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The efficiency of halide perovskite solar cells has progressed rapidly through a series of major breakthroughs. Currently, a certified efficiency of 25.2% has been achieved for a solar cell using a polycrystalline thin film. This is the result of having reached 75% of the Shockley–Queisser limit for single-junction solar cells. However, for further improvements, new breakthrough technologies are required. This article reviews the impact of previous breakthrough technologies on the efficiency of halide perovskite solar cells, based on certified efficiencies. We clarify the current status of halide perovskite solar cells and introduce photon recycling as the next technological innovation for higher efficiencies. Photon recycling keeps the photon concentration inside the light-harvesting layer high, and consequently, leads to open-circuit voltages close to the theoretical value. Although photon recycling has not yet been implemented in real halide perovskite solar cells, three key technologies for implementing it are examined.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health concern because of the high mortality rate of young people and a high proportion among the trauma. According to studies, patients visiting the emergency department (ED) with TBI comprise 1.4% of all ED patients.
The authors think that the characteristics of patients with TBI will vary according to the age group. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical and social characteristics of patients with TBI visiting the ED by age group.
Trauma patients who conducted brain CT at the ED of Korean University Hospital (three hospitals) for 3 years from March 2013 to February 2016 were enrolled. Medical records were investigated retrospectively. The GCS scores were estimated at initial ED arrival. The primary outcome was to determine the characteristics of each age groups with gender, severity (by GSC score), trauma mechanism, and admission rate.
A total of 15,567 TBI patients received brain CT evaluation during the investigation period. Based on age, patients in their 50s were the most common (16.5%). Regarding the severity, the ratio of mild was higher in under patients under 9 (99.3%); the ratio of severe was higher for patients in their 20s (4.6%). In almost every age group, the male ratio of TBI was higher, except for females aged 70 or older. Under 19 years of age, the ambulance utilization rate was lower than any other age group. The most common injury mechanism was a collision, the next was a traffic accident, and in under 9, a fall was the most common. 70.1% of patients returned home after treatments.
Identifying the characteristics of patients with TBI visiting ED is fundamental. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously collect basic data on TBI among patients visiting the ED.
In this topical review of two-photon stereolithography (TPS), we discuss novel materials and demonstrate applications of this technology. Two-photon-initiated chemical processes are used to fabricate arbitrary three-dimensional structures in TPS. In the first part of this article, the development of novel photoactive materials to fabricate pure inorganic or organic–inorganic hybrid microstructures is discussed. The second part discusses the fabrication of functional microstructures for highly specific applications to demonstrate the importance of TPS in different fields of science.
The aim of this study is to develop predictive models to predict organ at risk (OAR) complication level, classification of OAR dose-volume and combination of this function with our in-house developed treatment decision support system.
Materials and methods
We analysed the support vector machine and decision tree algorithm for predicting OAR complication level and toxicity in order to integrate this function into our in-house radiation treatment planning decision support system. A total of 12 TomoTherapyTM treatment plans for prostate cancer were established, and a hundred modelled plans were generated to analyse the toxicity prediction for bladder and rectum.
The toxicity prediction algorithm analysis showed 91·0% accuracy in the training process. A scatter plot for bladder and rectum was obtained by 100 modelled plans and classification result derived. OAR complication level was analysed and risk factor for 25% bladder and 50% rectum was detected by decision tree. Therefore, it was shown that complication prediction of patients using big data-based clinical information is possible.
We verified the accuracy of the tested algorithm using prostate cancer cases. Side effects can be minimised by applying this predictive modelling algorithm with the planning decision support system for patient-specific radiotherapy planning.
A life-threatening cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-related injury can cause recurrent arrest after return of circulation. Such injuries are difficult to identify during resuscitation, and their contribution to failed resuscitation can be missed given the limitations of conventional CPR. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR), increasingly being considered for selected patients with potentially reversible etiology of arrest, may identify previously occult CPR-related injuries by restoring arterial pressure and flow. Herein, we describe two cases of severe CPR-related injuries contributing to recurrent arrest. Each case had ECPR implemented within 60 minutes of the start of CPR. After the presumed cardiac etiology had been addressed with percutaneous coronary intervention, life-threatening cardiovascular injuries with recurrent arrest were noted, and resuscitative thoracotomy was performed under ECPR. One patient survived to hospital discharge.
