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There has been a lack of prevalence estimates of DSM-5 mental disorders in child populations at the national level worldwide. This study estimated the lifetime and 6-month prevalence of mental disorders according to the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria in Taiwanese children.
Taiwan's National Epidemiological Study of Child Mental Disorders used the stratified cluster sampling to select 69 schools in Taiwan resulting in a nationally representative sample of 4816 children in grades 3 (n = 1352), 5 (n = 1297) and 7 (n = 2167). All the participants underwent face-to-face psychiatric interviews using the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Epidemiological version, modified for the DSM-5, and they and their parents completed questionnaires. The inverse probability censoring weighting (IPCW)-adjusted prevalence was reported to minimise non-response bias.
The IPCW-adjusted prevalence rates of mental disorders decreased by 0.1–0.5% than raw weighted prevalence. The IPCW-adjusted weighted lifetime and 6-month prevalence rates for overall mental disorders were 31.6 and 25.0%, respectively. The most prevalent mental disorders (lifetime, 6-month) were anxiety disorders (15.2, 12.0%) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (10.1, 8.7%), followed by sleep disorders, tic disorders, oppositional defiant disorder and autism spectrum disorder. The prevalence rates of new DSM-5 mental disorders, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder were low (<1%).
Our findings, similar to the DSM-IV prevalence rates reported in Western countries, indicate that DSM-5 mental disorders are common in the Taiwanese child population and suggest the need for public awareness, early detection and prevention.
The growth of the aviation sector has been coupled with significant increases in emissions that cause environmental damage. In contrast to the slow international efforts to curb aviation emissions, the European Union (EU) has over the past two decades promulgated policies and regulations that foster the idea of “sustainable aviation.” These policies and regulations do not only govern the EU’s internal aviation market, but they have also been exported in the EU’s external policies and activities. This chapter provides an overview of the EU’s approach to sustainable development and aviation and turns to analyze how these policies and regulations have been integrated into the EU’s aviation policy and air transport agreements with other countries.
Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can differentiate into bone cells when provided the correct environment, potentially generating cells to repair non-union fractures. Polylactic Acid (PLA) is a biocompatible polymer for 3-D printing of scaffolds, but DPSCs do not proliferate well on PLA. With the goal of making PLA more conducive for DPSC growth, Graphene Oxide (GO); partially reduced Graphene Oxide (pRGO); GO with iron nanoparticles (FeGO) or Fe-pRGO were incorporated into PLA and spun cast as thin films onto silicon wafers for DPSC plating. DPSCs on Fe-pRGO displayed the fastest doubling time and the highest cell modulus; Fe-pRGO with exterior magnets produced high cell density. SEM demonstrated DPSC mineralization, whereas PLA-only DPSC cultures showed none. Results suggest that PLA/Fe-pRGO and PLA/pRGO enhance DPSC proliferation and possibly differentiation with the potential for use as a 3-D printed scaffold for tissue engineering.
As the consciousness of energy saving and carbon reduction and comfortable environment is paid increasing attention to, the common objective of various countries with decreasing energy is to develop and popularize high efficiency and low running noise blowers. This study uses CFD to calculate the flow field and performance of a blower and compare with the experimental measurement. The characteristic curve of blower shows that the simulated and experimental values are close to each other, the difference between the values is only 0.4%. This analysis result proofs the CFD package is a highly reliable tool for the future blower design improvement. In addition, this study discusses the noise distribution of blower flow field, the periodic pressure output value calculated by CFD is used in the sound source input of sound pressure field, so as to simulate and analyze the aerodynamic noise reading of the flow field around the blower. The result shows that the simulated value of flow field around the fan has as high as 80.5 dB(A) ∼ 81.5 dB(A) noise level and is agree with measurement (82 dB(A)). The noise level is low but has a sharp noise. According to the numerical results, designer of the blower modify the tongue geometry and remove the sharp noise.
