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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health concern because of the high mortality rate of young people and a high proportion among the trauma. According to studies, patients visiting the emergency department (ED) with TBI comprise 1.4% of all ED patients.
The authors think that the characteristics of patients with TBI will vary according to the age group. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical and social characteristics of patients with TBI visiting the ED by age group.
Trauma patients who conducted brain CT at the ED of Korean University Hospital (three hospitals) for 3 years from March 2013 to February 2016 were enrolled. Medical records were investigated retrospectively. The GCS scores were estimated at initial ED arrival. The primary outcome was to determine the characteristics of each age groups with gender, severity (by GSC score), trauma mechanism, and admission rate.
A total of 15,567 TBI patients received brain CT evaluation during the investigation period. Based on age, patients in their 50s were the most common (16.5%). Regarding the severity, the ratio of mild was higher in under patients under 9 (99.3%); the ratio of severe was higher for patients in their 20s (4.6%). In almost every age group, the male ratio of TBI was higher, except for females aged 70 or older. Under 19 years of age, the ambulance utilization rate was lower than any other age group. The most common injury mechanism was a collision, the next was a traffic accident, and in under 9, a fall was the most common. 70.1% of patients returned home after treatments.
Identifying the characteristics of patients with TBI visiting ED is fundamental. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously collect basic data on TBI among patients visiting the ED.
Cronobacter sakazakii is a life-threatening foodborne pathogen found in powdered infant formula and dairy products. Kefir is a dairy probiotic product and its antimicrobial activity against C. sakazakii was reported in our previous study. To identify key microorganisms that mediate growth suppression, we tested the antimicrobial activity of culture supernatants derived from lactic acid bacteria found in kefir. Lactobacillus kefiri DH5, L. kefiranofaciens DH101, and Bifidobacterium longum 720 (a commercial probiotic strain that served as a positive control) all significantly inhibited the growth of C. sakazakii ATCC 29544, delaying the initiation of exponential growth from 3 to 9 h in the nutrient broth. Among them, L. kefiri DH5 exerted the strongest antimicrobial effects against C. sakazakii, showing bactericidal effect at the addition of 300 µl of supernatant in 1 ml of nutrient broth. Interestingly, the supernatant of L. kefiri DH5 has higher pH and lower titrable acidity than that of L. kefiranofaciens DH101, suggesting metabolites produced by heterofermentation of L. kefiri acted more effectively to antagonise the growth of C. sakazakii. In addition, the supernatant of L. kefiri DH5 induced the leakage of cytoplasmic materials including nucleic acid and proteins, suggesting L. kefiri DH5 disrupted the cellular membrane integrity of C. sakazakii. Considering that pH neutralisation reduced the L. kefiri-dependent growth suppression, it is inferred that this activity is mainly due to organic acids produced during the fermentation process.
There is growing evidence that, among the various subclasses of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, the outer halo of the Milky Way exhibits a higher frequency of CEMP-no stars (those having no over-abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements) compared with the CEMP-s stars (those with over-enhancements of the s-process elements), while the inner halo shows a higher frequency of CEMP-s stars. We map out fractions of CEMP-no and CEMP-s stars in the inner- and outer-halo populations, separated by their spatial distribution of carbonicity ([C/Fe]), a so-called “carbonicity map”, based on a sample of over 100,000 main-sequence turnoff stars with available spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The CEMP-no and CEMP-s objects are classified by different levels of absolute carbon abundances for our sample, A(C). We also present kinematic and orbital characteristics of these subclasses for each population. The contrast appearing in these characteristics provides critical constraints on the assembly history of the two primary stellar components of the Galactic halo.
We present the derived kinematic characteristics of low-α thin-disk and high-α thick-disk stars in the Milky Way, investigated with a sample of about 32,000 G- and K-type dwarfs from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). Based on the level of α-element enhancement as a function of [Fe/H], we separate our sample into thin- and thick-disk stars and then derive mean velocities, velocity dispersions, and velocity gradients for the U, V, and W velocity components, respectively, as well as the orbital eccentricity distribution. There are notable gradients in the V velocity over [Fe/H] in both populations: −23 km s−1 dex−1 for the thin disk and +44 km s−1 dex−1 for the thick disk. The velocity dispersion of the thick disk decreases with increasing [Fe/H], while the velocity dispersion gradient over [Fe/H] for the thin disk is almost flat for all velocity components, except for the W velocity dispersion of the metal-poor thin-disk stars. The eccentricity distribution exhibits a peak at a higher value, and is more symmetric as [α/Fe] increases, implying that complex formation mechanisms may be involved. Our results can be used to constrain several proposed disk-formation scenarios of the Milky Way and other large spirals.
