In the present study we examined whether oral administration of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) reduces plasma or hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol in mice. When bLF mixed with a standard commercial diet (10g/kg) was given to mice for 4 weeks, plasma triacylglycerol and NEFA decreased, while plasma HDL-cholesterol levels increased (P<0·01). These changes in plasma lipid profiles were accompanied by significant decreases in hepatic cholesterol and triacylglycerol contents. When mice were fed a high-fat diet containing 300·0g lard, 10·0g cholesterol and 2·5g bovine bile powder/kg for 4 weeks, bovine LF did not have any significant effects on plasma or hepatic cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations. Furthermore, bLF had no significant effects on faecal excretion of total bile acids in mice. Interestingly, bLF showed a suppressive effect on the lymphatic triacylglycerol absorption in chronically treated rats. We conclude that bLF has a beneficial effect on plasma cholesterol levels and retards hepatic lipid accumulation in mice fed a standard diet.