Third-generation semiconductors, such as ZnO and GaN, exhibit strong piezoelectric polarization due to the lack of inversion symmetry. The piezotronic effect observed in these semiconductors was proposed for tuning carrier transport in electronic devices by utilizing the induced piezoelectric potential as a virtual gate. This novel concept allows effective interactions between micro-/nanoelectronic devices and external mechanical stimuli. Piezotronics provide a promising approach for designing future electronic devices beyond Moore’s Law with potential for developing smart sensors, environment monitoring systems, human–machine interaction elements, and other transducers. In this article, we review recent progress in piezotronics using one-dimensional materials, heterojunctions, and large-scale arrays. We provide guidance for future piezotronic devices based on these materials.