The aim of this study is to develop predictive models to predict organ at risk (OAR) complication level, classification of OAR dose-volume and combination of this function with our in-house developed treatment decision support system.
Materials and methods
We analysed the support vector machine and decision tree algorithm for predicting OAR complication level and toxicity in order to integrate this function into our in-house radiation treatment planning decision support system. A total of 12 TomoTherapyTM treatment plans for prostate cancer were established, and a hundred modelled plans were generated to analyse the toxicity prediction for bladder and rectum.
The toxicity prediction algorithm analysis showed 91·0% accuracy in the training process. A scatter plot for bladder and rectum was obtained by 100 modelled plans and classification result derived. OAR complication level was analysed and risk factor for 25% bladder and 50% rectum was detected by decision tree. Therefore, it was shown that complication prediction of patients using big data-based clinical information is possible.
We verified the accuracy of the tested algorithm using prostate cancer cases. Side effects can be minimised by applying this predictive modelling algorithm with the planning decision support system for patient-specific radiotherapy planning.
The aim of this study is to examine a relationship between a change in social activity and depression among Koreans aged 45 years or more.
Data came from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) (2006–2010), with 5,327 participants aged 45 years or more. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) with the logit link was used to investigate an association between a change in social activity during 2006–2008 (or 2008–2010) and depression among respondents in year 2008 (or Y2010). Depression was measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D10) and a change in social activity was classified with four categories, i.e. “consistent participation”, “consistent non-participation”, “participation to non-participation”, and “non-participation to participation”. Social activity was divided into various elements and the same analysis was conducted for each of these elements.
Those with consistent non-participation and from participation to non-participation were more likely to be depressed than those with consistent participation and from non-participation to participation in social activities (OR 1.44 [95% CI 1.22–1.71], OR 1.35 [95% CI 1.15–1.58] vs. OR 1.00 [Reference], OR 1.27 [95% CI 1.09–1.48]). In addition, the strength of the negative association between consistent or new participation in social activity and depression was different across different elements of social activity. The negative association was particularly strong for leisure, culture or sports clubs, and for family or school reunion.
For improving the mental health of the population aged 45 years or more, the promotion of their continued or new participations in leisure/culture clubs and family/school reunion might be needed in South Korea.
The in vitro corrosion mechanism of the biodegradable cast Mg–10% Ca binary alloy in Hanks' solution was evaluated through transmission electron microscopy observations. The corrosion behavior depends strongly on the microstructural peculiarity of Mg2Ca phase surrounding the island-like primary Mg phase and the fast corrosion induced by the interdiffusion of O and Ca via the Mg2Ca phase of lamellar structure. At the corrosion front, we found that a nanosized crack-like pathway was formed along the interface between the Mg2Ca phase and the primary Mg phase. Through the crack-like pathway, O and Ca are atomically exchanged each other and then the corroded Mg2Ca phase was transformed to Mg oxides. The in vitro corrosion by the exchange of Ca and O at the nanosized pathway led to the rapid bulk corrosion in the Mg–Ca alloys.
When a drop is deposited on a superhydrophilic micropillar array, the upper part of the drop (referred to as the bulk) collapses while the bottom part penetrates into the gaps of the array, forming a fringe film. Here we quantify the early stage dynamics of this process using a combination of experiment and theory. We show that the circular front of the fringe film spreads like t1/2, t being time, when coupled to the bulk flow. However, the film is found to advance like t1/3 through faceted zippering in the absence of the bulk. We then show that the spreading of the bulk and the entire drop footprint follows a power law (t1/4) that is different from Washburn's law. This work can be a starting point to completely understand the spreading of liquids on superhydrophilic surfaces and opens questions specific to superwetting behaviour including the criteria to determine whether the fringe film will expand through lateral zipping or advance radially outwards.
Tin oxide has been proposed as a promising alternative anode material for microbatteries. It has been reported that its theoretical volumetric capacity is four times larger than that of carbon-based materials, while its gravimetric capacity is twice as large. In this experiment, optimal Si and Bi doped SnO2 films were prepared with e-beam evaporation to improve both the cycle performance and the reversible capacity. The films with addition of Si only exhibited reductions in aggregation of tin particles and formation of micro-cracks. However, there still remained cracks, which induce capacity loss during cycling. To improve capacity retention, Bi was added with Si to SnO2 films, which exhibited the highest reversible capacity of 200µAh/cm2-µm at 200th cycle. The films doped with Bi and Si were found to be ill-defined and featureless without noticeable particle aggregation and cracks. However, the films that underwent cycling tests showed again aggregated tin particles and formation of cracks, which would induce cell failure during cycling. We believe that some types of Li-Bi phases as mixed-conductor matrices have improved the cycle life.