ECPR may provide an opportunity to identify and correct severe resuscitation-related injuries causing recurrent arrest. Chest compression depth >6 cm, especially in older women, may contribute to these injuries.
The aim of this study is to examine a relationship between a change in social activity and depression among Koreans aged 45 years or more.
Data came from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) (2006–2010), with 5,327 participants aged 45 years or more. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) with the logit link was used to investigate an association between a change in social activity during 2006–2008 (or 2008–2010) and depression among respondents in year 2008 (or Y2010). Depression was measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D10) and a change in social activity was classified with four categories, i.e. “consistent participation”, “consistent non-participation”, “participation to non-participation”, and “non-participation to participation”. Social activity was divided into various elements and the same analysis was conducted for each of these elements.
Those with consistent non-participation and from participation to non-participation were more likely to be depressed than those with consistent participation and from non-participation to participation in social activities (OR 1.44 [95% CI 1.22–1.71], OR 1.35 [95% CI 1.15–1.58] vs. OR 1.00 [Reference], OR 1.27 [95% CI 1.09–1.48]). In addition, the strength of the negative association between consistent or new participation in social activity and depression was different across different elements of social activity. The negative association was particularly strong for leisure, culture or sports clubs, and for family or school reunion.
For improving the mental health of the population aged 45 years or more, the promotion of their continued or new participations in leisure/culture clubs and family/school reunion might be needed in South Korea.
Assessment of frontal lobe impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a matter of great importance, since it often causes ALS patients to decrease medication and nursing compliance, thus shortening their survival time.
The frontal assessment battery (FAB) is a short and rapid method for assessing frontal executive functions. We investigated the applicability of the FAB as a screening method for assessing cognitive impairments in 61 ALS patients. Depending on the results of the FAB, we classified patients into two subgroups: FAB-normal and FAB-abnormal. We then performed additional evaluations of cognitive function using the Korean version of the mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE), a verbal fluency test (COWAT), and a neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI). Results of these tests were compared between the two groups using Mann-Whitney U-tests, and Spearman correlation analyses were used to investigate the relationships between FAB score and disease duration and severity.
Of the 61 sporadic ALS patients included in this study, 14 were classified as FAB-abnormal and 47 were classified as FAB-normal. The FAB-normal and FAB-abnormal patients performed significantly differently in all domains of the COWAT. There was no difference in behavioral disturbance, as assessed by the NPI, between the two groups. The FAB scores were found to significantly correlate with both disease duration and severity.
The FAB shows promise as a method of screening for frontal lobe dysfunction in ALS, as it is not only quick and easy, but also reliable. Additional studies should examine how FAB performance changes as ALS progresses.
Stream restoration is an important process affecting the ecological health of stream ecosystems. There have been numerous cases of restoration, dealing with either structural or biological changes. In Korea, most restoration projects have merely dealt with improving hydrological characteristics or water quality; however, in recent years the improvement of ecological characteristics has been an increasing focus for restoration projects. In this study, we utilized data collected from 5675 stream sites in May 2007 to discover general patterns of anthropogenic modification in Korean streams. The survey results after application of the stream modification index (SMI; presence or absence type; high scores indicate more disturbed) provided a general distribution of disturbed/undisturbed streams or rivers in the watershed. We then compared the level of modification with the socio-geographical patterns (population, land coverage, elevation, and slope) for the watershed. The results show that streams in highly populated areas suffered from human modification compared with other well-preserved stream sites. In metropolitan cities, urbanized areas had positive relationship as identified by a high SMI. On the other hand, agricultural land cover identified an SMI increase for lowland river area. In general, mountainous streams possessed a better status in stream morphology due to different land-cover patterns (i.e., mainly forested area); however, some mountainous areas were impacted by concentrated summer rainfall. We could distinguish the forcing variables (i.e., land use pattern) for the disturbed streams through a comparison between the SMI and geographical information; the SMI application was able to identify areas of high necessity for restoration.