The existing literature dealing with mutual interactions between the extent of oil dependence and the possibility of belief-driven fluctuations unanimously ignores international loans. This simplified assumption disregards the fact that the relative magnitude of the financial account and the trade account exhibits an increasing trend. Faced with this deficiency in the literature, this paper develops a real business cycle model featuring oil dependence in domestic production and international loans, and examines whether both the presence of international borrowings and the dependence on imported energy will govern the emergence of belief-driven fluctuations.
Hypoxia is the primary stimulus for the production of erythropoietin (EPO) in both fetal and adult life. Here, we investigated fetal plasma EPO concentrations in monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) and abnormal umbilical artery (UA) Doppler. We diagnosed sIUGR in presence of (1) birth-weight discordance >20% and (2) either twin with a birth weight <10th percentile. An abnormal UA Doppler was defined as a persistent absent-reverse end diastolic flow (AREDF). The intertwin EPO ratio was calculated as the plasma EPO level of the smaller (or small-for-gestational-age) twin divided by the EPO concentration of the larger (or appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA)) twin. Thirty-two MC twin pairs were included. Of these, 17 pairs were normal twins (Group 1), seven pairs were twins with sIUGR without UA Doppler abnormalities (Group 2), and eight pairs were twins with sIUGR and UA Doppler abnormalities (Group 3). The highest EPO ratio was identified in Group 3 (p < .001) but no significant differences were observed between Groups 1 and 2. Fetal hemoglobin levels did not differ significantly in the three groups, and fetal EPO concentration did not correlate with gestational age at birth. We conclude that fetal plasma EPO concentrations are selectively increased in MC twin pregnancies with sIUGR and abnormal UA Doppler, possibly as a result of uncompensated hypoxia.
School counselling services have always been unpopular among Malaysian students. Many researchers have studied what prevents students from seeking mental health services. However, there is a lack of study on the barriers to seeking help in the context of Malaysian school counselling services. Using a sample of Chinese high school students (N = 277), this qualitative study explored the under-utilisation of school counselling services. A thematic analysis was used to analyse an open-ended question, and the findings uncovered contextualised issues such as: conceptualisation of problems and the shameful, fearful, concerned, and responsible self that contributes to the under-utilisation of school counselling services.
We investigated the effect of focused ion beam (FIB) imaging on the crystallinity of InAs using Raman scattering. A spatial correlation model was used to fit the broad band induced by FIB imaging. The fitting gives a correlation length of ~42 Å for the noisiest image condition (with an ion fluence of 7.4×1010 cm−2), implying severe damage in the surface layer of InAs. However, further increasing the fluence by several orders of magnitude only decreases the correlation length from 42 to 35 Å. We attribute the severe damage to the high beam current density and the low scanning speed of the FIB imaging process. These process conditions, along with low InAs thermal conductivity, also leads to a high local temperature in the exposed region that largely annihilated the defects and resulted in the nearly fluence-independent behavior.
With the electronics packaging industry shifting increasingly to three-dimensional packaging, microbumps have been adopted as the vertical interconnects between chips. Consequently, solder volumes have decreased dramatically, and the solder thickness has reduced to a range between a few and 10 microns. The solder volume of a microbump is approximately two orders of magnitude smaller than a traditional flip-chip joint. In contrast, the thickness of the under-bump metallization (UBM) remains almost the same as that in flip-chip solder joints. Therefore, many issues concerning materials and reliability of microbumps arise. This article reviews the challenges related to microbump materials for vertical interconnects, including transformation of solder joints into intermetallic (IMC) joints, necking or voiding induced by side wetting/diffusion on the circumference of the UBM, formation of porous Cu3Sn IMCs, early electromigration failures caused by specific orientations of Sn grains, and precipitation of plate-like Ag3Sn IMCs. An alternative way of fabricating vertical interconnects using direct Cu-to-Cu bonding is also discussed.
In the present era of big data and the Internet of things (the interconnection of computing devices in the Internet infrastructure), the fabrication of mobile and other electronic devices by three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs) is receiving wide attention. The concept of using 3D ICs to extend the limit of Moore’s Law of two-dimensional ICs, by combining chip technology and packaging technology, has existed for more than 10 years. However, we still do not mass produce 3D IC devices due to low yield and reliability, as well as high cost. Most problems are caused by materials selection and integration at the small scale. This issue offers a review of 3D ICs and emphasizes the materials challenges of this new technology.
