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To identify factors associated with food insecurity and household eating patterns among American-Indian families with young children.
Cross-sectional survey among households with young children that were receiving emergency food services. We collected information on food insecurity levels, household eating patterns, experiences with commercial and community food sources and demographics, and used multivariate regression techniques to examine associations among these variables.
Four Southwestern American-Indian reservation communities.
A total of 425 parents/caregivers of young children completed the survey.
Twenty-nine per cent of children and 45 % of adults from households participating in the survey were classified as ‘food insecure’. Larger household size was associated with increased food insecurity and worse eating patterns. Older respondents were more likely than younger respondents to have children with food insecurity (relative risk = 2·19, P < 0·001) and less likely to have healthy foods available at home (relative risk = 0·45, P < 0·01). Consumption of food from food banks, gas station/convenience stores or fast-food restaurants was not associated with food insecurity levels. Respondents with transportation barriers were 1·46 times more likely to be adult food insecure than respondents without transportation barriers (P < 0·001). High food costs were significantly associated with greater likelihoods of adult (relative risk = 1·47, P < 0·001) and child (relative risk = 1·65, P < 0·001) food insecurity.
Interventions for American-Indian communities must address challenges such as expense and limited transportation to accessing healthy food. Results indicate a need for services targeted to older caregivers and larger households. Implications for innovative approaches to promoting nutrition among American-Indian communities, including mobile groceries and community gardening programmes, are discussed.
To understand the barriers to farmer participation in Farm-to-Table (F2T) programmes and to identify possible solutions to these obstacles.
Cross-sectional analysis of farmer perspectives on F2T programmes.
Three service units on the Navajo Nation (Chinle, Tuba City and Fort Defiance).
Forty-four Navajo farmers.
Most participants reported that farming on the Navajo Nation is getting harder (61 %) but that it is very important to maintain Navajo farming traditions (98 %). A modest number of farmers (43 %) expressed interest in participating in an F2T programme. All farmers reported that childhood obesity was a very serious or serious problem in the Navajo Nation. The farmers expressed support for an F2T programme if key barriers to farming, including water access and pest control, could be addressed. Key barriers to participation identified included lack of fruits and vegetables to sell, sale price of crops and lack of certification of produce by the US Food and Drug Administration.
Navajo farmers are aware of the burden of childhood obesity on the Navajo Nation and feel that an F2T programme could be beneficial. To successfully implement a Farm-to-Table programme, the barriers to participation identified will need to be addressed.
The seventh annual Teaching and Learning Conference (TLC) was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from February 5 to 7, 2010, with 224 attendees onsite. The theme for the meeting was “Advancing Excellence in Teaching Political Science.” Using the working-group model, the TLC track format encourages in-depth discussion and debate on research dealing with the scholarship of teaching and learning.
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