Despite numerous previous studies, relationships between watershed land use and adjacent streams and rivers at various scales in Korea remain unclear. This study investigated the relationships between land uses and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of 720 sites of streams and rivers across the country. The land uses at two spatial scales, including a 1-km buffer and the base watershed management region (BWMR), were computed in a geographical information system (GIS) with a digital land use/land cover map. Characteristics of land uses at two spatial scales were then correlated with the monitored multidimensional characteristics of the streams and rivers. The results of this study indicate that land use types have significant effects on stream and river characteristics. Specifically, most characteristics were negatively correlated with the proportions of urban, rice paddy, agricultural, and bare soil areas and positively correlated with the amount of forest. The site-scale and BWMR-scale analyses suggest that BWMR land use patterns were more strongly related to ecological integrity than they were to site land use patterns. Improving our understanding of land use effects will largely depend on relating the results of site-specific studies that use similar response techniques and measures to evaluate ecological integrity. In addition, our results clearly indicate that the characteristics of streams and rivers are closely linked and that land use types differentially affect those characteristics. Thus, effective restoration and management for ecological integrity of lotic system should consider the physical, chemical, and biological factors in combination.
The purpose of this study was to (1) evaluate factors in FIT guest's perception of five-star hotel location, and (2) assess the differences among customer-satisfaction levels and how those differences impacted guests' satisfaction with their choice of hotel. FIT guests (Frequent Individual travellers/foreign independent traveller) staying at 17 five-star hotels were selected based on information of foreign immigration statistics recorded by the Korea National Tourism Organization. Factor analysis of the six dimensions was labelled as Tourism Attraction, Convenience, Safety, Surrounding Environment, Traffic, and Accessibility. Results showed that FIT guests value and expect in a hotel's location: (1) safety, (2) ease of access to transportation portals (air, train, bus, and public transportation), and (3) close connection to area attractions (historic, business, and pleasure).
A novel route to organic-inorganic composites was described based on biomineralization of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels. The 3-dimensional hydrogels were synthesized by radical crosslinking polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol fumarate) (PEGF) in the presence of ethylene glycol methacrylate phosphate (EGMP) as an apatite-nuclating monomer, acrylamide (AAm) as a composition-modulating comonomer, and potassium persulfate (PPS) as a radical initiator. We used the urea-mediated solution precipitation technique for biomineralization of hydrogels. The apatite grown on the surface and interior of the hydrogel was similar to biological apatites in the composition and crystalline structure. Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the calcium phosphate crystalline platelets on hydrogels are preferentially aligned along the crystallographic c-axis direction. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis showed that the Ca/P molar ratio of apatites grown on the hydrogel template was found to be 1.60, which is identical to that of natural bones. In vitro cell experiments showed that the cell adhesion/proliferation on the mineralized hydrogel was more pronounced than on the pure polymer hydrogel.
We have fabricated two metal/double insulator/metal diodes using a sputtering system and atomic layer deposition. Here, we show metal/double insulator/metal diode applied as a switch element. The diode exhibits good rectifying characteristics at room temperature. We used the electrode material with Pt and insulators were HfO2/ZrO2 and NiO/ZnO each. The devices were fabricated using the lithographic system and top electrode sizes were 30 µm x 30 µ;m. The double insulator diode produces an enhanced nonlinearity by incorporating two adjacent oxides instead of the single oxide layer of the MIM diode. In the double insulator diode the mode of tunneling under positive applied biases can be made different from that under negative applied biases resulting in improved asymmetry.
