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Whereas there are numerous reports in the literature relating the impact of maternal nutritional status on subsequent birth outcome, much less is known about the long-term impact on infant growth after birth. Therefore, we conducted a prospective cohort study to investigate the association of maternal micronutrient status (vitamins A, C and E, folate) and oxidative stress status in pregnancy with infant growth during the first year of life.
Prospective cohort study.
Outpatient clinic of obstetrics, Ewha Womans University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.
Subjects and methods
Two groups were constructed for this study – the Ewha pregnancy cohort (n = 677) and the infant growth cohort comprising follow-up live newborns of all the recruited pregnant women (n = 317). Maternal serum vitamin and urinary oxidative stress levels were collected and infant weights and heights were measured at birth and at 6 and 12 months after birth.
Division of the subjects into folate-deficient and normal groups revealed that infant weight and height at 0, 6 and 12 months were adversely affected by folate deficiency. High maternal vitamin C was associated with increased infant weight and height at birth and after birth.
Our findings indicate the importance of preventing folate deficiency and supplementing vitamin C during pregnancy.
The growth of ZnO film on (0001) sapphire substrates was studied using the high density helicon wave oxygen plasma (>1011/cm2) assisted evaporation process. The addition of Ar into oxygen plasma (Ar/O2=1/2) enhanced the production of excited atomic oxygen (O*). The effect of a grounded grid installed at the exit of the plasma source on the crystallinity and optical properties of film is discussed. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of θ rocking curve for (0002) plane is 0.53° under grid installation while 0.63° without the grid, indicating slightly improved crystallinity when adopting a grounded grid. The AFM image for the film deposited with grid installation shows a smoother surface morphology than in the case of no grid. PL spectra for the film deposited with the aid of a grid show a strong near-band edge emission at 3.36 eV at 10K, but those without a grid show prominent deep-level emissions. The deep level emission is attributed to the impurities and native defects in the film. The optical properties were greatly improved by a grounded grid, which effectively eliminated the ionic species and selectively extracted the excited neutrals.
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