Tramadol hydrochloride (HCl) is a centrally acting synthetic opioid analgesic. Psychotic symptoms are relatively rare in reported adverse events. Here, we report a patient who presented with tramadol-related psychotic symptoms.
A 59-year-old female had underlying bipolar I disorder and received lithium treatment with stable affective status. 1 month before hospitalisation, she had been taking tramadol HCl/acetaminophen for joint pain. She then developed obvious persecutory delusion. However, her clinical picture did not meet the criteria of any mood episode. After treatment of risperidone in addition to lithium, she was discharged without any psychotic symptom. She remained euthymic without any psychotic symptom on monotherapy of lithium (300 mg) three tablets once daily.
Tramadol HCl is commonly prescribed in clinical practice and psychotic symptoms related to it are uncommon. We should be careful about the rare but important adverse events while prescribing tramadol HCl.
Cancer is a serious public health problem worldwide, and its relationship
with affective disorders is not clear.
To investigate alcohol- and tobacco-related cancer risk among patients
with affective disorders in a large Taiwanese cohort.
Records of newly admitted patients with affective disorders from January
1997 through December 2002 were retrieved from the Psychiatric Inpatient
Medical Claims database in Taiwan. Cancers were stratified by site and
grouped into tobacco- or alcohol-related cancers. Standardised incidence
ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare the risk of cancer between those
with affective disorders and the general population.
Some 10 207 patients with bipolar disorder and 9826 with major depression
were included. The risk of cancer was higher in patients with major
depression (SIR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.85–2.19) than in those with bipolar
disorder (SIR 1.39, 95% CI 1.26–1.53). The elevated cancer risk among
individuals ever admitted to hospital for affective disorders was more
pronounced in tobacco- and/or alcohol-related cancers.
Elevated cancer risk was found in patients who had received in-patient
care for affective disorders. They require holistic approaches to
lifestyle behaviours and associated cancer risks.
The potential relationship between anaesthesia, surgery and onset of
dementia remains elusive.
To determine whether the risk of dementia increases after surgery with
anaesthesia, and to evaluate possible associations among age, mode of
anaesthesia, type of surgery and risk of dementia.
The study cohort comprised patients aged 50 years and older who were
anaesthetised for the first time since 1995 between 1 January 2004 and 31
December 2007, and a control group of randomly selected patients matched
for age and gender. Patients were followed until 31 December 2010 to
identify the emergence of dementia.
Relative to the control group, patients who underwent anaesthesia and
surgery exhibited an increased risk of dementia (hazard ratio = 1.99) and
a reduced mean interval to dementia diagnosis. The risk of dementia
increased in patients who received intravenous or intramuscular
anaesthesia, regional anaesthesia and general anaesthesia.
The results of our nationwide, population-based study suggest that
patients who undergo anaesthesia and surgery may be at increased risk of
We present a simple and quick procedure for the one-pot synthesis of manganese oxides under a basic solvothermal condition in the presence of cationic surfactants acting as the template in a 2-butanol/water solution. Three-dimensional spinel-type MnO2 microspheres composed of small nanoparticles have been fabricated for the first time using our method. Their corresponding electrochemical performances in the applications of supercapacitor electrodes exhibit a good specific capacitance (SC) value of ∼190 F/g at 0.5 A/g and excellent SC retention and Coulombic efficiency of ∼100% and ∼95% after 1000 charge/discharge cycles at 1 A/g, respectively. This suggests its potential applications in energy storage devices. Further, we demonstrate that this solvothermal technique enables the morphological tuning of manganese oxides in various forms such as schists, rods, fibers, and nanoparticles. This work describes a rapid and low-cost technique to fabricate novel architectures of manganese oxides having the desired crystal phase, which will highly benefit various supercapacitor applications.
