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The present study aimed to determine the store types from which people in low-income neighbourhoods purchase most sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and to identify associations between purchasing location and demographic characteristics.
Street-intercept surveys of passers-by near high foot-traffic intersections in 2016. Participants completed a beverage frequency questionnaire and identified the type of store (e.g. corner store, chain grocery) from which they purchased most SSB.
Eight low-income neighbourhoods in four Bay Area cities, California, USA.
Sample of 1132 individuals who reported consuming SSB, aged 18–88 years, who identified as African-American (41 %), Latino (29 %), White (17 %) and Asian (6 %).
Based on surveys in low-income neighbourhoods, corner stores were the primary source from which most SSB were purchased (28 %), followed by discount stores (18 %) and chain groceries (16 %). In fully adjusted models, those with lower education were more likely to purchase from corner stores or discount groceries than all other store types. Compared with White participants, African-Americans purchased more frequently from corner stores, discount groceries and chain groceries while Latinos purchased more frequently from discount groceries.
The wide range of store types from which SSB were purchased and demographic differences in purchasing patterns suggest that broader methodological approaches are needed to adequately capture the impact of SSB taxes and other interventions aimed at reducing SSB consumption, particularly in low-income neighbourhoods.
To examine the association between added sugar intake and metabolic syndrome among adolescents.
Dietary, serum biomarker, anthropometric and physical activity data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles between 2005 and 2012 were analysed using multivariate logistic regression models. Added sugar intake in grams per day was estimated from two 24 h standardized dietary recalls and then separated into quintiles from lowest to highest consumption. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were adjusted for physical activity, age, BMI Z-score and energy intake, and their interactions with race were included.
Nationally representative sample, USA.
US adolescents aged 12–19 years (n 1623).
Added sugar was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome. The adjusted prevalence odds ratios for having metabolic syndrome comparing adolescents in the third, fourth and fifth quintiles v. those in the lowest quintile of added sugar were 5·3 (95 % CI 1·4, 20·6), 9·9 (95 % CI 1·9, 50·9) and 8·7 (95 % CI 1·4, 54·9), respectively.
Our findings suggest that higher added sugar intake, independent of total energy intake, physical activity or BMI Z-score, is associated with increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in US adolescents. Further studies are needed to determine if reducing intake of added sugar may help US adolescents prevent or reverse metabolic syndrome.
Renewable energy can provide a host of benefits to society. In addition to the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, governments have enacted renewable energy (RE) policies to meet a number of objectives including the creation of local environmental and health benefits; facilitation of energy access, particularly for rural areas; advancement of energy security goals by diversifying the portfolio of energy technologies and resources; and improving social and economic development through potential employment opportunities. Energy access and social and economic development have been the primary drivers in developing countries whereas ensuring a secure energy supply and environmental concerns have been most important in developed countries.
An increasing number and variety of RE policies–motivated by a variety of factors–have driven substantial growth of RE technologies in recent years. Government policies have played a crucial role in accelerating the deployment of RE technologies. At the same time, not all RE policies have proven effective and efficient in rapidly or substantially increasing RE deployment. The focus of policies is broadening from a concentration almost entirely on RE electricity to include RE heating and cooling and transportation.
RE policies have promoted an increase in RE capacity installations by helping to overcome various barriers. Barriers specific to RE policymaking (e.g., a lack of information and awareness), to implementation (e.g., a lack of an educated and trained workforce to match developing RE technologies) and to financing (e.g., market failures) may further impede deployment of RE.
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