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Usually, humanoid walking gaits are only roughly distinguished between stable and
unstable. The evaluation of a stable humanoid walking gait is difficult to
quantify in scales. And, it is extremely hard to adjust humanoid robots in
suitable a walking gait for different movement objectives such as fast walking,
uneven floor walking, and so on. This paper proposes a stability margin
constructed by center of pressure (COP) to evaluate the gait stability of
humanoid walking. The stability margin is modeled by the COP regions that a
humanoid robot needs for stable standing. We derive the mathematical model for
COP position by dividing the walking gait into single and double support phases
in order to measure the stability of the COP regions. An actual measuring system
for the stable COP regions is designed and implemented. The measured COP
trajectory of a walking gait is eventually evaluated with respect to the stable
COP regions for the stability margins. The evaluation focuses on weak stability
areas to be improved for robust walking gaits. To demonstrate the robustness of
the improved walking gait, we replicate the experiment on three different
terrains. The experiments demonstrate that the walking gaits developed based on
stable COP region can be applied for different movement objectives.
This paper describes the motivation for the development of the HuroCup
competition and follows the rule development from its inaugural competition from
2002 to 2015. The history of HuroCup is broken down into its growing phase
(2002–2006), a time of explosive growth (2007–2011), and current
times. This paper describes the main research focus of HuroCup, the multi-event
humanoid robot competition: (a) active balancing, (b) complex motion planning,
and (c) human–robot interaction and shows how the various HuroCup events
relate to those research topics. This paper concludes with some medium- and
long-term goals of the rule development for HuroCup.
It is difficult to design controllers for the complicated dynamics of omnidirectional vehicles steered by multiple wheels with distributed traction force. In this paper, the dynamic model of a three-wheel omnidirectional vehicle, which is linearized to simplify controller design, is developed. The conditions of making its dynamics linear are derived first. Then, a strategy of planning wheel velocities to satisfy these conditions is proposed. Consequently, three-wheel omnidirectional vehicle can be easily treated by classical linear control theories. Finally, a linear optimal tracker is designed to control the omnidirectional vehicle for desired movement trajectories. In particular, the dynamic model includes the motors installed in the three-wheel omnidirectional vehicle, making it a practical model. Three kinds of vehicle trajectories illustrate the planning of wheel trajectories for linearizing the vehicle dynamics, and simulations demonstrate the performance of the linear optimal tracker. In addition, experimental results of a practical three-wheel omnidirectional vehicle are also included.
The Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) is a device which is lightweight and small in volume. The SMA can be used as the actuator of a micro-robot, but it is difficult to design a controller to handle the highly nonlinear properties of the SMA. In this paper, a Fuzzy Walking Pattern (FWP) is proposed to control a small biped robot, using an SMA as the actuator. In fact, the desired walking pattern of the small biped robot is used to construct the FWP. The proposed FWP can control the biped robot under the desired walking pattern, and handle the exceptional case when the biped robot is subject to disturbance. The proposed FWP not only solves the control problem of the SMA, but also provides a new method in controller design of the biped robot. In addition, a transputer network is designed to impelement the FWP. Experimental results demonstrate the functions of the FWP.
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