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To determine which set of BMI cut-offs is the most appropriate to define child and adolescent obesity in urban China.
A cross-sectional study was carried out between 1 November and 31 December in 2017.
Community Healthcare Center in Minhang District, Shanghai, China.
A total of 12 426 children and adolescents aged 7–17 years were selected by cluster random sampling. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was the gold standard to measure body composition.
Comparisons of three sets of BMI cut-offs by sensitivity and κ value revealed that the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) (sensitivity 39·9–84·0 %; κ 0·51–0·79) and WHO (sensitivity 25·5–74·5 %; κ 0·35–0·78) cut-offs were not superior to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) (sensitivity 47·9–92·4 %; κ 0·58–0·85) cut-offs across all subgroups. The WGOC and WHO cut-offs yielded higher misclassification rates, in the worst case, categorising 11·2 % of girls with high adiposity as normal and 44·4 % of them as overweight, while the IOTF cut-offs categorised 2·3 % as normal and 30·7 % as overweight. Individuals who were classified by the IOTF cut-offs as overweight had the lowest ratios of high adiposity (4·2–41·6 %) than by the BMI cut-offs for each subgroup. Among pubertal girls, none of the BMI-based cut-offs indicated excellent agreement with body fat percentage, and κ value of the WHO cut-offs (0·35 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·41)) was lower than the other two sets of BMI cut-offs (all P < 0·001).
The IOTF cut-offs for Asian should be recommended for child obesity screening in urban China. Pubertal individuals need a more accurate indicator of obesity screening.
Flexible electrode is an indispensable component of emerging portable, flexible, and wearable electronic devices. Although various flexible electrodes with different dimensions and functions have been explored, developing a new electrode material with excellent mechanical reliability and superior electrical performance remains a challenge. Here, a graphene-covered Cu composite electrode film with a total thickness of ∼100 nm is successfully fabricated onto a flexible polyimide substrate by means of a series of assembly methods including physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, and transfer technique. The composite electrode film on the flexible substrate exhibits evidently enhanced tensile strength, monotonic bending, and repeatedly bending fatigue reliability as well as electrical performance compared with that of the bared Cu film electrode. Such excellent mechanical performances are attributed to the role of the graphene coating in suppressing fatigue damage formation and preventing crack advance. It is expected that the chemical vapor-deposited graphene-covered Cu composite electrode would extend the potential ultrathin metal film electrode as the innovative electrode material for the next-generation flexible electronic devices.
Spearman’s hypothesis tested at the subtest level of an IQ battery states that differences between races on the subtests of an IQ battery are a function of the g loadings of these subtests, such that there are small differences between races on subtests with low g loadings and large differences between races on subtests with high g loadings. Jensen (1998) stated that Spearman’s hypothesis is a law-like phenomenon. It has also been confirmed many times at the level of items of the Raven’s Progressive Matrices. This study hypothesizes that with concern to Spearman’s hypothesis, subtests and items function in fundamentally the same way, and tested whether Spearman’s hypothesis is confirmed at the item level for White–East Asian comparisons. A group of Korean young adults (N=205) was compared with other groups of young adults from Canada, the US, Russia, Peru and South Africa (total N=4770) who took the Advanced Progressive Matrices. Spearman’s hypothesis was strongly confirmed with a sample-size-weighted r with a value of 0.63. Computing the g loadings of the items of the Raven with either the Raven-g or the Wechsler-g led to the same conclusions. Tests of Spearman’s hypothesis yielded less-strong outcomes when the 36-item Advanced Progressive Matrices were used than when the 60-item Standard Progressive Matrices were used. There is a substantial correlation between sample size and the outcome of Spearman’s hypothesis. So, all four hypotheses were confirmed, showing that a part of the subtest-level nomological net replicates at the item level, strengthening the position that, with concern to Spearman’s hypothesis, subtests and items function fundamentally the same. It is concluded that Spearman’s hypothesis is still a law-like phenomenon. Detailed suggestions for follow-up research are made.