The experimental conditions which render the exact stoichiometry of PZT(52/48) thin films deposited on Pt thin film on Si(100) by reactive cosputtering have been investigated. As-deposited PZT is amorphous containing α-PbO2 microcrystallites. As annealing temperature increases, the amorphous PZT films crystallize into pyrochlore and perovskite with pseudo-cubic structure in sequence. The perovskite PZT annealed above 750 °C evolves into a phase of morphotropic phase boundary. In the perovskite PZT thin films, the leakage current increases with annealing time. Also, the dielectric constant increases with film thickness and annealing temperature, which is discussed in conjunction with PZT/Pt interfacial morphology.
We have produced Co1-xPtX (X = 0.53 and 0.75) alloy films using DC magnetron sputtering and investigated their magnetic properties using vibrating sample magnetometry(VSM) and Kerr hysteresis loop tracer. The as-deposited Co-Pt alloy films show a strong in-plane magnetization. By annealing the alloy samples, we have identified that the magnetic properties are drastically changed. While the magnetic properties of the Co0 25Pt0 75 alloy films show no noticeable changes, the coercivity and the squareness of the Co0.47Pt0.53 alloy films are drastically increased after annealing. Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and x-ray diffractometry(XRD) analysis showed that CoPt(L10) and Co-Pt3 (L12) ordered phases, respectively, are formed in each case with a strong (11) texture. We suggest that the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the Co-Pt system does not depend on the mere textureness of the layer but strongly depends on the arrangement of Co and Pt at an atomic scale.
The crystallization process and microstructural evolution of PZT (52/48)
thin films deposited on Pt thin film electrode on Si (100) by reactive
multitarget cosputtering technique have been studied as a function of
post-annealing temperature and holding time. As annealing temperature
increases, the Amorphous PZT films as-deposited at low substrate temperature
of 200 °C crystallize into pyrochlore at 450 °C and ferroelectric perovskite
phase with pseudo-cubic structure at 550 °C in sequence. X-ray diffraction
data show crystallization into perovskite phase to be complete in 30 Minutes
at 550 °C. Furthermore, the change of PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si
interfacial TEM Morphology during heat-treatment has been closely
We fabricated InAs self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) on strained layer using molecular beam epitaxy. The strained layer consisted of InAs/GaAs superlattice(SL) and GaAs barrier layer on (001) GaAs substrate. Through controlling thickness of the strained layer, we formed two-dimensional alignments of QDs on misfit dislocation arrays along <110> directions made by strained layer. The increase of the strained layer thickness resulted in a stronger alignment of QDs, which were observed by atomic force microscopy studies. The aligned QDs were confirmed to confine carriers well and have different size distributions by photoluminescence measurement.
We studied on the thermal annealing effect on the residual stress and the mechanical properties in thin compressive stressed diamond-like carbon film on Si substrate. Annealing experiments were carried out with Rapid Thermal Procedure system at 200–600 °C, and the stress change with annealing temperature was investigated by in-situ stress measurement system. The apparent stress reduction occurred with minimal structure changes. In order to measure the change of chemical structure of diamond-like carbon film by annealing, we used Raman spectrometer. The adhesion deterioration in interface has been detected as annealing temperature increased. In the compressive stressed DLC film, we observed the dramatic evolution of interface delamination at certain high temperature using in-situ heating stage built in Environment SEM. The quantitative change of adhesion affected by annealing process was also measured with scratch testing. For exploring the interface structure affected by the thermal annealing process at high temperature, the cross section of annealed film has been observed with HR TEM.
(001) oriented (Ba, Sr)TiO3 (BST) thin films were deposited on MgO (001) single crystal substrates by the pulsed laser deposition method. Structural properties of BST films were investigated using X-ray diffractometer. Coplanar waveguide (CPW) device based on BST/MgO layer structure was fabricated by dc sputtering deposition, photolithography and etching process. To study the geometrical factor dependent microwave performance of the CPW phase shifter based on (001) oriented BST film, the CPW devices having various gap and width were fabricated. The microwave dielectric properties of BST CPW phase shifter devices were examined by calculating the scattering parameter obtained using a HP 8510C vector network analyzer with the frequency range 0.5 ∼ 20 GHz at room temperature under the dc bias field of 0 ∼ 40V. The measured return loss and insertion loss at 10 GHz with no dc bias were about -12 ∼ -4 dB and -14 ∼ -3 dB, respectively, which mainly depended on the impedances of the CPW transmission lines. The measured differential phase shift values were about 20 ° ∼ 140 ° at 10 GHz with 40 V dc bias variations, which depended on the gap size.