To assess the relative validity and reproducibility of the quantitative FFQ used in the Tzu Chi Health Study (TCHS).
The reproducibility was evaluated by comparing the baseline FFQ with the 2-year follow-up FFQ. The validity was evaluated by comparing the baseline FFQ with 3 d dietary records and biomarkers (serum folate and vitamin B12). Median comparison, cross-classification and Spearman correlation with and without energy adjustment and deattenuation for day-to-day variation were assessed.
TCHS is a prospective cohort containing a high proportion of true vegetarians and part-time vegetarians (regularly consuming a vegetarian diet without completely avoiding meat).
Subsets of 103, seventy-eight and 1528 TCHS participants were included in the reproducibility, dietary record-validity and biomarker-validity studies, respectively.
Correlations assessing the reproducibility for repeat administrations of the FFQ were in the range of 0·46–0·65 for macronutrients and 0·35–0·67 for micronutrients; the average same quartile agreement was 40%. The correlation between FFQ and biomarkers was 0·41 for both vitamin B12 and folate. Moderate to good correlations between the baseline FFQ and dietary records were found for energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated and monounsaturated fat, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin A, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe and Zn (average crude correlation: 0·47 (range: 0·37–0·66); average energy-adjusted correlation: 0·43 (range: 0·38–0·55); average energy-adjusted deattenuated correlation: 0·50 (range: 0·44–0·66)) with same quartile agreement rate of 39% (range: 35–45%), while misclassification to the extreme quartile was rare (average: 4% (range: 0–6%)).
The FFQ is a reliable and valid tool to rank relative intake of major nutrients for TCHS participants.
This research alters the traditional single inlet/outlet opening of the pin type flow channel of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Multi-inlet/outlet openings are designed with the aim to distribute the methanol solution evenly and effectively remove CO2 bubbles and to improve the cell performance. The CO2 bubble dynamics in anode flow channels and the cell performance are investigated. Results show that the newly designed flow channels can overcome restrictions resulting from fuel and effectively remove CO2 bubbles, thereby enhancing the performance of the pin type DMFC. The “three-inlet and three-outlet” design increases the current density output by 19%.
Boron-doped, single (∼54 nm) or double (∼21 + 54 nm) Si1−xGex layers were epitaxially grown on 300-mm-diameter p−-Si(100) device wafers with 20 nm technology node design features, by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition. The Si1−xGex/Si wafers were annealed in the temperature range of 950–1050 °C for 60 s to investigate the effect of annealing on possible changes of Ge content and Si stress near the Si1−xGex/Si interface. High spectral resolution, micro-Raman spectroscopy was used as a nondestructive characterization technique with five excitation wavelengths of 363.8, 441.6, 457.9, 488.0, and 514.5 nm. Ge diffusion and generation of compressive stress at the Si1−xGex/Si interface were measured on all annealed wafers. Ge diffusion and the accumulation of compressive Si stress after annealing showed significantly different behaviors between single- and double-layer Si1−xGex/Si wafers. Raman characterization results were compared with secondary ion mass spectroscopy and high-resolution x-ray diffraction results.
Let be a commutative algebraic group defined over a number field K. For a prime ℘ in K where has good reduction, let N℘,n be the number of n-torsion points of the reduction of modulo ℘ where n is a positive integer. When is of dimension one and n is relatively prime to a fixed finite set of primes depending on , we determine the average values of N℘,n as the prime ℘ varies. This average value as a function of n always agrees with a divisor function.
Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) is under construction at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC). This 518 m circumference synchrotron accelerator will generate 3 GeV and 500 mA high-energy X-rays. Absorbers in the storage ring will receive relatively high power densities (at a distance of 2.2 m from the dipole source). Three types of crotch absorbers for B1–B3 storage chambers were designed and prototyped. An end absorber in B3 is also designed and implemented to protect the downstream components in the chamber from being heated by the synchrotron radiation. Intensive vacuum brazing between Oxygen Free High Conductivity copper (OFHC) and stainless steel was carried out while fabricating the absorber assembly. The analysis, design and construction of several absorbers are reported in this paper.