Seed reserves play vital roles in seed germination and seedling growth and their variation may be related to various environment factors, plant traits and phylogenetic history. Here, the evolutionary correlation associated with seed mass and altitude and carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) allocation of seeds among 253 alpine herbaceous plants was tested. In this study, phylogeny had strong limitations on nutrient allocation of seeds across species, and species from younger phylogenetic groups tended to have higher N and P contents, which might be considered as the evolutionary selection of seed plants. Higher seed N and P content would help seedlings to gain more survival chance and stronger competitive capacity, and their progeny would be more likely to be preserved. When phylogeny was considered, altitude only had a significant positive effect on P content, but the negative effects on seed mass were all expressed. The independent effects of altitude and seed mass suggest that the nutrient allocation of seeds might be affected by both environment and plant traits. In addition, altitude and seed mass displayed partial overlapping effects on nutrient allocation of seeds. The negative effects of seed mass were affected slightly by altitude, whereas altitude only had a significant positive effect on P content when seed mass was controlled. Above all, seed P content showed obvious and general correlations with seed mass, altitude and age of clade, which indicated that higher seed P content might be an adaptive selection of species associated with growth and survival of progeny.
Previous studies have indicated that some food items and nutrients are associated with uric acid metabolism in humans. However, little is known about the role of dietary patterns in hyperuricaemia. We designed this case–control study to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in Chinese adults. A total of 1422 cases and 1422 controls were generated from 14 538 participants using the 1:1 ratio propensity score matching methods. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered FFQ. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. Hyperuricaemia was defined as concentrations of serum uric acid higher than 7 mg/dl (416·5 μmol/l) for men and 6 mg/dl (357 μmol/l) for women. Three dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis: sweet pattern; vegetable pattern; animal foods pattern. The animal foods pattern characterised by higher intake of an animal organ, seafood and processed meat products was associated with higher prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia (Pfor trend<0·01) after adjustment. Compared with the participants in the lowest quartile of the animal foods pattern, the OR of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in the highest quartile was 1·50 (95 % CI 1·20, 1·87). The other two dietary patterns were not associated with the prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia after adjustment. In conclusion, a diet rich in animal organ, seafood and processed meat products is associated with higher prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in a Chinese population. Further cohort studies and randomised controlled trials are required to clarify these findings.
Previous studies have supported the theory that there is a positive association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in Western people. Diet plays an important role in determining serum ferritin concentration. Asian dietary patterns are different from Western dietary patterns, implying that there may be a difference in the association of ferritin with carotid atherosclerosis between Asian and Western people. However, few studies focus on the association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis among Asians. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in an Asian adult population. A cross-sectional assessment was performed in 8302 adults in Tianjin, China. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques were assessed using ultrasonography, and serum ferritin was measured using the protein chip-chemiluminescence method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of serum ferritin concentration and carotid atherosclerosis. In the present study, the overall prevalence of IMT and carotid plaques in participants is 29·2 and 22·7 %, respectively. In women, after adjustments for potentially confounding factors, the OR of IMT and carotid plaques by increasing serum ferritin quartiles were 1·00, 1·39 (95 % CI 0·98–1·99), 1·39 (95 % CI 0·99–1·97), 1·81 (95 % CI 1·30–2·55) (Pfor trend<0·001) and 1·00, 1·24 (95 % CI 0·89–1·73), 1·18 (95 % CI 0·85–1·65), 1·59 (95 % CI 1·15–2·20) (Pfor trend<0·01), respectively. However, no association was found between serum ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in men. The study demonstrated that increased serum ferritin levels are independently associated with IMT and carotid plaques in Asian women but not in Asian men.
Our study profiles a varying process of the relationship between delay of gratification (DG) and job performance over time and examines the moderating role of perceived organisational justice in the DG-job performance relationship. Employees’ ability to delay gratification was measured during their job interviews (Time 1). When they had worked for 3 months (Time 2), their job performance was rated by their supervisors. When they had worked for 5 months (Time 3), their perception of perceived informational justice was measured. Their job performance was rated again by their supervisors at 6 months (Time 4). The results showed that DG could directly predict new employees’ short-term (3-month) job performance but not their longer-term (6-month) job performance. Moreover, perceived informational justice moderated the relationship between DG and 6-month job performance.
