Due to the high rate of complications, special medical care must be provided especially for monozygotic twin pregnancies, which are characterized as having 2.5 times higher mortality of fetuses. In recent years, examination of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) circulating in maternal plasma has become a useful noninvasive method of prenatal diagnosis. However, fetal DNA constitutes only 3–20% of plasma cfDNA during pregnancy. Short tandem repeats (STRs) are routinely used in forensic examination of DNA mixtures and are able to identify 5% minority components. Haplotypes of deletion/insertion polymorphisms and STRs (DIP–STRs) are able to detect even 0.1% minority components of DNA mixtures. Thus, STRs and DIP–STRs seem to be a perfect tool for detection of fetal alleles in DNA isolated from maternal plasma. Here, we present a novel noninvasive prenatal diagnosis technique of determination of pregnancy zygosity based on examination of feto-maternal microchimerism of plasma cfDNA with the use of STRs and DIP–STRs. Our preliminary results based on 22 STR loci showed 67% sensitivity, 100% specificity and 82% accuracy for prenatal detection of twin dizygosity. The corresponding values for seven DIP–STRs were 13%, 100% and 54%, respectively. Owing to assay performance, low DNA input requirements, low costs (below 10 USD per patient) and simplicity of analysis, genotyping of STR/DIP–STR markers in maternal plasma cfDNA may become a useful supplementary test for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of twin zygosity in cases when chorionicity and zygosity cannot be reliably determined by ultrasound examination and prognostic value may be provided by a DNA test determining pregnancy zygosity.