-PVD Al plug process was successfully applied to a sub-quarter micron device for the simultaneous formation of plugs and wires. The effects of the underlayer on the via filling and the microstructure of the CVD-PVD Al films were investigated. Three types of underlayers were examined in this work: the Ti film deposited by the ionized PVD (I-PVD) method, the MOCVD TiN film stacked on the I-PVD Ti film, and the PVD Al film deposited on the I-PVD Ti film. Excellent via filling was achieved by employing the MOCVD TiN/I-PVD Ti or the PVD Al/I-PVD Ti as an underlayer. When only I-PVD Ti film was used as an underlayer, complete via filling was not obtained, because the CVD Al film sealed the top of vias. The CVD-PVD Al film deposited on the PVD Al/I-PVD Ti underlayer also showed excellent crystallographic texture of Al <111> and surface morphology, which is superior to those of the CVD-PVD Al film deposited on the MOCVD TiN/I-PVD Ti underlayer.
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