The current research drew upon the resource perspective (Grzywacz & Marks, 2000; ten Brummelhuis & Bakker, 2012) and firstly focused on the reciprocal mediation relationship between schedule control, work interference with family (WIF) and emotional exhaustion. First, the present study proposed that WIF mediates the negative relationship between schedule control and emotional exhaustion, and emotional exhaustion also mediates the negative relationship between schedule control and WIF. Second, family time adequacy was expected to play an amplifying role in the first path of the two mediations. Using a sample of 563 employees and adopting hierarchical linear modelling, the three-wave study first revealed that the emotional exhaustion mediates the relationship between schedule control and WIF while WIF also mediates the schedule control-emotional exhaustion relationship, which demonstrated a reciprocal mediation. Furthermore, the relationship between schedule control and emotional exhaustion, as well as the indirect effects of schedule control on WIF via emotional exhaustion, were stronger for employees with higher family time adequacy. Implications of the findings and future directions are discussed.
Lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3, which is an enzyme involved in the pathogenesis of cancer.
To investigate the association between lithium and cancer risk in patients with bipolar disorder.
A retrospective cohort study was designed using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. Patients using lithium comprised the index drug group and patients using anticonvulsants only comprised the control group. Time-dependent Cox regression was used to evaluate the hazard ratios (HRs) for risk of cancer.
Compared with anticonvulsant-only exposure, lithium exposure was associated with significantly lower cancer risk (HR = 0.735, 95% CI 0.554–0.974). The hazard ratios for the first, second and third tertiles of the cumulative defined daily dose were 0.762 (95% CI 0.516–1.125), 0.919 (95% CI 0.640–1.318) and 0.552 (95% CI 0.367–0.831), respectively.
Lithium is associated with reduced overall cancer risk in patients with bipolar disorder. A dose–response relationship for cancer risk reduction was observed.
Von Neumann stability theory is applied to analyze the stability of a fully coupled implicit (FCI) scheme based on the lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (LU-SGS) method for inviscid chemical non-equilibrium flows. The FCI scheme shows excellent stability except the case of the flows involving strong recombination reactions, and can weaken or even eliminate the instability resulting from the stiffness problem, which occurs in the subsonic high-temperature region of the hypersonic flow field. In addition, when the full Jacobian of chemical source term is diagonalized, the stability of the FCI scheme relies heavily on the flow conditions. Especially in the case of high temperature and subsonic state, the CFL number satisfying the stability is very small. Moreover, we also consider the effect of the space step, and demonstrate that the stability of the FCI scheme with the diagonalized Jacobian can be improved by reducing the space step. Therefore, we propose an improved method on the grid distribution according to the flow conditions. Numerical tests validate sufficiently the foregoing analyses. Based on the improved grid, the CFL number can be quickly ramped up to large values for convergence acceleration.
Shape-memory epoxy is receiving considerable attention because of its superior mechanical and thermal properties and excellent shape-memory performance. In this study, a novel series of shape-memory epoxy resins are prepared using hydro-epoxy, hexahydrophthalic anhydride, and diglycidyl 4,5-epoxy tetrahydro phthalate (TDE-85) to further improve the recovery force of shape-memory epoxy resins. The thermal, mechanical, and shape-memory properties of the shape-memory epoxy resin system are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, bend test, and shape recovery test. Results indicate that the glass transition temperature (Tg), rubber modulus, and room-temperature bend strength increase as TDE-85 content increases. Investigation of the shape-memory behavior of the resin reveals that full recovery can be achieved after only several minutes when the temperature is equal to or above Tg. The shape recovery time decreases with the increase in TDE-85 content at Tg, Tg + 10 °C, and Tg + 20 °C. These results are attributed to the increase in TDE-85 content.
Why are some newly appointed CEOs dismissed from their positions while others are not? Is it hard for newly appointed CEOs to survive in highly diversified firms? Drawing upon the concepts of executive job demands and information-processing theory, we argue that newly appointed CEOs face entirely different degrees of complexity and challenges in their role, and that firms’ product diversification and international diversification predict dismissals of newly appointed CEOs after controlling for other possible explanatory variables. Additionally, we propose that appointment of a new outsider CEO makes newly appointed CEOs more vulnerable to dismissal and consequently strengthens the predicted relationships. The empirical results support our arguments. These results suggest that the demands faced by a high degree of (product or international) diversification are likely to present challenges that increase the likelihood of corporate disruption through the departures of newly appointed CEOs. Contributions to the CEO dismissal and succession literature are discussed.
