Ar+1 ion irradiation on a polycarbonate (PC) surface was carried out in an oxygen environment in order to investigate the effects of surface chemical reaction, surface morphology, and surface energy on wettability of PC. Doses of Ar+ ion were changed from 5 × 1014 to 5 × 1016 at 1 keV ion beam energy by a broad ion beam source. Contact angle of PC was not reduced much by Ar+ ion irradiation without flowing oxygen gas, but decreased significantly as Ar+ ion was irradiated with flowing 4 sccm (ml/min) oxygen gas and showed a minimum of 12° to water and 5° to formamide. A newly formed polar group was observed on the modified PC surface by Ar+ ion irradiation with flowing oxygen gas, and it increased the PC surface energy. On the basis of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, the formed polar group was identified as a hydrophilic bond (carbonyl group). In atomic force microscopy (AFM) study, the root mean square of surface roughness was changed from 14 Å to 22–27 Å by Ar+ ion irradiation without flowing oxygen gas and 26–30 Å by Ar+ ion irradiation with flowing 4 sccm oxygen gas. It was found that wettability of the modified PC surface was not greatly dependent on the surface morphology, but on an amount of hydrophilic group formed on the surface in the ion beam process.