A new post annealing method employing excimer laser pulses is proposed to improve the transfer characteristics and the breakdown voltage of the unpassivated AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET) and the passivated one. The XeCl excimer laser pulses with wavelength of 308 nm anneal the AlGaN/GaN HFET after the Schottky gate metallization. The interface defects between the Schottky gate metal and a GaN layer is decreased by the lateral heat diffusion of the laser pulses. Our experimental results show that the drain current and the maximum transconductance of the unpassivated AlGaN/GaN HFET after laser pulses annealing are 496 mA/mm and 134 mS/mm while a virgin device shows 434 mA/mm and 113 mS/mm, respectively. The proposed method anneals effectively the SiO2 passivated AlGaN/GaN HFET and the leakage current of the passivated device is decreased from 483 nA to 29 nA.
Highly-oriented ZnO thin films have been successfully deposited on (100)Si by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) at 250°C∼400°C. We report on the structural properties of ZnO thin film at various temperatures. The crystallinity of thin films improved and the surface smoothness decreased with increasing growth temperature. In x-ray reflection analysis with respect to ZnO (0002) peak, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.4°was achieved at 400°.
The Far-ultraviolet IMaging Spectrograph (FIMS) is a small spectrograph optimized for the observations of diffuse hot interstellar medium in far-ultraviolet wavebands (900–1150Å and 1335–1750Å). The instrument is expected to be sensitive to emission line fluxes an order of magnitude fainter than any previous missions. FIMS is currently under development and is scheduled for launch in 2002.
Ferroelectric BaTiO 3 thin films with perovskite structure were grown by sol-gel spin-on processing onto (111)Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates. In order to investigate the effects of space charge in BaTiO3 thin films, we measured the relative dielectric constant and the ac conductivity of the films as a function of frequency, ac oscillation amplitude and temperature. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss were 147 and 0.03 at 100 kHz, respectively. Also, BaTiO3 thin films exhibited marked dielectric relaxation above the Curie temperature and in the low frequency region below 100 Hz. This low frequency dielectric relaxation is attributed to the ionized space charge carriers such as oxygen vacancies and defects in BaTiO3 film and the interfaical polarization. The thermal activation energy for the relaxation process of the ionized space charge carriers was 0.72 eV.
We have investigated the changes in the temperature dependence of the dc conductivity and the optical gap with nitrogen content in amorphous carbon nitride (a-C:N) films, in order to find the effect of nitrogen doping on the electrical and optical properties of amorphous carbon films. Specimens were deposited onto borosilicate glass substrates by the rf magnetron sputtering method using Ar and N2 as a sputtering gas and a reactive one, respectively. The values of the activation energy of the dc conductivity, Ea, of these films are 0.3∼0.8 eV and those of the optical gap, Eg, are 0.8∼ 1.4 eV. Both values decrease with increasing nitrogen content, which is due to the increase of the concentration or average size of sp islands segregated into the sp matrix by nitrogen doping. From the investigation of the behavior of both Ea and Eg in accordance with the nitrogen content, we discuss the three subsequent shifts of band edge and Fermi level, accompanied with the subsequent changes of microstructure in a-CN films by nitrogen doping.
The microstructural variation and the interdiffusion of Pt (80 nm)/Ti (70 nm)/SiO2/Si during annealing in O2 were investigated using Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. While the as-deposited and 400 °C annealed samples showed well-defined layer structures without any significant interfacial reaction, the degree of oxidation remarkably increased with increasing temperature above 500 °C. The PtTi alloy phase with Pmma structure (AuCd type) was observed from the 500 °C annealed sample. Drastic interdiffusion occurring above 600 °C changed the Pt/Ti bilayer into a very entangled structure. Some TiO2 phases were exposed to the ambient between Pt hillocks. In addition, a small amount of Pt-silicide was found near the TiOx/SiO2 interface.
The hydrogenation effect was studied in the fabrication of amorphous silicon thin film transistor using APCVD technique. The inverse staggered type a-Si TFTs were fabricated with the deposited a-Si and SiO2 films by the atmospheric pressure (AP) CVD. The field effect mobility of the fabricated a-Si TFT is 0.79 cm2/Vs and threshold voltage is 5.4V after post hydrogenation. These results can be applied to make low cost a-Si TFT array using an in-line APCVD system.
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