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Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) in obese women is linked to adverse maternal outcomes and is particularly pervasive among African Americans, who have the highest obesity rates in the USA. A better understanding of culturally relevant attitudes and perceptions of GWG is needed to develop targeted interventions to prevent excess GWG among this group.
Using the constructs of Social Cognitive Theory, we explored attitudes and perceptions surrounding diet and exercise among low-income obese African-American pregnant women in Baltimore. We conducted twenty-one semi-structured in-depth interviews with pregnant adult women.
Participants were recruited from a referral clinic for obese pregnant women at a large urban hospital in Baltimore, MD, USA.
Twenty-one low-income African-American adult females in the first two trimesters of pregnancy with BMI > 30·0 kg/m2.
Lack of knowledge was not the main obstacle to healthy behaviours during pregnancy. Rather, food cravings and fatigue, an unhealthy physical food environment, limited self-efficacy for controlling excessive GWG, and a lack of adequate emotional and informational support impacted women’s agency. While digital technology was discussed as a vehicle to promote maintenance of a healthy weight in pregnancy, further research is needed to test how it can be used to empower women to engage in healthy behaviours during pregnancy.
Interventions to prevent excess GWG among African-American pregnant women should harness support from partners and family and must go beyond sharing of clinical knowledge to also include strategies that improve the food environment, diet quality and self-efficacy.
To examine the association between household food insecurity and dietary diversity in the past 24h (dietary diversity score (DDS, range: 0–9); minimum dietary diversity (MDD, consumption of three or more food groups); consumption of nine separate food groups) among pregnant and lactating women in rural Malawi.
Two rural districts in Central Malawi.
Pregnant (n 589) and lactating (n 641) women.
Of surveyed pregnant and lactating women, 66·7 and 68·6 %, respectively, experienced moderate or severe food insecurity and only 32·4 and 28·1 %, respectively, met MDD. Compared with food-secure pregnant women, those who reported severe food insecurity had a 0·36 lower DDS (P<0·05) and more than threefold higher risk (OR; 95 % CI) of not consuming meat/fish (3·19; CI 1·68, 6·03). The risk of not consuming eggs (3·77; 1·04, 13·7) was higher among moderately food-insecure pregnant women. Compared with food-secure lactating women, those who reported mild, moderate and severe food insecurity showed a 0·36, 0·44 and 0·62 lower DDS, respectively (all P<0·05). The risk of not achieving MDD was higher among moderately (1·95; 1·06, 3·59) and severely (2·82; 1·53, 5·22) food-insecure lactating women. The risk of not consuming meat/fish and eggs increased in a dose–response manner among lactating women experiencing mild (1·75; 1·01, 3·03 and 2·81; 1·09, 7·25), moderate (2·66; 1·47, 4·82 and 3·75; 1·40, 10·0) and severe (5·33; 2·63, 10·8 and 3·47; 1·19, 10·1) food insecurity.
Addressing food insecurity during and after pregnancy needs to be considered when designing nutrition programmes aiming to increase dietary diversity in rural Malawi.
To determine whether living in a food swamp (≥4 corner stores within 0·40 km (0·25 miles) of home) or a food desert (generally, no supermarket or access to healthy foods) is associated with consumption of snacks/desserts or fruits/vegetables, and if neighbourhood-level socio-economic status (SES) confounds relationships.
Cross-sectional. Assessments included diet (Youth/Adolescent FFQ, skewed dietary variables normalized) and measured height/weight (BMI-for-age percentiles/Z-scores calculated). A geographic information system geocoded home addresses and mapped food deserts/food swamps. Associations examined using multiple linear regression (MLR) models adjusting for age and BMI-for-age Z-score.
Baltimore City, MD, USA.
Early adolescent girls (6th/7th grade, n 634; mean age 12·1 years; 90·7 % African American; 52·4 % overweight/obese), recruited from twenty-two urban, low-income schools.
Girls’ consumption of fruit, vegetables and snacks/desserts: 1·2, 1·7 and 3·4 servings/d, respectively. Girls’ food environment: 10·4 % food desert only, 19·1 % food swamp only, 16·1 % both food desert/swamp and 54·4 % neither food desert/swamp. Average median neighbourhood-level household income: $US 35 298. In MLR models, girls living in both food deserts/swamps consumed additional servings of snacks/desserts v. girls living in neither (β=0·13, P=0·029; 3·8 v. 3·2 servings/d). Specifically, girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls who did not (β=0·16, P=0·003; 3·7 v. 3·1 servings/d), with no confounding effect of neighbourhood-level SES. No associations were identified with food deserts or consumption of fruits/vegetables.
Early adolescent girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls not living in food swamps. Dietary interventions should consider the built environment/food access when addressing adolescent dietary behaviours.
In India, national databases indicate anaemia prevalence of 80 % among 6–35-month-old children and 58 % among 36–59-month-old children. The present study aimed to characterise anaemia and the associated factors among infants and pre-schoolers living in rural India.
Multivariate logistic regression analysis of data collected prior to an intervention trial. Fe-deficiency with anaemia (IDA), Fe deficiency with no anaemia (IDNA) and anaemia without Fe deficiency were defined. Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and sTfR/log ferritin index were used to indicate Fe status.
Twenty-six villages of Nalgonda district, Telangana, India. Data were collected in community sites.
Four hundred and seventy-six infants (aged 6–12 months), 316 pre-schoolers (aged 29–56 months) and their mothers.
Prevalence of anaemia among infants and pre-schoolers was 66·4 and 47·8 %, prevalence of IDA was 52·2 and 42·1 %, prevalence of IDNA was 22·2 and 29·8 %, prevalence of anaemia without Fe deficiency was 14·2 and 5·7 %. Among infants, anaemia was positively associated with maternal anaemia (OR=3·31; 95 % CI 2·10, 5·23; P<0·001), and sTfR/log ferritin index (OR=2·21; 95 % CI 1·39, 3·54; P=0·001). Among pre-schoolers, anaemia was positively associated with maternal anaemia (OR=3·77; 95 % CI 1·94, 7·30; P<0·001), sTfR/log ferritin index (OR=5·29; 95 % CI 2·67, 10·50; P<0·001), high C-reactive protein (OR=4·39; 95 % CI 1·91, 10·06, P<0·001) and young age (29–35 months: OR=1·92; 05 % CI 1·18, 3·13, P=0·009).
Anaemia prevalence continues to be high among infants and pre-schoolers in rural India. Based on sTfR/ferritin index, Fe deficiency is a major factor associated with anaemia. Anaemia is also associated with inflammation among pre-schoolers and with maternal anaemia among infants and pre-schoolers, illustrating the importance of understanding the aetiology of anaemia in designing effective control strategies.
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