Plant-insect interactions are vital for structuring terrestrial ecosystems. It is still unclear how climate change in geological time might have shaped plant-insect interactions leading to modern ecosystems. We investigated the effect of Quaternary climate change on plant-insect interactions by observing insect herbivory on leaves of an evergreen sclerophyllous oak lineage (Quercus section Heterobalanus, HET) from a late Pliocene flora and eight living forests in southwestern China. Among the modern HET populations investigated, the damage diversity tends to be higher in warmer and wetter climates. Even though the climate of the fossil flora was warmer and wetter than modern sample sites, the damage diversity is lower in the fossil flora than in modern HET populations. Eleven out of 18 damage types in modern HET populations are observed in the fossil flora. All damage types in the fossil flora, except for one distinctive gall type, are found in modern HET populations. These results indicate that Quaternary climate change did not cause extensive extinction of insect herbivores in HET forests. The accumulation of a more diverse herbivore fauna over time supports the view of plant species as evolutionary “islands” for colonization and turnover of insect species.
Using nanoparticulate TiO2 films, the photocatalytic growth of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in the AgNO3 aqueous solution has been studied in terms of reduction, nucleation, and coalescence. It was proved that Ag primary particles were formed in a growth time of <1 s after the photocatalysis started. The growth dynamics was found to be critical for isotropic and anisotropic growth of Ag NPs, depending on the AgNO3 concentration and surface properties of TiO2 films. In the AgNO3 solutions of ≤300 mg/L, the isotropic growth dominates the growth dynamic behavior, producing irregularly spherical Ag NPs. In the AgNO3 solutions of ≥400 mg/L, the increased reduction rate promotes the formation of Ag nanoplates in the product. Ostwald ripening and oriented attachment were suggested to be the mechanisms dominating the isotropic and anisotropic growth, respectively. A photocatalytic growth model of Ag NPs was proposed by taking Ag atom and Ag+ ion diffusion into consideration. The plasmonic properties of the Ag–TiO2 films were studied in terms of extinction, surface enhanced Raman scattering, and fluorescence enhancement.
Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was chosen as the structure controller and surface modifier for hydrothermal preparation of surfactant-modified goethite (α-FeOOH) nanorods. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunauer, Emmett and Teller technique, and potentiometric titration. Adsorption study using methylene blue (MB) as a model pollutant was conducted onto the surfactant-modified goethite surface. The results showed that the surfactant-modified α-FeOOH nanorods had high adsorption capacity. MB could be efficiently removed from the solution at pH 5, initial MB concentration 200 mg/L, α-FeOOH dosage 0.5 g/L, and temperature 30 °C, with 96% removal ratio. The adsorption capacity was found to be as high as 385 mg/g. The adsorption kinetic data could be described well by the pseudo-second-order model. The isothermic data were highly fitted to Langmuir isotherm. High adsorption capacity and simple reaction conditions give this novel material good prospects in future applications.
Recently, the detection of non-bulk superconductivity with unexpectedly high onset-Tcs up to 49 K in Pr-doped CaFe2As2 [(Ca,Pr)122] single crystals and the report of a Tc up to 65 K in one-unit-cell (1UC) FeSe epi-films, offer an unusual opportunity to seek an answer to the question posed in the title. Through systematic compositional, structural, resistive, and magnetic investigations on (Ca,Pr)122 single crystals, we have observed a doping-level-independent Tc, the simultaneous appearance of superparamagnetism and superconductivity, large magnetic anisotropy, and the existence of mesoscopic-2D structures in these crystals, thus providing clear evidence consistent with the proposed interface-enhanced Tc in these naturally occurring rareearth-doped Fe-based superconductors, (Ca,R)122. Similar resistive and magnetic measurements were also made on the 3–4UC FeSe ultrathin epi-films. We have detected weak links in the Meissner state below 20 K, weakly coupled small superconducting patches between 20–45 K, and collective excitations of spin and/or superconducting nature between 45–80 K. The unusual frequency dependences of the diamagnetic moment observed in the films in different temperature ranges will be presented and their implications discussed.